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Optimizing Dialysis Conditions for A4 Stability

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The research objective is to maintain the A4 nanobody stability during dialysis. Various dialysis buffers were tested and compared, including PBS with varying amounts of the detergent, Tween: low, high, none. Furthermore, PBS, Tris, and HEPES, were tested and compared.

The research objective is to maintain the A4 nanobody stability during dialysis. Various dialysis buffers were tested and compared, including PBS with varying amounts of the detergent, Tween: low, high, none. Furthermore, PBS, Tris, and HEPES, were tested and compared. PBS without Tween was the worst for preserving A4 stability. PBS was determined to be a better dialysis buffer than Tris or HEPES. To find the optimum buffer, other buffers will be tested and compared with PBS; methods such as gravity filtration and lyophilization will be considered as alternatives to dialysis.

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2015-05

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Targeting Traumatic Brain Injury: Using Phage Display to Create a Specific Antibody for Neurocan Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Recognition

Description

This project aims to address the current protocol regarding the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in medical industries around the world. Although there are various methods used to qualitatively determine if TBI has occurred to a patient,

This project aims to address the current protocol regarding the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in medical industries around the world. Although there are various methods used to qualitatively determine if TBI has occurred to a patient, this study attempts to aid in the creation of a system for quantitative measurement of TBI and its relative magnitude. Through a method of artificial evolution/selection called phage display, an antibody that binds highly specifically to a post-TBI upregulated brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan called neurocan has been identified. As TG1 Escheria Coli bacteria were infected with KM13 helper phage and M13 filamentous phage in conjunction, monovalent display of antibody fragments (ScFv) was performed. The ScFv bind directly to the neurocan and from screening, phage that produced ScFv's with higher affinity and specificity to neurocan were separated and purified. Future research aims to improve the ScFv characteristics through increased screening toward neurocan. The identification of a highly specific antibody could lead to improved targeting of neurocan post-TBI in-vivo, aiding researchers in quantitatively defining TBI by visualizing its magnitude.

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2015-05

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Immunosignature of Alzheimer's disease

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The goal of this thesis is to test whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with distinctive humoral immune changes that can be detected in plasma and tracked across time. This is relevant because AD is the principal cause of dementia,

The goal of this thesis is to test whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with distinctive humoral immune changes that can be detected in plasma and tracked across time. This is relevant because AD is the principal cause of dementia, and yet, no specific diagnostic tests are universally employed in clinical practice to predict, diagnose or monitor disease progression. In particular, I describe herein a proteomic platform developed at the Center for Innovations in Medicine (CIM) consisting of a slide with 10.000 random-sequence peptides printed on its surface, which is used as the solid phase of an immunoassay where antibodies of interest are allowed to react and subsequently detected with a labeled secondary antibody. The pattern of antibody binding to the microarray is unique for each individual animal or person. This thesis will evaluate the versatility of the microarray platform and how it can be used to detect and characterize the binding patterns of antibodies relevant to the pathophysiology of AD as well as the plasma samples of animal models of AD and elderly humans with or without dementia. My specific aims were to evaluate the emergence and stability of immunosignature in mice with cerebral amyloidosis, and characterize the immunosignature of humans with AD. Plasma samples from APPswe/PSEN1-dE9 transgenic mice were evaluated longitudinally from 2 to 15 months of age to compare the evolving immunosignature with non-transgenic control mice. Immunological variation across different time-points was assessed, with particular emphasis on time of emergence of a characteristic pattern. In addition, plasma samples from AD patients and age-matched individuals without dementia were assayed on the peptide microarray and binding patterns were compared. It is hoped that these experiments will be the basis for a larger study of the diagnostic merits of the microarray-based immunoassay in dementia clinics.

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Date Created
2011

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Characterization of Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins for Neurodegenerative Disease Diagnostics

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The following paper discusses the potential for Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPin) use as a diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The two structures investigated for AD and PD were ADC7 and

The following paper discusses the potential for Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPin) use as a diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The two structures investigated for AD and PD were ADC7 and PDC1. Plasmid transformation was performed in order to grow the DARPin in E. coli for simple expression. Following growth and purification the proteins were validated using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, BCA and indirect sandwich ELISA using transgenic mouse brain tissue. Targeted functionality of the DARPin structure was utilized during characterization methods to ensure the efficacy of the protein as a diagnostic for the respective disease targets. Both the ADC7 and PDC1 demonstrated improved binding with transgenic mice compared to wild type with a maximum 1.8 and 1.7 relative ratio, respectively. Additionally, both of the proteins demonstrated exclusive binding to their disease target and did not provide false positive results.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Targeting astrogliosis: isolation and characterization of astrocyte specific single chain antibody fragments

Description

Specificity and affinity towards a given ligand/epitope limit target-specific delivery. Companies can spend between $500 million to $2 billion attempting to discover a new drug or therapy; a significant portion of this expense funds high-throughput screening to find the most

Specificity and affinity towards a given ligand/epitope limit target-specific delivery. Companies can spend between $500 million to $2 billion attempting to discover a new drug or therapy; a significant portion of this expense funds high-throughput screening to find the most successful target-specific compound available. A more recent addition to discovering highly specific targets is the application of phage display utilizing single chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv). The aim of this research was to employ phage display to identify pathologies related to traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly astrogliosis. A unique biopanning method against viable astrocyte cultures activated with TGF-β achieved this aim. Four scFv clones of interest showed varying relative affinities toward astrocytes. One of those four showed the ability to identify reactive astroctyes over basal astrocytes through max signal readings, while another showed a statistical significance in max signal reading toward basal astrocytes. Future studies will include further affinity characterization assays. This work contributes to the development of targeting therapeutics and diagnostics for TBI.

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Date Created
2013