Matching Items (20)

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The Influence of Living Arrangements on Couple's Conflict Topics: A Daily Diary Study of Young Adult Couples

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My thesis examined differences in areas of relationship conflict among various living arrangements of couples. I analyzed 249 phone call interviews from 54 couples that resided in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area, had been in a relationship for at least

My thesis examined differences in areas of relationship conflict among various living arrangements of couples. I analyzed 249 phone call interviews from 54 couples that resided in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area, had been in a relationship for at least six months, and were at least 21 years of age. By using a qualitative analysis, I analyzed differences in frequently mentioned areas of conflict (i.e. power, social issues, personal flaws, distrust, intimacy, personal distance) between romantic couples in three common couple living arrangements (i.e. non-cohabiting, cohabiting, and married). Findings showed certain areas of conflict were prevalent among all living arrangements, namely power and personal flaws. There were some differences between each living arrangement group: The non-cohabiting group was the only one to report distrust as a top area of conflict, and the cohabiting group reported more frequent incidents of conflict involving personal flaws than the married group. The married group identified social issues as a more prevalent area of conflict than the other groups. Differences in prevalent areas of conflict were examined in relation to varying levels of personal, structural and moral commitment that occur throughout the identified living arrangements.

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2017-05

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Let Them Eat Cake: Marginal Effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on Intra-State Conflict

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There is growing public concern about the implications of climate change for natural processes, such as the melting of ice at the poles, but less clear are the implications for food production. Famine and conflict have a long and complicated

There is growing public concern about the implications of climate change for natural processes, such as the melting of ice at the poles, but less clear are the implications for food production. Famine and conflict have a long and complicated history, made increasingly complicated by the intricate global food system. In this paper, I explore the effect of increasingly severe El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles on conflict in an effort to determine how abnormal climate patterns affect food security and, indirectly, conflict. I use a non-linear probit model to analyze the relationship between several binary conflict variables and food supply.

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Created

Date Created
2016-12

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Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, or The Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda (2005): Self-Defense and the Duty of Vigilance as Ineffective Tools of Resolution in Customary International Law

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Abstract Upon review of complex ethnic conflict over the past century in the Great Lakes region, the 2005 Opinion of the Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo does not properly acknowledge the conflict's complexity, and thus

Abstract Upon review of complex ethnic conflict over the past century in the Great Lakes region, the 2005 Opinion of the Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo does not properly acknowledge the conflict's complexity, and thus fails in applying customary international law to the allegations under dispute. Both concepts of self-defense and the violation of the duty of vigilance are found particularly restrictive, and their application by the ICJ does not recognize realities. The thesis is laid out to provide context for the dispute, followed by consideration of the historical circumstances that shaped the ethnic, political, and economic reality of the Second Congo War. Finally the paper will begin an inquiry into self-defense and the duty of vigilance as unequipped legal concepts to consider the atypical conflict. I. Introduction II. The Dispute: The Second Congo War III. Overview of Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo IV. Lack of Recognition for Historical Background V. Contentious Handlings of Concepts of International Law a. Self-Defense: Questionable Criteria b. Breaches of International Obligations: Duty of Vigilance in Armed Activities VI. Conclusion

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Date Created
2014-05

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Becoming a Parent: An Analysis of Romantic Relationship Conflict, Self-esteem, and Mental Health

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Numerous studies have established that during the transition to parenthood couples experience changes within their relationship as well as in their overall mental health. The present study examines these changes specifically through conflict interactions. The author proposes the more conflict

Numerous studies have established that during the transition to parenthood couples experience changes within their relationship as well as in their overall mental health. The present study examines these changes specifically through conflict interactions. The author proposes the more conflict that occurs within a relationship, the lower each individual's self-esteem; the lowered self-esteem then leads to signs of depression. The present study's analysis consisted of two primary aims: 1) examine the association between romantic relationship conflict and mental health by using a proposed mediational pathway, in which self-esteem explains the connection, and 2) explore gender differences. The study aims were examined using secondary data analyses of Dr. Kristin Mickelson's study on couples transitioning to parenthood (Baby TIME Study). Results varied by conflict type as well as gender. When conflict was measured by perceived negative spousal interactions, results showed that the proposed mediational pathway was significant for men, but not for women. When conflict was measured by frequency of spousal arguments, results showed that the proposed mediational pathway was significant for women, but not for men. Furthermore, the results from this analysis indicate that during the transition to parenthood, men and women are affected by conflict differently in regards to their self-esteem and further their reported levels of depression.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Mechanisms of Emigration During Ant Inter-Colony Conflict

Description

Much like neighboring nations, living in close proximity can often lead to conflict over limited resources for social insect colonies. As with warring nations, conflicts among insect societies can also result in one colony attempting to invade the other. Though

Much like neighboring nations, living in close proximity can often lead to conflict over limited resources for social insect colonies. As with warring nations, conflicts among insect societies can also result in one colony attempting to invade the other. Though emigrations are common and well understood in social insects, the process of emigration in the context of conflict is not known. During emigrations of the ant Temnothorax rugatulus, colonies first employ the use of scouts, who search for new nest locations. These scouts then recruit naïve workers to these nests resulting in a ‘voting’ process through which colonies can collectively choose the best nest site. Once the decision is made, the selected nest is rapidly populated by workers who physically carry the queen(s), brood, and remaining naïve ants to the new nest. Invasions occurring during inter-colony conflicts bear a striking resemblance to this process. The state of the final nest suggested merged colonies, and statistical models were used to test for the likelihood of this. Here we test whether colonies of T. rugatulus use the same mechanisms during invasions as those used in emigrations by observing conflicts between colonies of T. rugatulus ants and tracking instances of scouting and recruitment, transport and changes in populations in each nest. Our results support the predicted order of behaviors starting with scouting, followed by recruitment and transport last. In addition, presence of the quorum rule, which determines the switch from recruitment to transport, is confirmed. Furthermore, evidence showed that the colonies were merged at the time of transport. While ant emigration patterns are well understood, there is a gap in understanding conflict driven emigrations/invasions. Our results serve to better understand conflict in social insects by further understanding the mechanisms used during conflicts.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Indigenous Advocacy and Gender Mainstreaming: Challenges and Recommendations for Women, Peace, and Security Practitioners

Description

Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) practitioners (including policymakers, scholars, and nonprofit leaders) in the U.S. and Canada have often focused their attention on the United Nations’ WPS initiative as a strategy for responding to conflicts abroad, particularly in the Global

Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) practitioners (including policymakers, scholars, and nonprofit leaders) in the U.S. and Canada have often focused their attention on the United Nations’ WPS initiative as a strategy for responding to conflicts abroad, particularly in the Global South. As a result of these limitations, black, Latino, and Indigenous advocates and peacebuilders in the U.S. and Canada remain largely unable to take advantage of WPS frameworks and resources. The subjectivity of the term “conflict” and the range of circumstances where it is used inspire this research. The selective application of the word “conflict” is itself a challenge to security, for conflicts can only be addressed once they are acknowledged and so named. Where does WPS intersect with contemporary Indigenous advocacy? A case study of the #noDAPL movement and the ways that nonviolence and women’s leadership emerged at Standing Rock, ND in 2016 provide a partial answer. Four challenges and recommendations are offered to WPS practitioners who seek to expand the availability of WPS resources to Indigenous peoples in the U.S. and Canada. These challenges and recommendations draw upon existing National Action Plans, legal and policy documents, and data from four interviews conducted with Indigenous women advocates in the U.S. and Canada in 2019. Above all, this paper seeks to encourage WPS practitioners to move beyond “gender mainstreaming” to consider not only how policies and practices impact women and men differently, but also how they may impact Indigenous people and settlers differently.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Conflict Minerals

Description

Conflict Minerals are mined resources that cause countless human rights violations in their pursuit. The “3Ts and G” (tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold) are some of the most lucrative sources of income for armed militant groups in eastern Democratic Republic

Conflict Minerals are mined resources that cause countless human rights violations in their pursuit. The “3Ts and G” (tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold) are some of the most lucrative sources of income for armed militant groups in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), linking them to the deadliest global conflicts. A study from the Enough Project found that armed groups made an estimated $185 million from conflict minerals in 2008. A mortality study by the International Rescue Committee looking at conflict-related deaths between August 1998 and April 2007 estimated that more than 5.4 million people died as a result of armed conflict in Congo. Conflict minerals are used in everyday consumer electronics, automobiles, manufacturing equipment, electronics, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, and jewelry. Consumers need to continue to support Conflict Free regulations and policy such as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. President Donald Trump threatened to remove the Dodd-Frank act which would reverse one of the only pieces of legislature which forces supply chains to be transparent and ethical. Colonialism is the practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses their resources to increase its own power and wealth; conflict minerals and human rights violations that subsequently occur are a modern variation of colonialism. I think that consumers would respond with disdain if they were aware that items they purchase and use everyday are #conflicted. I designed a book, campaign, book, and physical exhibit to communicate information about conflict minerals to an audience.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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The Pitfalls and Potholes of Reconstruction: Understanding the Role of Infrastructure in Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Description

National infrastructure form the bedrock for economic growth and social security, both of which lowers conflict risks. This encourages states and international organizations to invest heavily in post-conflict infrastructure reconstruction efforts, believing that infrastructure provision will reduce future political instability.

National infrastructure form the bedrock for economic growth and social security, both of which lowers conflict risks. This encourages states and international organizations to invest heavily in post-conflict infrastructure reconstruction efforts, believing that infrastructure provision will reduce future political instability. This belief is based largely on the perceived successes of reconstruction efforts in prior eras, especially after World War II. Today, post-conflict reconstruction efforts are much less successful in this regard and, overall, are not reducing political instability---Iraq being the quintessential example of such policy failure. In the face of both ongoing conflict and persistent needs for infrastructure reconstruction after conflicts, therefore, there is a critical need to understand two questions: Why are current reconstruction efforts failing to reduce political instability or even, in some cases, increasing it? And, how can reconstruction efforts be organized to do better? To address these questions, this dissertation examines infrastructure reconstruction across a wide range of national contexts. In doing this, an updated viewpoint is provided on the role of infrastructure in conflict-prone areas to include a long-term perspective on infrastructure system's role in society, technological integration, and relationship between the state and conflicting groups. This dissertation finds that though provision of different types of infrastructure might increase conflict risks in the short term, such provision can reduce conflict in the long run depending on how and where infrastructure is provided vis-a-vis excluded populations. These results provide crucial input towards the redesign of reconstruction policies to limit future political instability risks through infrastructure.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Sexual Violence against Women during Conflict

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The purpose of this honors thesis is to explain the varying levels of sexual violence against women across time, location and conflicts. Violence against civilians is utilized as an independent variable to measure if the level of violence of a

The purpose of this honors thesis is to explain the varying levels of sexual violence against women across time, location and conflicts. Violence against civilians is utilized as an independent variable to measure if the level of violence of a pre-conflict environment widens the space for the exploitation of sexual violence. Women's status is used as an additional independent variable in order to measure if a pre-conflict environment that promotes gender equality moderates the presence of sexual violence as it discourages unequal power dynamics. GDP per capita and population will be used as control variables in order to include consideration of state capacity. Sexual violence will be the dependent variable. In order to statistically measure and depict the relationships between these variables, bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regressions will be utilized. The bivariate correlations showed that as civilian violence increased, sexual violence increased as well, but as women's status increased, sexual violence decreased. The linear regression models found that state actors and rebel groups yielded differing results. For state actors, the increase in women's status failed to moderate the level of sexual violence as an increase in civilian violence and women's status resulted in an increase in sexual violence. However, for rebel groups, an increase in civilian violence and women's status led to a decrease in sexual violence, thereby depicting women's status as a moderating factor. This creates a problem in identifying one or a few factors that predominately lead to an increase in sexual violence; such identification is key for the development of preventative policy.

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Created

Date Created
2016-12

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Testing thresholds in the integrative theory of the division of domestic labor

Description

The division of domestic labor has far-reaching implications for "private" life (e.g. relational satisfaction and conflict) and for "public" paid labor (e.g. time and dedication in the workplace and career advancement). Although several theories have been developed and tested, they

The division of domestic labor has far-reaching implications for "private" life (e.g. relational satisfaction and conflict) and for "public" paid labor (e.g. time and dedication in the workplace and career advancement). Although several theories have been developed and tested, they do not sufficiently explain the consistent findings that women in mixed sex households perform a majority of the domestic labor. Without understanding the causes for differences in task performance, past research encouraging communicative solutions to ameliorate conflict was ineffective in changing task allocation and performance. Therefore, it is necessary to understand theoretical explanations that drive domestic labor behavior to develop effective solutions. The recent integrative theory of the division of domestic labor attempts to explain how individuals interact with household partners to allocate domestic tasks. Recognizing the complexity of the division of domestic labor, the integrative theory considers individual, dyadic, and societal factors that influence task allocation. Because clear differences in task performance have been found in mixed sex households, this study separates sex and gender as distinct variables by considering same-sex roommate relationships, essentially removing sex differences from the living arrangement. Furthermore, this study considers individual threshold levels as described by the integrative theory in order to test the theoretical underpinnings. Specifically, this study is designed to investigate the relationships between individual cleanliness threshold levels and gender, sex, perceptions of satisfaction, equity, and frequency of conflict in same-sex roommate relationships. Results indicate support of the integrative theory of the division of domestic labor. Regarding gender differences, partial support for the theory appeared in that feminine individuals have lower threshold levels than masculine individuals. Regarding sex differences, women possess lower individual threshold levels (i.e. more bothered when a task is undone) compared to men, which likely accounts for why existing research indicates that women spend more time performing domestic tasks. What is more, individuals with higher threshold levels report greater relational satisfaction. Further, individuals whose threshold levels differ from their living partner report lower relational satisfaction and greater conflict frequency. Finally, in terms of equity, both overbenefited and underbenefited individuals experience more conflict than those who feel their relationship is equitable. These results provide theoretical support for the integrative theory of the division of labor. Furthermore, the development and testing of a threshold measure scale can be used practically for future research and for better roommate pairings by universities. In addition, communication scholars, family practitioners and counselors, and universities can apply these theoretically grounded research findings to develop and test strategies to reduce conflict and increase relational satisfaction among roommates and couples.

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Created

Date Created
2011