Matching Items (14)

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Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Copper Slag Concrete

Description

In this investigation, copper slag was used as a coarse aggregate in four different mixes of concrete, consisting of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% copper slag by volume. Locally available

In this investigation, copper slag was used as a coarse aggregate in four different mixes of concrete, consisting of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% copper slag by volume. Locally available Salt river aggregate was used as a control, and mixes were tested for density, strength, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity. Density was shown to increase with increasing copper slag content, increasing an average of 2298 kg/m^3, 2522 kg/m^3, and 2652 kg/m^3 in the 25%, 50%, and 100% mixes. This represents a 15% increase in density from 0% to 100%. Compressive strength testing indicated that the presence of copper slag in concrete provides no definitive strength benefit over Salt River aggregate. This result was expected, as concrete's strength is primarily derived from the cement matrix and not the aggregate. Thermal conductivity showed a decreasing trend with increasing copper slag content. Th control mix had an average conductivity of 0.660 W/m*K, and the 25%, 50%, and 100% mixes had conductivities of 0.649 W/m*K, 0.647 W/m*K, and 0.519 W/m*K, respectively. This represents 21% drop in thermal conductivity over the control. This result was also expected, as materials formed at higher temperatures, like copper slag, tend to have lower thermal conductivities. Specific heat capacity testing yielded results that were statistically indeterminate, though unlike strength testing this arose from inaccurate assumptions made during testing. This also prevented accurate thermal diffusivity results, as diffusivity is a function of density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity. However, given the trends of the first two parameters, it is plausible to say that diffusivity in copper slag concrete would be lower than that of the control ix. All of these results were plugged into ASU's Pavement Temperature Model to see what effect they had in mitigating the UHI effect.

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Date Created
  • 2012-05

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Donation-Based Concrete Placement: SVDP Elementary School

Description

Using the Arizona State University chapter of American Concrete Institute (ACI) as my platform, I recently teamed up with several generous companies to donate a new picnic slab and sidewalks

Using the Arizona State University chapter of American Concrete Institute (ACI) as my platform, I recently teamed up with several generous companies to donate a new picnic slab and sidewalks to St. Vincent de Paul Elementary School's playground. Material/labor donations from Suntec Concrete, Arizona Materials, Salt River Materials Group, and Dickens Quality Demolition made it possible to complete this project over the course of two Saturdays and at no cost for the school. In addition to the children of St. Vincent de Paul's benefit, this project also gave ASU and MCC students the opportunity to work in the field with industry professionals and gain hands-on experience. Over 20 students were able to witness and participate in demolition, formwork, concrete placement (including a laser screed appearance provided by Suntec), finishing, sawcutting, and more. As for specifics, the project featured a 19' x 40' picnic slab, as well as two 6' wide sidewalks connecting the slab to the playground and the playground to the adjacent access road. Once the second sidewalk reached the access road, it continued to the classrooms with 6' wide ramps on each side for truck accessibility. My role in this project was essentially a superintendent. I served as the primary point of contact for all parties involved, organized the material and labor donations, coordinated the project schedule, and kept all companies informed of the schedule to ensure proper execution and avoid delays. Due to various unavoidable conditions (cold weather, shade on the slab, etc.), I was also forced to make a few critical decisions as the project progressed.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Creating Industry-Based Marketing Materials and Instruments for University Academic Programs

Description

This thesis explores the task of creating industry-based marketing materials to assist academic programs in their recruitment of high school and community college students. With consistent reductions to public university

This thesis explores the task of creating industry-based marketing materials to assist academic programs in their recruitment of high school and community college students. With consistent reductions to public university budgets there is an increasing pressure on academic programs to raise their student enrollment figures, as student count is often cited as one of the most important statistics when making budget decisions. Many academic programs are ill-equipped to perform this task, however, as their personnel are not trained as recruiters, but rather as professors and industry professionals; furthermore, the university-level recruitment staff faces the impossible task of advertising every department's recruitment message. The Del E. Webb School of Construction has embarked upon a journey to create industry-based marketing materials to aid them in their recruitment efforts. Construction management (CM) has traditionally been viewed as a technology major relegated to vocational students and those not fit for baccalaureate programs. In recent years that perception has changed, however, as the industry has become increasingly complex and CM programs actively work to recruit students. In an attempt to increase that recruitment, the Del E. Webb School has created marketing materials that are signature to the program featuring the world's most widely-used building material, concrete, to create a keepsake for prospective students. This keepsake comes in the form of concrete replicas of the new ASU Pitchfork logo. These pitchforks are small and designed to be mass produced so that they can be handed out at recruitment events either on campus or in local schools. The Del E. Webb School had previously experimented with flexible rubber molds and flowable mixtures, such that the models could be easily cast and rapidly demolded and reset for casting. There were issues, however, as those pitchforks did not meet desired level of quality and were difficult to reproduce. This thesis thus describes an experimental program examining different casting and demolding regimens in an attempt to find the optimal way to create the pitchforks on a consistent basis. Following this, an operations manual for how to create the pitchforks was created in order to ensure that successive cohorts of construction students can reproduce the pitchforks in preparation for the School's annual recruitment events.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Lighter Concrete: An In-Depth Analysis of the Effects of Recycled Plastic Aggregate in Composite Concrete

Description

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight concrete that maintains

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a plastic-concrete composite could create a more lightweight concrete than that made using the typical gravel aggregate for concrete, while still maintaining the physical strength that concrete is known for. This will be accomplished by varying the amount of plastic in the aggregate. If successful, this project would allow concrete to be used in applications it would typically not be suitable for.<br/>After testing the strength of the concrete specimens with varying fills of plastic aggregate it was determined that the control group experienced an average peak stress of 2089 psi, the 16.67% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 2649 psi, the 33.3% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 1852 psi, and the 50% plastic group experienced an average stress of 924.5 psi. The average time to reach the peak stress was found to be 12 minutes and 24 seconds in the control group, 15 minutes and 34 seconds in the 16.7% plastic group, 9 minutes and 45 seconds in the 33.3% plastic group, and 10 minutes and 58 seconds in the 50% plastic group. Taking the average of the normalized weights of the cylindrical samples it was determined that the control group weighed 14.773 oz/in, the 16.7% plastic group weighed 15 oz/in, the 33.3% plastic group weighed 14.573 oz/in, and the 50% plastic group weighed 12.959 oz/in. Based on these results it can be concluded that a small addition of plastic aggregate can be beneficial in creating a lighter, stronger concrete. The results show that a 16.7% fill ratio of plastic to rock aggregate can increase the failure time and the peak strength of a composite concrete. Overall, the experiment was successful in analyzing the effects of recycled plastic aggregate in composite concrete. <br/>Some possible future studies related to this subject material are adding aluminum to the concrete, having better molds, looking for the right consistency in each mixture, mixing for each mold individually, and performing other tests on the samples.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Lighter Concrete: An In-Depth Analysis of the Effects of Recycled Plastic Aggregate in Composite Concrete

Description

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and<br/>mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight<br/>concrete that maintains its original

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and<br/>mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight<br/>concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a<br/>plastic-concrete composite could create a more lightweight concrete than that made using the<br/>typical gravel aggregate for concrete, while still maintaining the physical strength that concrete is<br/>known for. This will be accomplished by varying the amount of plastic in the aggregate. If<br/>successful, this project would allow concrete to be used in applications it would typically not be<br/>suitable for.<br/>After testing the strength of the concrete specimens with varying fills of plastic aggregate<br/>it was determined that the control group experienced an average peak stress of 2089 psi, the<br/>16.67% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 2649 psi, the 33.3% plastic group<br/>experienced an average peak stress of 1852 psi, and the 50% plastic group experienced an<br/>average stress of 924.5 psi. The average time to reach the peak stress was found to be 12 minutes<br/>and 24 seconds in the control group, 15 minutes and 34 seconds in the 16.7% plastic group, 9<br/>minutes and 45 seconds in the 33.3% plastic group, and 10 minutes and 58 seconds in the 50%<br/>plastic group. Taking the average of the normalized weights of the cylindrical samples it was<br/>determined that the control group weighed 14.773 oz/in, the 16.7% plastic group weighed 15<br/>oz/in, the 33.3% plastic group weighed 14.573 oz/in, and the 50% plastic group weighed 12.959<br/>oz/in. Based on these results it can be concluded that a small addition of plastic aggregate can be<br/>beneficial in creating a lighter, stronger concrete. The results show that a 16.7% fill ratio of<br/>plastic to rock aggregate can increase the failure time and the peak strength of a composite<br/>concrete. Overall, the experiment was successful in analyzing the effects of recycled plastic<br/>aggregate in composite concrete.<br/>Some possible future studies related to this subject material are adding aluminum to the<br/>concrete, having better molds, looking for the right consistency in each mixture, mixing for each<br/>mold individually, and performing other tests on the samples.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Development of an Automated Pultrusion System for Manufacturing of Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Description

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to continuously improve the performance of the material. Fiber reinforcement is a significant technique in strengthening precast concrete, but manufacturing limitations are common which has led to reliance on steel reinforcement. Two-dimensional textile reinforcement has emerged as a strong and efficient alternative to both fiber and steel reinforced concrete with pultrusion manufacturing shown as one of the most effective methods of precasting concrete. The intention of this thesis project is to detail the components, functions, and outcomes shown in the development of an automated pultrusion system for manufacturing textile reinforced concrete (TRC). Using a preexisting, manual pultrusion system and current-day manufacturing techniques as a basis, the automated pultrusion system was designed as a series of five stations that centered on textile impregnation, system driving, and final pressing. The system was then constructed in the Arizona State University Structures Lab over the course of the spring and summer of 2015. After fabricating each station, a computer VI was coded in LabVIEW software to automatically drive the system. Upon completing construction of the system, plate and angled structural sections were then manufactured to verify the adequacy of the technique. Pultruded TRC plates were tested in tension and flexure while full-scale structural sections were tested in tension and compression. Ultimately, the automated pultrusion system was successful in establishing an efficient and consistent manufacturing process for continuous TRC sections.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Effects of Aggregate Packing Density on the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Description

Cement is a remarkable construction material that allows for the formation of complex geometric forms while still providing adequate strength properties to be used as a structural material. This research

Cement is a remarkable construction material that allows for the formation of complex geometric forms while still providing adequate strength properties to be used as a structural material. This research focuses on Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) which is a specialized class of cementitious material that exhibits exceptional strength and durability properties when compared to standard concrete. UHPC achieves these properties through a combination of high cement content, high particle packing density, low water-to-cement ratio, and the additional of special admixtures such as superplasticizer. These components all serve the purpose of increasing UHPC strength and mechanical properties by helping achieve much high material densities than other forms of concrete.
In this study, aggregate material evaluation and testing was conducted for use in the mix design of the UHPC mixes that were carried out and tested. Each mix employed the same general UHPC mixture design with the only difference being the aggregate proportions of #4, #8, and #10 nominal size aggregates. The purpose of using a UHPC mix design that was independent of aggregate proportioning was to evaluate the effects of varying aggregate particle packing densities. Increased particle packing density of UHPC provide improved mechanical performance by decreasing the distance between particle within cured UHPC, thereby producing significant increases in compressive strength, tensile strength, durability, and service life of UHPC when compared to standard concrete. For this study, particle packing densities of 0.509, 0.521, 0.540, and 0.552 were employed and evaluated on the basis of compressive strength and tensile strength to determine the optimum UHPC mix design.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Effect of Gamma-Rays on Morphology and Tensile Properties of Polypropylene Fiber for Cement Composites.

Description

Concrete is relatively brittle, and its tensile strength is typically only about one-tenth of its compressive strength. Regular concrete is therefore normally uses reinforcement steel bars to increase the tensile

Concrete is relatively brittle, and its tensile strength is typically only about one-tenth of its compressive strength. Regular concrete is therefore normally uses reinforcement steel bars to increase the tensile strength. It is becoming increasingly popular to use random distributed fibers as reinforcement and polymeric fibers is once such kind. In the case of polymeric fibers, due to hydrophobicity and lack of any chemical bond between the fiber and matrix, the weak interface zone limits the ability of the fibers to effectively carry the load that is on the matrix phase. Depending on the fiber’s surface asperity, shape, chemical nature, and mechanical bond characteristic of the load transfer between matrix and fiber can be altered so that the final composite can be improved. These modifications can be carried out by means of thermal treatment, mechanical surface modifications, or chemical changes The objective of this study is to measure and document the effect of gamma ray irradiation on the mechanical properties of macro polymeric fibers. The objective is to determine the mechanical properties of macro-synthetic fibers and develop guidelines for treatment and characterization that allow for potential positive changes due to exposure to irradiation. Fibers are exposed to various levels of ionizing radiation and the tensile, interface and performance in a mortar matrix are documented. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on irradiated fibers to study fiber strength and failure pattern. SEM tests were carried out in order to study the surface characteristic and effect of different radiation dose on polymeric fiber. The interaction of the irradiated fiber with the cement composite was studied by a series of quasi-static pullout test for a specific embedded length. As a final task, flexural tests were carried out for different irradiated fibers to sum up the investigation. An average increase of 13% in the stiffness of the fiber was observed for 5 kGy of radiation. Flexural tests showed an average increase of 181% in the Req3 value and 102 % in the toughness of the sample was observed for 5 kGy of dose.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Pultruded Textile Reinforced Concrete Structural Sections

Description

Pultrusion manufacturing technique stands at the forefront for efficient production of continuous, uniform concrete composites for use in large scale structural applications. High volume and low labor, among other benefits

Pultrusion manufacturing technique stands at the forefront for efficient production of continuous, uniform concrete composites for use in large scale structural applications. High volume and low labor, among other benefits such as improved impregnation and better sample consistency, stand as some of the crucial advances found in automated pultrusion. These advantages introduce textile reinforced concrete (TRC) composites as a potential surrogate for wood, light gauge steel, and other common structural materials into an ever changing and broadening market of industrial grade structural sections. With the potential modifications of textile geometry, textile type, section geometry, and connection type, the options presented by TRC sections seem nearly boundless. Automated pultrusion presents the ability to manufacture many different TRC composite types in at a quickened rate opening up a new field of study of structural materials.

The objective of this study centered on two studies including the development of an automated pultrusion system for the manufacturing of TRC composites and ultimately the assessment of composites created with the pultrusion technique and their viability as a relevant structural construction material. Upon planning, fabrication, and continued use of an automated pultrusion system in Arizona State University’s Structures Lab, an initial, comparative study of polypropylene microfiber composites was conducted to assess fiber reinforced concrete composites, manufactured with Filament Winding Technique, and textile reinforced concrete composites, manufactured with Automated Pultrusion Technique, in tensile and flexural mechanical response at similar reinforcement dosages. A secondary study was then conducted to measure the mechanical behavior of carbon, polypropylene, and alkali-resistant glass TRC composites and explore the response of full scale TRC structural shapes, including angle and channel sections. Finally, a study was conducted on the connection type for large scale TRC composite structural sections in tension and compression testing.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Optimization of the prestressing force in continuous concrete bridges

Description

Most engineers may agree that an optimum design of a particular structure is a proposal that minimizes costs without compromising resistance, serviceability and aesthetics. Additionally to these conditions, the theory

Most engineers may agree that an optimum design of a particular structure is a proposal that minimizes costs without compromising resistance, serviceability and aesthetics. Additionally to these conditions, the theory and application of the method that produces such an efficient design must be easy and fast to apply at the structural engineering offices.

A considerable amount of studies have been conducted for the past four decades. Most researchers have used constraints and tried to minimize the cost of the structure by reducing the weight of it [8]. Although this approach may be true for steel structures, it is not accurate for composite structures such as reinforced and prestressed concrete. Maximizing the amount of reinforcing steel to minimize the weight of the overall structure can produce an increase of the cost if the price of steel is too high compared to concrete [8]. A better approach is to reduce the total cost of the structure instead of weight. However, some structures such as Prestressed Concrete AASHTO Girders have been standardized with the purpose of simplifying production, design and construction. Optimizing a bridge girder requires good judgment at an early stage of the design and some studies have provided guides for preliminary design that will generate a final economical solution [17] [18]. Therefore, no calculations or optimization procedure is required to select the appropriate Standard AASHTO Girder. This simplifies the optimization problem of a bridge girder to reducing the amount of prestressing and mild steel only. This study will address the problem of optimizing the prestressing force of a PC AASHTO girder by using linear programming and feasibility domain of working stresses. A computer program will be presented to apply the optimization technique effectively.

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Date Created
  • 2016