Matching Items (44)
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Description
Continuous monitoring in the adequate temporal and spatial scale is necessary for a better understanding of environmental variations. But field deployments of molecular biological analysis platforms in that scale are currently hindered because of issues with power, throughput and automation. Currently, such analysis is performed by the collection of large

Continuous monitoring in the adequate temporal and spatial scale is necessary for a better understanding of environmental variations. But field deployments of molecular biological analysis platforms in that scale are currently hindered because of issues with power, throughput and automation. Currently, such analysis is performed by the collection of large sample volumes from over a wide area and transporting them to laboratory testing facilities, which fail to provide any real-time information. This dissertation evaluates the systems currently utilized for in-situ field analyses and the issues hampering the successful deployment of such bioanalytial instruments for environmental applications. The design and development of high throughput, low power, and autonomous Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) instruments, amenable for portable field operations capable of providing quantitative results is presented here as part of this dissertation. A number of novel innovations have been reported here as part of this work in microfluidic design, PCR thermocycler design, optical design and systems integration. Emulsion microfluidics in conjunction with fluorinated oils and Teflon tubing have been used for the fluidic module that reduces cross-contamination eliminating the need for disposable components or constant cleaning. A cylindrical heater has been designed with the tubing wrapped around fixed temperature zones enabling continuous operation. Fluorescence excitation and detection have been achieved by using a light emitting diode (LED) as the excitation source and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) as the detector. Real-time quantitative PCR results were obtained by using multi-channel fluorescence excitation and detection using LED, optical fibers and a 64-channel multi-anode PMT for measuring continuous real-time fluorescence. The instrument was evaluated by comparing the results obtained with those obtained from a commercial instrument and found to be comparable. To further improve the design and enhance its field portability, this dissertation also presents a framework for the instrumentation necessary for a portable digital PCR platform to achieve higher throughputs with lower power. Both systems were designed such that it can easily couple with any upstream platform capable of providing nucleic acid for analysis using standard fluidic connections. Consequently, these instruments can be used not only in environmental applications, but portable diagnostics applications as well.
ContributorsRay, Tathagata (Author) / Youngbull, Cody (Thesis advisor) / Goryll, Michael (Thesis advisor) / Blain Christen, Jennifer (Committee member) / Yu, Hongyu (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has emerged as a popular technique for elucidating subtle signals from biological events in a label-free, high throughput environment. The efficacy of conventional SPR sensors, whose signals are mass-sensitive, diminishes rapidly with the size of the observed target molecules. The following work advances the current SPR

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has emerged as a popular technique for elucidating subtle signals from biological events in a label-free, high throughput environment. The efficacy of conventional SPR sensors, whose signals are mass-sensitive, diminishes rapidly with the size of the observed target molecules. The following work advances the current SPR sensor paradigm for the purpose of small molecule detection. The detection limits of two orthogonal components of SPR measurement are targeted: speed and sensitivity. In the context of this report, speed refers to the dynamic range of measured kinetic rate constants, while sensitivity refers to the target molecule mass limitation of conventional SPR measurement. A simple device for high-speed microfluidic delivery of liquid samples to a sensor surface is presented to address the temporal limitations of conventional SPR measurement. The time scale of buffer/sample switching is on the order of milliseconds, thereby minimizing the opportunity for sample plug dispersion. The high rates of mass transport to and from the central microfluidic sensing region allow for SPR-based kinetic analysis of binding events with dissociation rate constants (kd) up to 130 s-1. The required sample volume is only 1 μL, allowing for minimal sample consumption during high-speed kinetic binding measurement. Charge-based detection of small molecules is demonstrated by plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance microscopy (P-EIM). The dependence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on surface charge density is used to detect small molecules (60-120 Da) printed on a dextran-modified sensor surface. The SPR response to an applied ac potential is a function of the surface charge density. This optical signal is comprised of a dc and an ac component, and is measured with high spatial resolution. The amplitude and phase of local surface impedance is provided by the ac component. The phase signal of the small molecules is a function of their charge status, which is manipulated by the pH of a solution. This technique is used to detect and distinguish small molecules based on their charge status, thereby circumventing the mass limitation (~100 Da) of conventional SPR measurement.
ContributorsMacGriff, Christopher Assiff (Author) / Tao, Nongjian (Thesis advisor) / Wang, Shaopeng (Committee member) / LaBaer, Joshua (Committee member) / Chae, Junseok (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
This work demonstrated a novel microfluidic device based on direct current (DC) insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for trapping individual mammalian cells in a microfluidic device. The novel device is also applicable for selective trapping of weakly metastatic mammalian breast cancer cells (MCF-7) from mixtures with mammalian Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

This work demonstrated a novel microfluidic device based on direct current (DC) insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for trapping individual mammalian cells in a microfluidic device. The novel device is also applicable for selective trapping of weakly metastatic mammalian breast cancer cells (MCF-7) from mixtures with mammalian Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) and highly metastatic mammalian breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. The advantage of this approach is the ease of integration of iDEP structures in microfliudic channels using soft lithography, the use of DC electric fields, the addressability of the single cell traps for downstream analysis and the straightforward multiplexing for single cell trapping. These microfluidic devices are targeted for capturing of single cells based on their DEP behavior. The numerical simulations point out the trapping regions in which single cell DEP trapping occurs. This work also demonstrates the cell conductivity values of different cell types, calculated using the single-shell model. Low conductivity buffers are used for trapping experiments. These low conductivity buffers help reduce the Joule heating. Viability of the cells in the buffer system was studied in detail with a population size of approximately 100 cells for each study. The work also demonstrates the development of the parallelized single cell trap device with optimized traps. This device is also capable of being coupled detection of target protein using MALDI-MS.
ContributorsBhattacharya, Sanchari (Author) / Ros, Alexandra (Committee member) / Ros, Robert (Committee member) / Buttry, Daniel (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
Rapid and reliable separation and analysis of proteins require powerful analytical methods. The analysis of proteins becomes especially challenging when only small sample volumes are available, concomitantly with low concentrations of proteins. Time critical situations pose additional challenges. Due to these challenges, conventional macro-scale separation techniques reach their limitations. While

Rapid and reliable separation and analysis of proteins require powerful analytical methods. The analysis of proteins becomes especially challenging when only small sample volumes are available, concomitantly with low concentrations of proteins. Time critical situations pose additional challenges. Due to these challenges, conventional macro-scale separation techniques reach their limitations. While microfluidic devices require only pL-nL sample volumes, they offer several advantages such as speed, efficiency, and high throughput. This work elucidates the capability to manipulate proteins in a rapid and reliable manner with a novel migration technique, namely dielectrophoresis (DEP). Since protein analysis can often be achieved through a combination of orthogonal techniques, adding DEP as a gradient technique to the portfolio of protein manipulation methods can extend and improve combinatorial approaches. To this aim, microfluidic devices tailored with integrated insulating obstacles were fabricated to create inhomogeneous electric fields evoking insulator-based DEP (iDEP). A main focus of this work was the development of pre-concentration devices where topological micropost arrays are fabricated using standard photo- and soft lithographic techniques. With these devices, positive DEP-driven streaming of proteins was demonstrated for the first time using immunoglobulin G (IgG) and bovine serum albumin. Experimentally observed iDEP concentrations of both proteins were in excellent agreement with positive DEP concentration profiles obtained by numerical simulations. Moreover, the micropost iDEP devices were improved by introducing nano-constrictions with focused ion beam milling with which numerical simulations suggested enhancement of the DEP effect, leading to a 12-fold increase in concentration of IgG. Additionally, concentration of β-galactosidase was observed, which seems to occur due to an interplay of negative DEP, electroosmosis, electrokinesis, diffusion, and ion concentration polarization. A detailed study was performed to investigate factors influencing protein DEP under DC conditions, including electroosmosis, electrophoresis, and Joule heating. Specifically, temperature rise within the iDEP device due to Joule heating was measured experimentally with spatial and temporal resolution by employing the thermosensitive dye Rhodamine B. Unlike DNA and cells, protein DEP behavior is not well understood to date. Therefore, this detailed study of protein DEP provides novel information to eventually optimize this protein migration method for pre-concentration, separation, and fractionation.
ContributorsNakano, Asuka (Author) / Ros, Alexandra (Thesis advisor) / Hayes, Mark (Committee member) / Levitus, Marcia (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2014
Description
The flow of liquid PDMS (10:1 v/v base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon micro channels, with and without a hexa-methyl-di-silazane (HMDS) or poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) (120 nm) coat, was studied. Photolithographic patterning and etching of silicon wafers was used to create micro channels with a range of widths (5-50

The flow of liquid PDMS (10:1 v/v base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon micro channels, with and without a hexa-methyl-di-silazane (HMDS) or poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) (120 nm) coat, was studied. Photolithographic patterning and etching of silicon wafers was used to create micro channels with a range of widths (5-50 μm) and depths (5-20 μm). The experimental PDMS flow rates were compared to an analytical model based on the work of Lucas and Washburn. The experimental flow rates closely matched the predicted flow rates for channels with an aspect ratio (width to depth), p, between one and two. Flow rates in channels with p less than one were higher than predicted whereas the opposite was true for channels with p greater than two. The divergence between the experimental and predicted flow rates steadily increased with increasing p. These findings are rationalized in terms of the effect of channel dimensions on the front and top meniscus morphology and the possible deviation from the no-slip condition at the channel walls at high shear rates.

In addition, a preliminary experimental setup for calibration tests on ultrasensitive PDMS cantilever beams is reported. One loading and unloading cycle is completed on a microcantilever PDMS beam (theoretical stiffness 0.5 pN/ µm). Beam deflections are actuated by adjusting the buoyancy force on the beam, which is submerged in water, by the addition of heat. The expected loading and unloading curve is produced, albeit with significant noise. The experimental results indicate that the beam stiffness is a factor of six larger than predicted theoretically. One probable explanation is that the beam geometry may change when it is removed from the channel after curing, making assumptions about the beam geometry used in the theoretical analysis inaccurate. This theory is bolstered by experimental data discussed in the report. Other sources of error which could partially contribute to the divergent results are discussed. Improvements to the experimental setup for future work are suggested.
ContributorsSowers, Timothy Wayne (Author) / Rajagopalan, Jagannathan (Thesis advisor) / Herrmann, Marcus (Committee member) / Huang, Huei-Ping (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2014
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Description
Cellular heterogeneity is a key factor in various cellular processes as well as in disease development, especially associated with immune response and cancer progression. Cell-to-cell variability is considered to be one of the major obstacles in early detection and successful treatment of cancer. Most present technologies are based on

Cellular heterogeneity is a key factor in various cellular processes as well as in disease development, especially associated with immune response and cancer progression. Cell-to-cell variability is considered to be one of the major obstacles in early detection and successful treatment of cancer. Most present technologies are based on bulk cell analysis, which results in averaging out the results acquired from a group of cells and hence missing important information about individual cells and their behavior. Understanding the cellular behavior at the single-cell level can help in obtaining a complete profile of the cell and to get a more in-depth knowledge of cellular processes. For example, measuring transmembrane fluxes oxygen can provide a direct readout of the cell metabolism.

The goal of this thesis is to design, optimize and implement a device that can measure the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of live single cells. A microfluidic device has been designed with the ability to rapidly seal and unseal microchambers containing individual cells and an extracellular optical oxygen sensor for measuring the OCR of live single cells. The device consists of two parts, one with the sensor in microwells (top half) and the other with channels and cells trapped in Pachinko-type micro-traps (bottom half). When the two parts of the device are placed together the wells enclose each cell. Oil is flown in through the channels of the device to produce isolated and sealed microchamber around each cell. Different fluids can be flowed in and out of the device, alternating with oil, to rapidly switch between sealed and unsealed microenvironment around each cell. A fluorescent ratiometric dual pH and oxygen sensor is placed in each well. The thesis focuses on measuring changes in the oxygen consumption rate of each cell within a well. Live and dead cells are identified using a fluorescent live/dead cell assay. Finally, the technology is designed to be scalable for high-throughput applications by controlling the flow rate of the system and increasing the cell array density.
ContributorsRodrigues, Meryl (Author) / Meldrum, Deirdre (Thesis advisor) / Kelbauskas, Laimonas (Committee member) / LaBelle, Jeffrey (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2014
Description
Filtration for microfluidic sample-collection devices is desirable for sample selection, concentration, preprocessing, and downstream manipulation, but microfabricating the required sub-micrometer filtration structure is an elaborate process. This thesis presents a simple method to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices with an integrated membrane filter that will sample, lyse, and extract the DNA

Filtration for microfluidic sample-collection devices is desirable for sample selection, concentration, preprocessing, and downstream manipulation, but microfabricating the required sub-micrometer filtration structure is an elaborate process. This thesis presents a simple method to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices with an integrated membrane filter that will sample, lyse, and extract the DNA from microorganisms in aqueous environments. An off-the-shelf membrane filter disc was embedded in a PDMS layer and sequentially bound with other PDMS channel layers. No leakage was observed during filtration. This device was validated by concentrating a large amount of cyanobacterium Synechocystis in simulated sample water with consistent performance across devices. After accumulating sufficient biomass on the filter, a sequential electrochemical lysing process was performed by applying 5VDC across the filter. This device was further evaluated by delivering several samples of differing concentrations of cyanobacterium Synechocystis then quantifying the DNA using real-time PCR. Lastly, an environmental sample was run through the device and the amount of photosynthetic microorganisms present in the water was determined. The major breakthroughs in this design are low energy demand, cheap materials, simple design, straightforward fabrication, and robust performance, together enabling wide-utility of similar chip-based devices for field-deployable operations in environmental micro-biotechnology.
ContributorsLecluse, Aurelie (Author) / Meldrum, Deirdre (Thesis advisor) / Chao, Joseph (Thesis advisor) / Westerhoff, Paul (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
Description
Microfluidics is the study of fluid flow at very small scales (micro -- one millionth of a meter) and is prevalent in many areas of science and engineering. Typical applications include lab-on-a-chip devices, microfluidic fuel cells, and DNA separation technologies. Many of these microfluidic devices rely on micron-resolution velocimetry measurements

Microfluidics is the study of fluid flow at very small scales (micro -- one millionth of a meter) and is prevalent in many areas of science and engineering. Typical applications include lab-on-a-chip devices, microfluidic fuel cells, and DNA separation technologies. Many of these microfluidic devices rely on micron-resolution velocimetry measurements to improve microchannel design and characterize existing devices. Methods such as micro particle imaging velocimetry (microPIV) and micro particle tracking velocimetry (microPTV) are mature and established methods for characterization of steady 2D flow fields. Increasingly complex microdevices require techniques that measure unsteady and/or three dimensional velocity fields. This dissertation presents a method for three-dimensional velocimetry of unsteady microflows based on spinning disk confocal microscopy and depth scanning of a microvolume. High-speed 2D unsteady velocity fields are resolved by acquiring images of particle motion using a high-speed CMOS camera and confocal microscope. The confocal microscope spatially filters out of focus light using a rotating disk of pinholes placed in the imaging path, improving the ability of the system to resolve unsteady microPIV measurements by improving the image and correlation signal to noise ratio. For 3D3C measurements, a piezo-actuated objective positioner quickly scans the depth of the microvolume and collects 2D image slices, which are stacked into 3D images. Super resolution microPIV interrogates these 3D images using microPIV as a predictor field for tracking individual particles with microPTV. The 3D3C diagnostic is demonstrated by measuring a pressure driven flow in a three-dimensional expanding microchannel. The experimental velocimetry data acquired at 30 Hz with instantaneous spatial resolution of 4.5 by 4.5 by 4.5 microns agrees well with a computational model of the flow field. The technique allows for isosurface visualization of time resolved 3D3C particle motion and high spatial resolution velocity measurements without requiring a calibration step or reconstruction algorithms. Several applications are investigated, including 3D quantitative fluorescence imaging of isotachophoresis plugs advecting through a microchannel and the dynamics of reaction induced colloidal crystal deposition.
ContributorsKlein, Steven Adam (Author) / Posner, Jonathan D (Thesis advisor) / Adrian, Ronald (Committee member) / Chen, Kangping (Committee member) / Devasenathipathy, Shankar (Committee member) / Frakes, David (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond.

Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond. Biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics, however, requires translational research that moves bench science and theoretical knowledge toward marketable products. Despite the high volume of academic research to date, only a handful of biomedical devices have become viable commercial applications. Academic research must increase its focus on practical uses for biosensors. This dissertation is an example of this increased focus, and discusses work to advance microfluidic-based protein biosensor technologies for practical use in clinical diagnostics. Four areas of work are discussed: The first involved work to develop reusable/reconfigurable biosensors that are useful in applications like biochemical science and analytical chemistry that require detailed sensor calibration. This work resulted in a prototype sensor and an in-situ electrochemical surface regeneration technique that can be used to produce microfluidic-based reusable biosensors. The second area of work looked at non-specific adsorption (NSA) of biomolecules, which is a persistent challenge in conventional microfluidic biosensors. The results of this work produced design methods that reduce the NSA. The third area of work involved a novel microfluidic sensing platform that was designed to detect target biomarkers using competitive protein adsorption. This technique uses physical adsorption of proteins to a surface rather than complex and time-consuming immobilization procedures. This method enabled us to selectively detect a thyroid cancer biomarker, thyroglobulin, in a controlled-proteins cocktail and a cardiovascular biomarker, fibrinogen, in undiluted human serum. The fourth area of work involved expanding the technique to produce a unique protein identification method; Pattern-recognition. A sample mixture of proteins generates a distinctive composite pattern upon interaction with a sensing platform consisting of multiple surfaces whereby each surface consists of a distinct type of protein pre-adsorbed on the surface. The utility of the "pattern-recognition" sensing mechanism was then verified via recognition of a particular biomarker, C-reactive protein, in the cocktail sample mixture.
ContributorsChoi, Seokheun (Author) / Chae, Junseok (Thesis advisor) / Tao, Nongjian (Committee member) / Yu, Hongyu (Committee member) / Forzani, Erica (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
This dissertation describes a novel, low cost strategy of using particle streak (track) images for accurate micro-channel velocity field mapping. It is shown that 2-dimensional, 2-component fields can be efficiently obtained using the spatial variation of particle track lengths in micro-channels. The velocity field is a critical performance feature of

This dissertation describes a novel, low cost strategy of using particle streak (track) images for accurate micro-channel velocity field mapping. It is shown that 2-dimensional, 2-component fields can be efficiently obtained using the spatial variation of particle track lengths in micro-channels. The velocity field is a critical performance feature of many microfluidic devices. Since it is often the case that un-modeled micro-scale physics frustrates principled design methodologies, particle based velocity field estimation is an essential design and validation tool. Current technologies that achieve this goal use particle constellation correlation strategies and rely heavily on costly, high-speed imaging hardware. The proposed image/ video processing based method achieves comparable accuracy for fraction of the cost. In the context of micro-channel velocimetry, the usability of particle streaks has been poorly studied so far. Their use has remained restricted mostly to bulk flow measurements and occasional ad-hoc uses in microfluidics. A second look at the usability of particle streak lengths in this work reveals that they can be efficiently used, after approximately 15 years from their first use for micro-channel velocimetry. Particle tracks in steady, smooth microfluidic flows is mathematically modeled and a framework for using experimentally observed particle track lengths for local velocity field estimation is introduced here, followed by algorithm implementation and quantitative verification. Further, experimental considerations and image processing techniques that can facilitate the proposed methods are also discussed in this dissertation. Unavailability of benchmarked particle track image data motivated the implementation of a simulation framework with the capability to generate exposure time controlled particle track image sequence for velocity vector fields. This dissertation also describes this work and shows that arbitrary velocity fields designed in computational fluid dynamics software tools can be used to obtain such images. Apart from aiding gold-standard data generation, such images would find use for quick microfluidic flow field visualization and help improve device designs.
ContributorsMahanti, Prasun (Author) / Cochran, Douglas (Thesis advisor) / Taylor, Thomas (Thesis advisor) / Hayes, Mark (Committee member) / Zhang, Junshan (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011