Matching Items (5)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

149676-Thumbnail Image.png

Collective behavior of swimming bimetallic motors in chemical concentration gradients

Description

Locomotion of microorganisms is commonly observed in nature. Although microorganism locomotion is commonly attributed to mechanical deformation of solid appendages, in 1956 Nobel Laureate Peter Mitchell proposed that an asymmetric

Locomotion of microorganisms is commonly observed in nature. Although microorganism locomotion is commonly attributed to mechanical deformation of solid appendages, in 1956 Nobel Laureate Peter Mitchell proposed that an asymmetric ion flux on a bacterium's surface could generate electric fields that drive locomotion via self-electrophoresis. Recent advances in nanofabrication have enabled the engineering of synthetic analogues, bimetallic colloidal particles, that swim due to asymmetric ion flux originally proposed by Mitchell. Bimetallic colloidal particles swim through aqueous solutions by converting chemical fuel to fluid motion through asymmetric electrochemical reactions. This dissertation presents novel bimetallic motor fabrication strategies, motor functionality, and a study of the motor collective behavior in chemical concentration gradients. Brownian dynamics simulations and experiments show that the motors exhibit chemokinesis, a motile response to chemical gradients that results in net migration and concentration of particles. Chemokinesis is typically observed in living organisms and distinct from chemotaxis in that there is no particle directional sensing. The synthetic motor chemokinesis observed in this work is due to variation in the motor's velocity and effective diffusivity as a function of the fuel and salt concentration. Static concentration fields are generated in microfluidic devices fabricated with porous walls. The development of nanoscale particles that swim autonomously and collectively in chemical concentration gradients can be leveraged for a wide range of applications such as directed drug delivery, self-healing materials, and environmental remediation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

152402-Thumbnail Image.png

Insulator based dielectrophoretic trapping of single mammalian cells

Description

This work demonstrated a novel microfluidic device based on direct current (DC) insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for trapping individual mammalian cells in a microfluidic device. The novel device is also

This work demonstrated a novel microfluidic device based on direct current (DC) insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for trapping individual mammalian cells in a microfluidic device. The novel device is also applicable for selective trapping of weakly metastatic mammalian breast cancer cells (MCF-7) from mixtures with mammalian Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) and highly metastatic mammalian breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. The advantage of this approach is the ease of integration of iDEP structures in microfliudic channels using soft lithography, the use of DC electric fields, the addressability of the single cell traps for downstream analysis and the straightforward multiplexing for single cell trapping. These microfluidic devices are targeted for capturing of single cells based on their DEP behavior. The numerical simulations point out the trapping regions in which single cell DEP trapping occurs. This work also demonstrates the cell conductivity values of different cell types, calculated using the single-shell model. Low conductivity buffers are used for trapping experiments. These low conductivity buffers help reduce the Joule heating. Viability of the cells in the buffer system was studied in detail with a population size of approximately 100 cells for each study. The work also demonstrates the development of the parallelized single cell trap device with optimized traps. This device is also capable of being coupled detection of target protein using MALDI-MS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

Insulator-based dielectrophoretic manipulation of DNA in a microfluidic device

Description

DNA and DNA nanoassemblies such as DNA origamis have large potential in biosensing, drug delivery, nanoelectronic circuits, and biological computing requiring suitable methods for migration and precise positioning. Insulator-based dielectrophoresis

DNA and DNA nanoassemblies such as DNA origamis have large potential in biosensing, drug delivery, nanoelectronic circuits, and biological computing requiring suitable methods for migration and precise positioning. Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) provides an efficient and matrix-free approach for manipulation of micro-and nanometer-sized objects. In order to exploit iDEP for naturally formed DNA and DNA nanoassemblies, a detailed understanding of the underlying polarization and dielectrophoretic migration is essential. The shape and the counterion distribution are considered two essential factors in the polarization mechanism. Here, the dielectrophoretic behavior of 6-helix bundle (6HxB) and triangle DNA origamis with identical sequences but substantial topological differences was explored. The polarizability models were discussed for the two species according to their structural difference. The experimental observations reveal distinct iDEP trapping behavior in low frequency AC electric fields in addition to numerical simulations showing a considerable contribution of the electrophoretic transport of the DNA origami species in the DEP trapping regions. Furthermore, the polarizabilities of the two species were determined by measuring the migration times through a potential landscape exhibiting dielectrophoretic barriers. The resulting migration times correlate to the depth of the dielectrophoretic potential barrier and the escape characteristics of the DNA origamis according to an adapted Kramer’s rate model. The orientations of both species in the escape process were studied. Finally, to study the counterion distribution around the DNA molecules, both λ-DNA and 6HxB DNA were used in a phosphate buffer containing magnesium, revealing distinctive negative dielectrophoretic trapping behavior as opposed to positive trapping in a sodium/potassium phosphate buffer system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

154445-Thumbnail Image.png

Microfluidic tools for protein crystallography

Description

X-ray crystallography is the most widely used method to determine the structure of proteins, providing an understanding of their functions in all aspects of life to advance applications in fields

X-ray crystallography is the most widely used method to determine the structure of proteins, providing an understanding of their functions in all aspects of life to advance applications in fields such as drug development and renewable energy. New techniques, namely serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), have unlocked the ability to unravel the structures of complex proteins with vital biological functions. A key step and major bottleneck of structure determination is protein crystallization, which is very arduous due to the complexity of proteins and their natural environments. Furthermore, crystal characteristics govern data quality, thus need to be optimized to attain the most accurate reconstruction of the protein structure. Crystal size is one such characteristic in which narrowed distributions with a small modal size can significantly reduce the amount of protein needed for SFX. A novel microfluidic sorting platform was developed to isolate viable ~200 nm – ~600 nm photosystem I (PSI) membrane protein crystals from ~200 nm – ~20 μm crystal samples using dielectrophoresis, as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, second-order nonlinear imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC), and dynamic light scattering. The platform was scaled-up to rapidly provide 100s of microliters of sorted crystals necessary for SFX, in which similar crystal size distributions were attained. Transmission electron microscopy was used to view the PSI crystal lattice, which remained well-ordered postsorting, and SFX diffraction data was obtained, confirming a high-quality, viable crystal sample. Simulations indicated sorted samples provided accurate, complete SFX datasets with 3500-fold less protein than unsorted samples. Microfluidic devices were also developed for versatile, rapid protein crystallization screening using nanovolumes of sample. Concentration gradients of protein and precipitant were generated to crystallize PSI, phycocyanin, and lysozyme using modified counterdiffusion. Additionally, a passive mixer was created to generate unique solution concentrations within isolated nanowells to crystallize phycocyanin and lysozyme. Crystal imaging with brightfield microscopy, UV fluorescence, and SONICC coupled with numerical modeling allowed quantification of crystal growth conditions for efficient phase diagram development. The developed microfluidic tools demonstrated the capability of improving samples for protein crystallography, offering a foundation for continued development of platforms to aid protein structure determination.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

157398-Thumbnail Image.png

Foundational studies for array-based electrophoretic exclusion of proteins

Description

Disease prevention and personalized treatment will be impacted by the continued integration of protein biomarkers into medical practice. While there are already numerous biomarkers used clinically, the detection of protein

Disease prevention and personalized treatment will be impacted by the continued integration of protein biomarkers into medical practice. While there are already numerous biomarkers used clinically, the detection of protein biomarkers among complex matrices remains a challenging problem. One very important strategy for improvements in clinical application of biomarkers is separation/preconcentration, impacting the reliability, efficiency and early detection. Electrophoretic exclusion can be used to separate, purify, and concentrate biomarkers. This counterflow gradient technique exploits hydrodynamic flow and electrophoretic forces to exclude, enrich, and separate analytes. The development of this technique has evolved onto an array-based microfluidic platform which offers a greater range of geometries/configurations for optimization and expanded capabilities and applications. Toward this end of expanded capabilities, fundamental studies of subtle changes to the entrance flow and electric field configurations are investigated. Three closely related microfluidic interfaces are modeled, fabricated and tested. A charged fluorescent dye is used as a sensitive and accurate probe to test the concentration variation at these interfaces. Models and experiments focus on visualizing the concentration profile in areas of high temporal dynamics, and show strong qualitative agreement, which suggests the theoretical assessment capabilities can be used to faithfully design novel and more efficient interfaces. Microfluidic electrophoretic separation technique can be combined with electron microscopy as a protein concentration/purification step aiding in sample preparation. The integrated system with grids embedded into the microdevice reduces the amount of time required for sample preparation to less than five minutes. Spatially separated and preconcentrated proteins are transferred directly from an upstream reservoir onto grids. Dilute concentration as low as 0.005 mg/mL can be manipulated to achieve meaningful results. Selective concentration of one protein from a mixture of two proteins is also demonstrated. Electrophoretic exclusion is also used for biomarker applications. Experiments using a single biomarker are conducted to assess the ability of the microdevice for enrichment in central reservoirs. A mixture of two protein biomarkers are performed to evaluate the proficiency of the device for separations capability. Moreover, a battery is able to power the microdevice, which facilitates the future application as a portable device.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019