Matching Items (18)

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Sexual Violence against Women during Conflict

Description

The purpose of this honors thesis is to explain the varying levels of sexual violence against women across time, location and conflicts. Violence against civilians is utilized as an independent

The purpose of this honors thesis is to explain the varying levels of sexual violence against women across time, location and conflicts. Violence against civilians is utilized as an independent variable to measure if the level of violence of a pre-conflict environment widens the space for the exploitation of sexual violence. Women's status is used as an additional independent variable in order to measure if a pre-conflict environment that promotes gender equality moderates the presence of sexual violence as it discourages unequal power dynamics. GDP per capita and population will be used as control variables in order to include consideration of state capacity. Sexual violence will be the dependent variable. In order to statistically measure and depict the relationships between these variables, bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regressions will be utilized. The bivariate correlations showed that as civilian violence increased, sexual violence increased as well, but as women's status increased, sexual violence decreased. The linear regression models found that state actors and rebel groups yielded differing results. For state actors, the increase in women's status failed to moderate the level of sexual violence as an increase in civilian violence and women's status resulted in an increase in sexual violence. However, for rebel groups, an increase in civilian violence and women's status led to a decrease in sexual violence, thereby depicting women's status as a moderating factor. This creates a problem in identifying one or a few factors that predominately lead to an increase in sexual violence; such identification is key for the development of preventative policy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Let Them Eat Cake: Marginal Effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on Intra-State Conflict

Description

There is growing public concern about the implications of climate change for natural processes, such as the melting of ice at the poles, but less clear are the implications for

There is growing public concern about the implications of climate change for natural processes, such as the melting of ice at the poles, but less clear are the implications for food production. Famine and conflict have a long and complicated history, made increasingly complicated by the intricate global food system. In this paper, I explore the effect of increasingly severe El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles on conflict in an effort to determine how abnormal climate patterns affect food security and, indirectly, conflict. I use a non-linear probit model to analyze the relationship between several binary conflict variables and food supply.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Influence of Living Arrangements on Couple's Conflict Topics: A Daily Diary Study of Young Adult Couples

Description

My thesis examined differences in areas of relationship conflict among various living arrangements of couples. I analyzed 249 phone call interviews from 54 couples that resided in the greater Phoenix

My thesis examined differences in areas of relationship conflict among various living arrangements of couples. I analyzed 249 phone call interviews from 54 couples that resided in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area, had been in a relationship for at least six months, and were at least 21 years of age. By using a qualitative analysis, I analyzed differences in frequently mentioned areas of conflict (i.e. power, social issues, personal flaws, distrust, intimacy, personal distance) between romantic couples in three common couple living arrangements (i.e. non-cohabiting, cohabiting, and married). Findings showed certain areas of conflict were prevalent among all living arrangements, namely power and personal flaws. There were some differences between each living arrangement group: The non-cohabiting group was the only one to report distrust as a top area of conflict, and the cohabiting group reported more frequent incidents of conflict involving personal flaws than the married group. The married group identified social issues as a more prevalent area of conflict than the other groups. Differences in prevalent areas of conflict were examined in relation to varying levels of personal, structural and moral commitment that occur throughout the identified living arrangements.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Becoming a Parent: An Analysis of Romantic Relationship Conflict, Self-esteem, and Mental Health

Description

Numerous studies have established that during the transition to parenthood couples experience changes within their relationship as well as in their overall mental health. The present study examines these changes

Numerous studies have established that during the transition to parenthood couples experience changes within their relationship as well as in their overall mental health. The present study examines these changes specifically through conflict interactions. The author proposes the more conflict that occurs within a relationship, the lower each individual's self-esteem; the lowered self-esteem then leads to signs of depression. The present study's analysis consisted of two primary aims: 1) examine the association between romantic relationship conflict and mental health by using a proposed mediational pathway, in which self-esteem explains the connection, and 2) explore gender differences. The study aims were examined using secondary data analyses of Dr. Kristin Mickelson's study on couples transitioning to parenthood (Baby TIME Study). Results varied by conflict type as well as gender. When conflict was measured by perceived negative spousal interactions, results showed that the proposed mediational pathway was significant for men, but not for women. When conflict was measured by frequency of spousal arguments, results showed that the proposed mediational pathway was significant for women, but not for men. Furthermore, the results from this analysis indicate that during the transition to parenthood, men and women are affected by conflict differently in regards to their self-esteem and further their reported levels of depression.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, or The Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda (2005): Self-Defense and the Duty of Vigilance as Ineffective Tools of Resolution in Customary International Law

Description

Abstract Upon review of complex ethnic conflict over the past century in the Great Lakes region, the 2005 Opinion of the Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the

Abstract Upon review of complex ethnic conflict over the past century in the Great Lakes region, the 2005 Opinion of the Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo does not properly acknowledge the conflict's complexity, and thus fails in applying customary international law to the allegations under dispute. Both concepts of self-defense and the violation of the duty of vigilance are found particularly restrictive, and their application by the ICJ does not recognize realities. The thesis is laid out to provide context for the dispute, followed by consideration of the historical circumstances that shaped the ethnic, political, and economic reality of the Second Congo War. Finally the paper will begin an inquiry into self-defense and the duty of vigilance as unequipped legal concepts to consider the atypical conflict. I. Introduction II. The Dispute: The Second Congo War III. Overview of Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo IV. Lack of Recognition for Historical Background V. Contentious Handlings of Concepts of International Law a. Self-Defense: Questionable Criteria b. Breaches of International Obligations: Duty of Vigilance in Armed Activities VI. Conclusion

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Mechanisms of Emigration During Ant Inter-Colony Conflict

Description

Much like neighboring nations, living in close proximity can often lead to conflict over limited resources for social insect colonies. As with warring nations, conflicts among insect societies can also

Much like neighboring nations, living in close proximity can often lead to conflict over limited resources for social insect colonies. As with warring nations, conflicts among insect societies can also result in one colony attempting to invade the other. Though emigrations are common and well understood in social insects, the process of emigration in the context of conflict is not known. During emigrations of the ant Temnothorax rugatulus, colonies first employ the use of scouts, who search for new nest locations. These scouts then recruit naïve workers to these nests resulting in a ‘voting’ process through which colonies can collectively choose the best nest site. Once the decision is made, the selected nest is rapidly populated by workers who physically carry the queen(s), brood, and remaining naïve ants to the new nest. Invasions occurring during inter-colony conflicts bear a striking resemblance to this process. The state of the final nest suggested merged colonies, and statistical models were used to test for the likelihood of this. Here we test whether colonies of T. rugatulus use the same mechanisms during invasions as those used in emigrations by observing conflicts between colonies of T. rugatulus ants and tracking instances of scouting and recruitment, transport and changes in populations in each nest. Our results support the predicted order of behaviors starting with scouting, followed by recruitment and transport last. In addition, presence of the quorum rule, which determines the switch from recruitment to transport, is confirmed. Furthermore, evidence showed that the colonies were merged at the time of transport. While ant emigration patterns are well understood, there is a gap in understanding conflict driven emigrations/invasions. Our results serve to better understand conflict in social insects by further understanding the mechanisms used during conflicts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Intercultural Negotiation and Risk Mitigation

Description

In an increasingly global economy, companies face challenges with implementing successful business and marketing strategies in cultures different from their own. This paper calls upon previous research to compile a

In an increasingly global economy, companies face challenges with implementing successful business and marketing strategies in cultures different from their own. This paper calls upon previous research to compile a per-country outline of general behaviors and expectations when doing business overseas. Using categorical definitions from Hofstede's 1984 study and those found in the Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation, a table has been prepared to group similar countries based on their cultural biases.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Conflict Minerals

Description

Conflict Minerals are mined resources that cause countless human rights violations in their pursuit. The “3Ts and G” (tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold) are some of the most lucrative sources

Conflict Minerals are mined resources that cause countless human rights violations in their pursuit. The “3Ts and G” (tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold) are some of the most lucrative sources of income for armed militant groups in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), linking them to the deadliest global conflicts. A study from the Enough Project found that armed groups made an estimated $185 million from conflict minerals in 2008. A mortality study by the International Rescue Committee looking at conflict-related deaths between August 1998 and April 2007 estimated that more than 5.4 million people died as a result of armed conflict in Congo. Conflict minerals are used in everyday consumer electronics, automobiles, manufacturing equipment, electronics, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, and jewelry. Consumers need to continue to support Conflict Free regulations and policy such as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. President Donald Trump threatened to remove the Dodd-Frank act which would reverse one of the only pieces of legislature which forces supply chains to be transparent and ethical. Colonialism is the practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses their resources to increase its own power and wealth; conflict minerals and human rights violations that subsequently occur are a modern variation of colonialism. I think that consumers would respond with disdain if they were aware that items they purchase and use everyday are #conflicted. I designed a book, campaign, book, and physical exhibit to communicate information about conflict minerals to an audience.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Indigenous Advocacy and Gender Mainstreaming: Challenges and Recommendations for Women, Peace, and Security Practitioners

Description

Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) practitioners (including policymakers, scholars, and nonprofit leaders) in the U.S. and Canada have often focused their attention on the United Nations’ WPS initiative as a

Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) practitioners (including policymakers, scholars, and nonprofit leaders) in the U.S. and Canada have often focused their attention on the United Nations’ WPS initiative as a strategy for responding to conflicts abroad, particularly in the Global South. As a result of these limitations, black, Latino, and Indigenous advocates and peacebuilders in the U.S. and Canada remain largely unable to take advantage of WPS frameworks and resources. The subjectivity of the term “conflict” and the range of circumstances where it is used inspire this research. The selective application of the word “conflict” is itself a challenge to security, for conflicts can only be addressed once they are acknowledged and so named. Where does WPS intersect with contemporary Indigenous advocacy? A case study of the #noDAPL movement and the ways that nonviolence and women’s leadership emerged at Standing Rock, ND in 2016 provide a partial answer. Four challenges and recommendations are offered to WPS practitioners who seek to expand the availability of WPS resources to Indigenous peoples in the U.S. and Canada. These challenges and recommendations draw upon existing National Action Plans, legal and policy documents, and data from four interviews conducted with Indigenous women advocates in the U.S. and Canada in 2019. Above all, this paper seeks to encourage WPS practitioners to move beyond “gender mainstreaming” to consider not only how policies and practices impact women and men differently, but also how they may impact Indigenous people and settlers differently.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Values, goals, and threats: value incompatibilities--more than dissimilarities--predict prejudices

Description

Existing work suggests that intergroup negativity is caused by dissimilarities of values between groups. In contrast, I propose that incompatible values--regardless of whether they are similar or dissimilar--cause intergroup negativities.

Existing work suggests that intergroup negativity is caused by dissimilarities of values between groups. In contrast, I propose that incompatible values--regardless of whether they are similar or dissimilar--cause intergroup negativities. Because values act as cues to tangible goals and interests, groups' values suggest desired outcomes that may conflict with our own (i.e., incompatible values). The current study conceptually and empirically disentangles value-dissimilarity and value-incompatibility, which were confounded in previous research. Results indicated that intergroup negativities were strongly predicted by value-incompatibility, and only weakly and inconsistently predicted by value-dissimilarity. I further predicted that groups' values cue specific threats and opportunities to perceivers and that, in reaction to these inferred affordances, people will experience threat-relevant, specific emotional reactions (e.g., anger, disgust); however, results did not support this prediction. I also predicted that, because the inferred threats that groups pose to one another are not always symmetric, the negativities between groups may sometimes be asymmetric (i.e., Group A feels negatively toward Group B, but Group B feels neutral or positively toward Group A). This prediction received strong support. In sum, reframing our understanding of values as cues to conflicts-of-interest between groups provides principles for understanding intergroup prejudices in more nuanced ways.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017