Matching Items (13)

132135-Thumbnail Image.png

Creating Paramagnetically-Labeled PF4 Mutants to Evaluate Interactions with Mac-1 in NMR

Description

PF4 (CXCL4) is a cationic platelet chemokine that has been identified as a ligand for the integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2). The interaction between PF4 and Mac-1 has been shown to cause

PF4 (CXCL4) is a cationic platelet chemokine that has been identified as a ligand for the integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2). The interaction between PF4 and Mac-1 has been shown to cause leukocyte migration, improve phagocytosis, and trigger the up-regulation of Mac-1 expression in leukocytes, thereby increasing leukocytic adhesion. Though Mac-1 is known to serve as the site of interaction between PF4 and the leukocyte, the PF4 binding site of Mac-1 remains unknown. 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy of the interaction between PF4 and Mac-1’s binding site, the αMI domain, can provide this data. This project seeks to create PF4 mutants with site-directed spin labels to enhance the sensitivity of NMR for future experiments that seek to locate the PF4-Mac-1 binding site. It was hypothesized that the mutants created would adopt the native conformation and accept an MTSL label. Two mutants were successfully created and harvested, PF4 S17C and PF4 S26C. Both were soluble and the Sanger sequencing results show that primary structure was conserved except for the substitutions of structurally similar residues indicating the protein folds and likely adopts native conformation. PF4 S26C was labeled with MTSL, and 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy was performed on unlabeled PF4 S26C (at pH 3.40), MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C (at pH 3.15), and MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C exposed to ascorbic acid (at pH 3.15) to evaluate if the mutant accepts the label and, resultantly, experiences reduced signal intensity. Significant change in signal intensity occurred without change in location of the peaks between the unlabeled and labeled spectra, showing that PF4 S26C accepts the spin label without changing the protein structure and that the label works as expected; however, no change occurred after reducing the spin label with ascorbic acid, preventing confirmation that signal changes were exclusively caused by the MTSL-label. Therefore, though these mutants show potential for future titration with the αMI domain and the hypothesis is supported, a future attempt to reduce MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C at a higher pH (approximately pH 5) is required. Additionally, PF4 S17C should also be evaluated with the methodology used to assess PF4 S26C before its employment in future projects.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

135960-Thumbnail Image.png

Expression of Pleiotrophin as Separate Domains to Examine Glycosaminoglycan Binding Sites

Description

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding by the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) was examined by expressing both thrombospondin 1 type-1 repeat domains of PTN separately, as PTN-N and PTN-C. PTN-N contains residues 31-89, and

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding by the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) was examined by expressing both thrombospondin 1 type-1 repeat domains of PTN separately, as PTN-N and PTN-C. PTN-N contains residues 31-89, and PTN-C contains residues 90-146. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were conducted on both PTN-N and PTN-C to elucidate GAG binding regions. Titration with heparin dp6 showed a twofold increase in affinity when expressing PTN-N and PTN-C separately rather than as intact PTN. Paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancement experiments and surface paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) perturbation experiments were used to determine which residues were involved in GAG binding. One binding site was observed in PTN-N, around residue T82, and two binding sites were observed in PTN-C, one around residue K93 and the other around residue G142. These observed binding sites agree with the binding sites already proposed by the Wang lab group and other studies. Future work on the subject could be done on confirming that other varieties and length GAGs bind at the same sites, as well as examining the effect longer GAG fragments have on the affinity of intact PTN versus separate domains.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

137040-Thumbnail Image.png

A Hydrogen (1H) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Method for Amino Acid Analysis

Description

Amino acid analysis (AAA) of egg white lysozyme and bovine Achilles tendon collagen was performed using 1H solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The proteins were hydrolyzed in 6M HCL

Amino acid analysis (AAA) of egg white lysozyme and bovine Achilles tendon collagen was performed using 1H solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The proteins were hydrolyzed in 6M HCL with and without 0.02% phenol at 110\u00B0C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For both proteins, 18 of 20 amino acids were characterized including hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine in collagen, using 1-dimensional (1D) and 2-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments. Errors ranging from <1% to 8% were seen in treatments with and without phenol. Both proteins could be correctly identified within their own species using the online database search AACompIdent. The proposed approach is a simple analytical technique that does not require the use of column separation or amino acid derivatization prior to compositional analysis.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

136532-Thumbnail Image.png

Maximizing Yield and Modification of 13C/15N Labeled Heparosan From E. coli K5 Culture

Description

Understanding glycosaminoglycans’ (GAG) interaction with proteins is of growing interest for therapeutic applications. For instance, heparin is a GAG exploited for its ability to inhibit proteases, therefore inducing anticoagulation. For

Understanding glycosaminoglycans’ (GAG) interaction with proteins is of growing interest for therapeutic applications. For instance, heparin is a GAG exploited for its ability to inhibit proteases, therefore inducing anticoagulation. For this reason, heparin is extracted in mass quantities from porcine intestine in the pharmaceutical field. Following a contamination in 2008, alternative sources for heparin are desired. In response, much research has been invested in the extraction of the naturally occurring polysaccharide, heparosan, from Escherichia coli K5 strain. As heparosan contains the same structural backbone as heparin, modifications can be made to produce heparin or heparin-like molecules from this source. Furthermore, isotopically labeled batches of heparosan can be produced to aid in protein-GAG interaction studies. In this study, a comparative look between extraction and purification methods of heparosan was taken. Fed-batch fermentation of this E. coli strain followed by subsequent purification yielded a final 13C/15N labeled batch of 90mg/L of heparosan which was then N-sulfated. Furthermore, a labeled sulfated disaccharide from this batch was utilized in a protein interaction study with CCL5. With NMR analysis, it was found that this heparin-like molecule interacted with CCL5 when its glucosamine residue was in a β-conformation. This represents an interaction reliant on a specific anomericity of this GAG molecule.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

137123-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterization of a Lipid Coating on the Surface of Silk Produced by the Embiid Antipaluria urichi

Description

Insects of the order Embiidina spin sheets of very thin silk fibers from their forelimbs to build silken shelters on bark and in leaf litter in tropical climates. Their shelters

Insects of the order Embiidina spin sheets of very thin silk fibers from their forelimbs to build silken shelters on bark and in leaf litter in tropical climates. Their shelters are very stiff and hydrophobic to keep out predators and rain. In this study, the existence of an outer lipid coating on silk produced by the embiid Antipaluria urichi is shown using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR, and water drop contact angle analysis. Subsequently, the composition of the lipid layer is then characterized by 1H NMR and GC-MS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

Optimizing Microwave Hydrolysis for 1H NMR Amino Acid Analysis of Protein Biopolymers

Description

Microwave hydrolysis of egg-white lysozyme was optimized using 1H liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments for amino acid analysis (AAA). Time held under microwave hydrolysis was arrayed for 2,

Microwave hydrolysis of egg-white lysozyme was optimized using 1H liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments for amino acid analysis (AAA). Time held under microwave hydrolysis was arrayed for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 15 minutes. Correlations from gCOSY 2D NMR experiments combined with 1H assignments in the one-dimensional chemical shift spectra identified 18 of the 20 amino acids found in lysozyme. Comparison with Uniprot database amino acid composition values revealed the optimal microwave hydrolysis time lies between 4 and 6 minutes. Identification of lysozyme was confirmed with the ExPASy online database search tool AACompIdent. The microwave hydrolysis procedure presented is a simple analytical technique allowing quick and reliable sample preparation in less than one hour that requires no separation or derivation of amino acids residues prior to detection.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

150763-Thumbnail Image.png

Structural and functional interrogation of single amino acid residues in fluorescent proteins

Description

Acquisition of fluorescence via autocatalytic processes is unique to few proteins in the natural world. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been integral to live-cell imaging techniques for decades; however, mechanistic information

Acquisition of fluorescence via autocatalytic processes is unique to few proteins in the natural world. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been integral to live-cell imaging techniques for decades; however, mechanistic information is still emerging fifty years after the discovery of the original green fluorescent protein (GFP). Modification of the fluorescence properties of the proteins derived from GFP allows increased complexity of experiments and consequently, information content of the data acquired. The importance of arginine-96 in GFP has been widely discussed. It has been established as vital to the kinetics of chromophore maturation and to the overall fold of GFP before post-translational self-modification. Its value during chromophore maturation has been demonstrated by mutational studies and a hypothesis proposed for its catalytic function. A strategy is described herein to determine its pKa value via NMR to determine whether Arg96 possesses the chemical capacity to function as a general base during GFP chromophore biosynthesis. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques commonly employ Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Proteins (ECFPs) and their derivatives as donor fluorophores useful in real-time, live-cell imaging. These proteins have a tryptophan-derived chromophore that emits light in the blue region of the visible spectrum. Most ECFPs suffer from fluorescence instability, which, coupled with their low quantum yield, makes data analysis unreliable. The structural heterogeneity of these proteins also results in undesirable photophysical characteristics. Recently, mCerulean3, a ten amino acid mutant of ECFP, was introduced as an optimized FRET-donor protein (1). The amino acids changed include a mobile residue, Asp148, which has been mutated to a glycine in the new construct, and Thr65 near the chromophore has been mutated to a serine, the wild-type residue at this location. I have solved the x-ray crystal structure of mCerulean3 at low pH and find that the pH-dependent isomerization has been eliminated. The chromophore is in the trans-conformation previously observed in Cerulean at pH 8. The mutations that increase the quantum yield and improve fluorescence brightness result in a stable, bright donor fluorophore well-suited for use in quantitative microscopic imaging.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

154119-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterizing nanomaterials and protic ionic liquids utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Description

Structural details of phosphonic acid functionalized nanomaterials and protic ionic liquids (PILs) were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is well known that ligands play a critical

Structural details of phosphonic acid functionalized nanomaterials and protic ionic liquids (PILs) were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is well known that ligands play a critical role in the synthesis and properties of nanomaterials. Therefore, elucidating the details of ligand-surface and ligand-ligand interactions is crucial to understanding nanomaterial systems more completely.

In an effort to further the understanding of ligand-surface interactions, a combination of multi-nuclear (1H, 29Si, 31P) and multi-dimensional solid-state NMR techniques were utilized to characterize the phosphonic acid functionalization of fumed silica nanoparticles using methyl phosphonic acid (MPA) and phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA). Quantitative 31P MAS solid-state NMR measurements indicate that ligands favor a monodentate binding mode. Furthermore, 1H-1H single quantum-double quantum (SQ-DQ) back-to-back (BABA) 2D NMR spectra of silica functionalized with MPA and PPA indicate that the MPA and PPA are within 4.2±0.2 Å on the surface of the nanomaterial.

The ligand capping of phosphonic acid (PA) functionalized CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) was investigated with a combination of ligand exchange, solution and solid-state 31P NMR spectroscopy. In order to quantify the ligand populations on the surface of the QDs, ligand exchange facilitated by PPA resulted in the displacement of the PAs, and allowed for quantification of the free ligands using 31P liquid state NMR.

In addition to characterizing nanomaterials, the ionicity and transport properties of a series of diethylmethylamine (DEMA) based protic ionic liquids (PILs) were characterized, principally utilizing NMR. Gas phase proton affinity was shown to be a better predictor for the extent of proton transfer, and in turn the ionicity of the PIL, than using ∆pKa. Furthermore, pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR was used to determine that the exchangeable proton diffuses with the cation or the anion based on the strength of the acid used to generate the PILs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

152998-Thumbnail Image.png

Determining the molecular structure of animal silks and related peptide mimics

Description

An animal's ability to produce protein-based silk materials has evolved independently in many different arthropod lineages, satisfying various ecological necessities. However, regardless of their wide range of uses and their

An animal's ability to produce protein-based silk materials has evolved independently in many different arthropod lineages, satisfying various ecological necessities. However, regardless of their wide range of uses and their potential industrial and biomedical applications, advanced knowledge on the molecular structure of silk biopolymers is largely limited to those produced by spiders (order Araneae) and silkworms (order Lepidoptera). This thesis provides an in-depth molecular-level characterization of silk fibers produced by two vastly different insects: the caddisfly larvae (order Trichoptera) and the webspinner (order Embioptera).

The molecular structure of caddisfly larval silk from the species Hesperophylax consimilis was characterized using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ss-NMR) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) techniques. This insect, which typically dwells in freshwater riverbeds and streams, uses silk fibers as a strong and sticky nanoadhesive material to construct cocoons and cases out available debris. Conformation-sensitive 13C chemical shifts and 31P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) information strongly support a unique protein motif in which phosphorylated serine- rich repeats (pSX)4 complex with di- and trivalent cations to form rigid nanocrystalline β-sheets. Additionally, it is illustrated through 31P NMR and WAXD data that these nanocrystalline structures can be reversibly formed, and depend entirely on the presence of the stabilizing cations.

Nanofiber silks produced by webspinners (order Embioptera) were also studied herein. This work addresses discrepancies in the literature regarding fiber diameters and tensile properties, revealing that the nanofibers are about 100 nm in diameter, and are stronger (around 500 MPa mean ultimate stress) than previous works suggested. Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), NMR and WAXD results find that approximately 70% of the highly repetitive glycine- and serine-rich protein core is composed of β-sheet nanocrystalline structures. In addition, FT-IR and Gas-chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) data revealed a hydrophobic surface coating rich in long-chain lipids. The effect of this surface coating was studied with contact angle techniques; it is shown that the silk sheets are extremely hydrophobic, yet due to the microstructural and nanostructural details of the silk surface, are surprisingly adhesive to water.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

155216-Thumbnail Image.png

Multiscale engineering response of alkali activated aluminosilicate binders

Description

Sustainable materials and methods have achieved a pivotal role in the research plethora of the new age due to global warming. Cement production is responsible in contributing to 5% of

Sustainable materials and methods have achieved a pivotal role in the research plethora of the new age due to global warming. Cement production is responsible in contributing to 5% of global CO2 emissions. Complete replacement of cement by alkaline activation of aluminosilicate waste materials such as slag and fly ash is a major advancement towards reducing the adverse impacts of cement production. Comprehensive research has been done, to understand the optimized composition and hydration products. The focus of this dissertation is to understand the multiscale behavior ranging from early age properties, fundamental material structure, fracture and crack resistance properties, durability responses and alternative activation methods to existing process.

The utilization of these materials has relied primarily on the dual benefits of reduced presence in landfills and cost. These have also proven to yield a higher service life as opposed to conventional ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete due to an enhanced microstructure. The use of such materials however has not been readily acceptable due to detrimental early age behavior. The influence of design factors is studied to understand the reaction mechanism. Silicon polymerization at the molecular level is studied to understand the aluminosilicate interactions which are responsible for prevention of any leaching of ions. A comparative study between fly ash and slag binders is carried out to evaluate the stable states of sodium, aluminum and silicon in both these binders, since the likelihood of the sodium ions leaching out is high.

Compressive and flexural strength have been reported in previous literature, but the impact of crack resistance was unevaluated from an approach of characterizing the fracture process zone. Alternative routes of activation are explored with an intent to reduce the high alkalinity by use of neutral salts such as sodium sulfate. High volume OPC replacement by both class C and F fly ash is performed to evaluate the differences in hydration phase formation responsible for its pore refinement and strength. Spectroscopic studies have also allowed to study the fundamental material structure. Durability studies are also performed on these samples to understand the probability external sulfate attacks as opposed to OPC mixes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016