Matching Items (7)

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Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners in Arizona's Mainstream Math and Science Classes: The Teachers' Perspectives

Description

This study aims to understand how Arizona's current approach to ESL education \u2014 a recently developed version of Structured English Immersion (SEI) known as the four-hour ELD block \u2014 affects

This study aims to understand how Arizona's current approach to ESL education \u2014 a recently developed version of Structured English Immersion (SEI) known as the four-hour ELD block \u2014 affects high school teachers and students in mainstream math and science classes containing a mixed population of English Language Learners (ELLs) and native English-speaking students. This focus was chosen due to a lack of prior research on the ELD block's effects at the high school level, and the unique consequences of the ELD block for the timing of ELL students' math and science enrollment. Four teachers of mixed-population, mainstream math and science classes, from four different high schools within a single Arizona district, were interviewed and observed in order to understand their perspectives on their own experiences and those of their students. Areas of focus included students' academic and social experiences, challenges faced by teachers and their responses to these challenges, and teachers' evaluations of their teaching situation and of the ELD block itself. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction. The study found that teachers believe the following: that the ELD block causes ELLs to be socially isolated; that it damages ELLs' content development; and that, by forcing some ELLs to take mainstream math and science classes before they have received any ESL instruction, it damages their ability to succeed in these classes. Additionally, teachers indicated that they struggled to meet the needs of their ELL students and non-ELL students at once. Given these findings, the removal of the ELD block, and the addition of bilingual, ESL specialist aides into mainstream classes, is recommended as a solution.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Perceptions of English Language Education by Taiwanese International Students

Description

While English language education has become increasingly prominent worldwide, countries have adopted various initiatives to increase English language development. One country making a push for English language development is Taiwan;

While English language education has become increasingly prominent worldwide, countries have adopted various initiatives to increase English language development. One country making a push for English language development is Taiwan; however, current educational practices and values can prove to be challenges in implementing new methods. For example, although Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) methods gained popularity starting in the 1990s, they have been slow to take hold in Taiwan. Additionally, Taiwan’s Ministry of Education is pushing for bilingualism by the year 2030, introducing curricular reforms and new strategies to increase the prominence of English on a social level. In order to analyze current educational methods and practices in Taiwan, as well as predict the efficacy of new strategies, this study focused on gathering the perspectives and experiences of the students themselves. International students were specifically targeted, as they have had exposure to multiple educational environments, as well as firsthand experience applying their English language knowledge in an immersive environment. To gather student perspective, an online survey was made available to Taiwanese international students currently studying in a U.S. university. Respondents were asked multiple-choice questions on curricular focus, as well as short answer questions regarding their educational experiences. Overall, the respondents showed an agreement in regards to the heavy emphasis of reading, writing, and grammar in Taiwan, which they correlated directly with high-stakes exams, particularly the university entrance exam. They also noted the lack of speaking and listening practice, as well as a strong desire to apply English in a communicative sense. These observations hold significant implications for various stakeholders, including teachers, principals, curriculum developers, exam designers, and university admissions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

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SystemC TLM2.0 modeling of network-on-chip architecture

Description

Network-on-Chip (NoC) architectures have emerged as the solution to the on-chip communication challenges of multi-core embedded processor architectures. Design space exploration and performance evaluation of a NoC design requires fast

Network-on-Chip (NoC) architectures have emerged as the solution to the on-chip communication challenges of multi-core embedded processor architectures. Design space exploration and performance evaluation of a NoC design requires fast simulation infrastructure. Simulation of register transfer level model of NoC is too slow for any meaningful design space exploration. One of the solutions to reduce the speed of simulation is to increase the level of abstraction. SystemC TLM2.0 provides the capability to model hardware design at higher levels of abstraction with trade-off of simulation speed and accuracy. In this thesis, SystemC TLM2.0 models of NoC routers are developed at three levels of abstraction namely loosely-timed, approximately-timed, and cycle accurate. Simulation speed and accuracy of these three models are evaluated by a case study of a 4x4 mesh NoC.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The motivations and challenges of acquiring U.S. citizenship for South Sudanese refugees in the greater Phoenix area when language is a potential barrier

Description

South Sudanese refugees are among the most vulnerable immigrants to the U.S.. Many have spent years in refugee camps, experienced trauma, lost members of their families and have had minimal

South Sudanese refugees are among the most vulnerable immigrants to the U.S.. Many have spent years in refugee camps, experienced trauma, lost members of their families and have had minimal or no schooling or literacy prior to their arrival in the U.S. Although most South Sudanese aspire to become U.S. citizens, finally giving them a sense of belonging and participation in a land they can call their own, they constitute a group that faces great challenges in terms of their educational adaptation and English-language learning skills that would lead them to success on the U.S. citizenship examination. This dissertation reports findings from a qualitative research project involving case studies of South Sudanese students in a citizenship preparation program at a South Sudanese refugee community center in Phoenix, Arizona. It focuses on the links between the motivations of students seeking citizenship and the barriers they face in gaining it. Though the South Sudanese refugee students aspiring to become U.S. citizens face many of the same challenges as other immigrant groups, there are some factors that in combination make the participants in this study different from other groups. These include: long periods spent in refugee camps, advanced ages, war trauma, absence of intact families, no schooling or severe disruption from schooling, no first language literacy, and hybridized forms of second languages (e.g. Juba Arabic). This study reports on the motivations students have for seeking citizenship and the challenges they face in attaining it from the perspective of teachers working with those students, community leaders of the South Sudanese community, and particularly the students enrolled in the citizenship program.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

Student AIMS performance in a predominately Hispanic district

Description

ABSTRACT School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure

ABSTRACT School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). Expectations were established for all students, varying by group of students based on grade, special education status, free/reduced lunch status, and English Language Learner (ELL) status. AIMS performance for subgroups has been scrutinized, due to the high stakes for schools and districts to meet expectations. This study is interested in the performance of ELL students, when compared with non-ELL students. The current study investigated AIMS performance of students in grades three through six from a large Arizona school district with predominantly low SES, Hispanic students. Approximately 90% of the students from this district were classified as ELL during their first year in the district. AIMS scores in Math and Reading were compared for ELL and non-ELL students across the years 2008, 2009, and 2010. Results suggest that there are differences in performance for ELL and non-ELL students, with ELL students scoring lower in both Math and Reading than non-ELL students. Additionally, ELL and non-ELL students showed similar performance across time in Math, with an increasing number of students Meeting or Exceeding the standards from year 2008 to 2009 for both ELL and non-ELL students. Student performance in Math for ELL and non-ELL students did not continue to improve from 2009 to 2010. On Reading performance, greater proportions of students scored as Meets or Exceeds across time for ELL students but not for non-ELL students. Non-ELL students scored at Meets or Exceeds at equal proportions across time, although non-ELL students scored at Meets or Exceeds in higher proportions than ELL students for all three years. Results suggest the need for continued research into the appropriateness of the AIMS for ELL students and more detailed comparisons of ELL and non-ELL students within and across districts with high proportions of ELL students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A sociocultural approach to the study of L2 writing

Description

Using a sociocultural framework, this dissertation investigated the writing processes of 31 ESL learners in an EAP context at a large North American university. The qualitative case study involved one

Using a sociocultural framework, this dissertation investigated the writing processes of 31 ESL learners in an EAP context at a large North American university. The qualitative case study involved one of the four major writing assignments in a required first-year composition course for ESL students. Data were collected from four different sources: (a) A semi-structured interview with each participant, (b) process logs kept by participants for the entire duration of the writing assignment, (c) classroom observation notes, and (d) class materials. Findings that emerged through analyses of activity systems, an analytical framework within Vygotskian activity theory, indicate that L2 writers used various context-specific, social, and cultural affordances to accomplish the writing tasks. The study arrived at these findings by creating taxonomies of the six activity system elements - subject, tools, goals, division of labor, community, and rules - as they were realized by L2 writers, and examining the influence that these elements had in the process of composing. The analysis of data helped create categories of each of the six activity system elements. To illustrate with an example, the categories that emerged within the element division of labor were as follows: (a) Instructor, (b) friends and classmates, (c) writing center tutors, (d) family members, and (e) people in the world. The emergent categories for each of the six activity system elements were then examined to determine if their effects on L2 writing were positive or negative. Overall, the findings of the present study validate arguments related to the post-process views that an explanation of L2 writing processes solely based on cognitive perspectives provides but only a partial picture of how second language writing takes place. In order for a more comprehensive understanding of L2 writing one must also account for the various social and cultural factors that play critical roles in the production of L2 texts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A local community addresses the linguistic needs of refugees

Description

Through interviews and observations, this thesis provides an overview of refugee resettlement and explores the way one community is providing English language instruction to recently resettled refugees. It also describes

Through interviews and observations, this thesis provides an overview of refugee resettlement and explores the way one community is providing English language instruction to recently resettled refugees. It also describes the research process of this thesis so other researchers will be aware of the challenges such research contexts provide. In the southwestern state studied here, one of the refugee resettlement agencies holds the contract to provide English Language instruction to refugees. Other agencies provide supplemental English instruction and tutoring. The U.S. federal statute Immigration and Nationality Act, title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 400--Refugee Resettlement Program, and the local contract between the state and the agency were examined to understand the laws, regulations, and contracted agreement governing the provision of English language instruction for refugees being resettled in the United States. English language faculty and staff, staff at refugee resettlement agencies, and a state official were interviewed to understand their goals and the challenges they face as they address the language needs of refugees. English language instruction classes were observed to note the consistencies as well as some discrepancies between interviews and what could actually be accomplished in the classroom. As the classes are unable to provide intensive language instruction, most students struggle with becoming proficient in English. A list of recommendations is included regarding ways the local community can better address linguistic needs of refugees. Yet as Fass (1985) argues, it is unknown whether changing refugee resettlement efforts will actually produce different results. Though there are problems, the way the linguistic needs are being addressed in this community is sufficient given the numerous other expectations put on the refugees and the refugee resettlement agencies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010