Matching Items (4)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

136252-Thumbnail Image.png

Targeting Traumatic Brain Injury: Using Phage Display to Create a Specific Antibody for Neurocan Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Recognition

Description

This project aims to address the current protocol regarding the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in medical industries around the world. Although there are various methods used to qualitatively determine if TBI has occurred to a patient,

This project aims to address the current protocol regarding the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in medical industries around the world. Although there are various methods used to qualitatively determine if TBI has occurred to a patient, this study attempts to aid in the creation of a system for quantitative measurement of TBI and its relative magnitude. Through a method of artificial evolution/selection called phage display, an antibody that binds highly specifically to a post-TBI upregulated brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan called neurocan has been identified. As TG1 Escheria Coli bacteria were infected with KM13 helper phage and M13 filamentous phage in conjunction, monovalent display of antibody fragments (ScFv) was performed. The ScFv bind directly to the neurocan and from screening, phage that produced ScFv's with higher affinity and specificity to neurocan were separated and purified. Future research aims to improve the ScFv characteristics through increased screening toward neurocan. The identification of a highly specific antibody could lead to improved targeting of neurocan post-TBI in-vivo, aiding researchers in quantitatively defining TBI by visualizing its magnitude.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-05

133633-Thumbnail Image.png

Construction and Characterization of Recombinant anti-PD-L1 Single Chain Antibodies

Description

Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is an overexpressed protein on many tumor cell types. PD-L1 is involved in normal immune regulation, playing an important role in self-tolerance and controlling autoimmunity. However, ligation of PD-L1 to PD-1 on activated T cells

Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is an overexpressed protein on many tumor cell types. PD-L1 is involved in normal immune regulation, playing an important role in self-tolerance and controlling autoimmunity. However, ligation of PD-L1 to PD-1 on activated T cells leads to tumor-mediated T cell suppression. Inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has emerged as an effective target for anti-tumor immunotherapies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor-associated antigens such as PD-L1 have proven to be effective checkpoint blockades, improving therapeutic outcomes for cancer patients and receiving FDA approval as first line therapies for some cancers. A single chain variable fragment (scFv) is composed of the variable heavy and light chain regions of a mAb, connected by a flexible linker. We hypothesized that scFv proteins based on the published anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody sequences of atezolizumab and avelumab would bind to cell surface PD-L1. Four single chain variable fragments (scFvs) were constructed based on the sequences of these mAbs. PCR was used to assemble, construct, and amplify DNA fragments encoding the scFvs which were subsequently ligated into a eukaryotic expression vector. Mammalian cells were transfected with the scFv and scFv-IgG plasmids. The scFvs were tested for binding to PD-L1 on tumor cell lysates by western blot and to whole tumor cells by staining and flow cytometry analysis. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the scFv constructs were successfully amplified and cloned into the expression vectors and recombinant scFvs were produced. The binding capabilities of the scFvs constucts to PD-L1 protein were confirmed by western blot and flow cytometry analysis. This lead to the idea of constructing a CAR T cell engineered to target PD-L1, providing a possible adoptive T cell immunotherapy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

137783-Thumbnail Image.png

Detection of antibodies to HPV16-associated oropharyngeal cancer using custom bead arrays

Description

Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the world's sixth most common cancer and in many cases is associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 viral antigens are potential diagnostic biomarkers of HPV-associated OPC (HPV OPC). A

Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the world's sixth most common cancer and in many cases is associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 viral antigens are potential diagnostic biomarkers of HPV-associated OPC (HPV OPC). A custom multiplexed bead array assay was used to detect Abs to HPV16 antigens E1, CE2, NE2, E4, E5, E6, E7, L1, and L2. Following extensive optimization of the assay, these genes were expressed as GST-fusion proteins and captured onto anti-GST magnetic beads. Serum was obtained from 256 OPC patients at the time of diagnosis and from 78 healthy controls. The median fluorescent intensity (MFI) was determined for each antigen and ratios of MFI to control GST-fusion protein were determined for each serum sample. Cutoff values were set as the mean + 3 SD of the MFIs of healthy controls and p-values were calculated using Wilcoxon unpaired and Fisher's exact test. Results of this experiment showed that HPV16 E1, CE2, NE2, E4, E6, and E7 Ab levels were elevated in OPC patients compared to controls (p<0.001), as were Ab levels to L1 (p = 0.013) and L2 (p = 0.023), per Fischer's exact test. Abs to CE2, NE2, E6, and E7 were identified as a potential biomarker panel for early detection of HPV OPC. For the 111 patients with known HPV+ tumors as measured by tumor PCR of E6 and/or E7, this assay had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 87% (AUC = 0.96). From these results, we conclude that custom bead array assays can be used to detect HPV16 Abs in patient sera, and we have identified a 4-Ab biomarker panel for the early detection of HPV OPC.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-05

154884-Thumbnail Image.png

Rapid point-of-care testing for measles immunity

Description

Measles is a contagious, vaccine-preventable disease that continues to be the leading

cause of death in children younger than the age of 5 years. While the introduction of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR) has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality

Measles is a contagious, vaccine-preventable disease that continues to be the leading

cause of death in children younger than the age of 5 years. While the introduction of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR) has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, vaccine coverage is highly variable across global regions. Current diagnostic methods rely on enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to detect IgM or IgG Abs in serum. Commercially available Diamedix Immunosimplicity® Measles IgG test kit has been shown to have 91.1% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity, with a positive predictive value of 88.7% and a negative predictive value of 90.9% on the basis of a PRN titer of 120. There is an increasing need for rapid screening for measles specific immunity in outbreak settings. This study aims to develop a rapid molecular diagnostic assay to detect IgG reactive to three individual measles virus (MeV) proteins.

Measles virus (MeV) genes were subcloned into the pJFT7_nGST vector to generate N- terminal GST fusion proteins. Single MeV cistrons were expressed using in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) with human cell lysate. Expression of GST-tagged proteins was measured with mouse anti-GST mAb and sheep anti-mouse IgG. Relative light units (RLUs) as luminescence was measured. Antibodies to MeV antigens were measured in 40 serum samples from healthy subjects.

Protein expression of three MeV genes of interest was measured in comparison with vector control and statistical significance was determined using the Student’s t-test (p<0.05). N expressed at the highest level with an average RLU value of 3.01 x 109 (p<0.001) and all proteins were expressed at least 50% greater than vector control (4.56 x 106 RLU). 36/40 serum samples had IgG to N (Ag:GST ratio>1.21), F (Ag:GST ratio>1.92), or H (Ag:GST ratio> 1.23).

These data indicate that the in vitro expression of MeV antigens, N, F, and H, were markedly improved by subcloning into pJFT7_nGST vector to generate N-terminal GST fusion proteins. The expression of single MeV genes N, F and H, are suitable antigens for serologic capture analysis of measles-specific antibodies. These preliminary data can be used to design a more intensive study to explore the possibilities of using these MeV antigens as a diagnostic marker.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016