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Changes in Glycemia and Serum Lipids Following a 4-Month mHealth Walking Intervention

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Walking interventions focused on increasing step counts are typically associated with salutary effects on glycemia, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and blood lipids which may be in turn associated with improvements

Walking interventions focused on increasing step counts are typically associated with salutary effects on glycemia, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and blood lipids which may be in turn associated with improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake – VO2peak) and vascular stiffness. We hypothesized that a novel 4-month, behavioral economics-based walking intervention would have favorable effects on glucose homeostasis and blood lipids and that these in turn would be related to VO2peak and vascular stiffness (carotid femoral pulse wave velocity – cfPWV).

We carried out secondary analyses on a subsample of sedentary, overweight/obese adults who participated in a 4-month, 2x2, randomized-controlled walking intervention examining the effects of goal setting (static v. adaptive goals) and rewards (immediate v. delayed) on steps/day (N=96). Fasting blood samples (n=58) were collected from participants before and after the intervention. Premenopausal females were in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. Lipid and glucose levels were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer, while insulin was measured using radio-immunoassay. Homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using the following formula (HOMA-IR=glucose x insulin / 405). We examined associations [partial correlations (adjusted for age)] between changes in blood biomarkers and VO2peak and cfPWV, irrespective of group, and we used linear mixed models to examine between-group differences in levels of and change in biomarker outcomes.

Groups did not differ in overall levels of, or degree of change in, biomarker outcomes (all p>0.05). Mean changes, irrespective of group, in biomarkers were as follows: glucose Δ= 0.74± 4.5mg/dl; insulin Δ= 0.09 ± 4.1 µU/ml; total cholesterol Δ= 0.24 ± 20.6 mg/dl; HDL-C Δ= 0.27 ± 5.1 mg/dl; LDL-C Δ= 1.3 ± 19.9 mg/dl; triglycerides Δ= 1.7 ± 27.2 mg/dl; HOMA-IR Δ = -.0548 ± 1.05). We found no significant associations between change in biomarker levels and change in VO2peak or change in cfPWV (all correlation coefficients < 0.15; p > 0.05).

A 4-month, behavioral economics-based mHealth intervention focused on increasing steps/day did not bring about favorable changes on markers of glycemia, insulin resistance and blood lipids.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Systematic Review of the Impact of Genistein on Diabetes Related Outcomes

Description

As the 7th leading cause of death in the world, with over 1.6 millions deaths attributed to it in 2016 alone, diabetes mellitus has been a rising global health concern.

As the 7th leading cause of death in the world, with over 1.6 millions deaths attributed to it in 2016 alone, diabetes mellitus has been a rising global health concern. Type 1 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin production whereas type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance. Both types of diabetes lead to increased glucose levels in the body if left untreated. This, in turn, leads to the development of a host of complications, one of which is ischemic heart disease. Accounting for the death of 16% of the world’s population, ischemic heart disease has been the leading cause of death since 2000. As of 2019, deaths from this disease have risen from 2 million to over 8.9 million globally. While medicine exists to counter the negative outcomes of diabetes mellitus, lower income nations suffer from the lack of availability and high costs of these medications. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to determine whether a non-medicinal treatment could provide similar therapeutic benefits for individuals with diabetes. Genistein is a phytoestrogen found in soy-based products, which has been potentially linked with preventing diabetes and improving diabetes-related symptoms such as hyperglycemia and abnormal insulin levels. We searched PubMed and SCOPUS using the terms ‘genistein’, ‘diabetes’, and ‘glucose’ and identified 32 peer-reviewed articles. In general, preclinical studies demonstrate that genistein decreases body weight as well as circulating glucose and triglycerides concentrations while increasing insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. It also delayed the onset of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, clinical studies of genistein in general reported no significant relationship between genistein and body mass, circulating glucose, serum insulin, A1C concentrations, or onset of type 1 diabetes. However, genistein was found to improve insulin sensitivity, delay type 2 diabetes onset and improve serum triglyceride levels. In summary, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that genistein may help delay onset of type 2 diabetes and improve several symptoms associated with the disease. By translating these findings into clinical settings, genistein may offer a cost effective natural approach at mitigating complications associated with diabetes, although additional research is required to confirm these findings.

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Date Created
  • 2021-04-16