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Edge Detection from Spectral Phase Data

Description

The detection and characterization of transients in signals is important in many wide-ranging applications from computer vision to audio processing. Edge detection on images is typically realized using small, local, discrete convolution kernels, but this is not possible when samples

The detection and characterization of transients in signals is important in many wide-ranging applications from computer vision to audio processing. Edge detection on images is typically realized using small, local, discrete convolution kernels, but this is not possible when samples are measured directly in the frequency domain. The concentration factor edge detection method was therefore developed to realize an edge detector directly from spectral data. This thesis explores the possibilities of detecting edges from the phase of the spectral data, that is, without the magnitude of the sampled spectral data. Prior work has demonstrated that the spectral phase contains particularly important information about underlying features in a signal. Furthermore, the concentration factor method yields some insight into the detection of edges in spectral phase data. An iterative design approach was taken to realize an edge detector using only the spectral phase data, also allowing for the design of an edge detector when phase data are intermittent or corrupted. Problem formulations showing the power of the design approach are given throughout. A post-processing scheme relying on the difference of multiple edge approximations yields a strong edge detector which is shown to be resilient under noisy, intermittent phase data. Lastly, a thresholding technique is applied to give an explicit enhanced edge detector ready to be used. Examples throughout are demonstrate both on signals and images.

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2016-05

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Directional information flow and applications

Description

In the late 1960s, Granger published a seminal study on causality in time series, using linear interdependencies and information transfer. Recent developments in the field of information theory have introduced new methods to investigate the transfer of information in dynamical

In the late 1960s, Granger published a seminal study on causality in time series, using linear interdependencies and information transfer. Recent developments in the field of information theory have introduced new methods to investigate the transfer of information in dynamical systems. Using concepts from Chaos and Markov theory, much of these methods have evolved to capture non-linear relations and information flow between coupled dynamical systems with applications to fields like biomedical signal processing. This thesis deals with the application of information theory to non-linear multivariate time series and develops measures of information flow to identify significant drivers and response (driven) components in networks of coupled sub-systems with variable coupling in strength and direction (uni- or bi-directional) for each connection. Transfer Entropy (TE) is used to quantify pairwise directional information. Four TE-based measures of information flow are proposed, namely TE Outflow (TEO), TE Inflow (TEI), TE Net flow (TEN), and Average TE flow (ATE). First, the reliability of the information flow measures on models, with and without noise, is evaluated. The driver and response sub-systems in these models are identified. Second, these measures are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) data from two patients with focal epilepsy. The analysis showed dominant directions of information flow between brain sites and identified the epileptogenic focus as the system component typically with the highest value for the proposed measures (for example, ATE). Statistical tests between pre-seizure (preictal) and post-seizure (postictal) information flow also showed a breakage of the driving of the brain by the focus after seizure onset. The above findings shed light on the function of the epileptogenic focus and understanding of ictogenesis. It is expected that they will contribute to the diagnosis of epilepsy, for example by accurate identification of the epileptogenic focus from interictal periods, as well as the development of better seizure detection, prediction and control methods, for example by isolating pathologic areas of excessive information flow through electrical stimulation.

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2011

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Undergraduate signal processing laboratories on the Android platform

Description

The field of education has been immensely benefited by major breakthroughs in technology. The arrival of computers and the internet made student-teacher interaction from different parts of the world viable, increasing the reach of the educator to hitherto remote corners

The field of education has been immensely benefited by major breakthroughs in technology. The arrival of computers and the internet made student-teacher interaction from different parts of the world viable, increasing the reach of the educator to hitherto remote corners of the world. The arrival of mobile phones in the recent past has the potential to provide the next paradigm shift in the way education is conducted. It combines the universal reach and powerful visualization capabilities of the computer with intimacy and portability. Engineering education is a field which can exploit the benefits of mobile devices to enhance learning and spread essential technical know-how to different parts of the world. In this thesis, I present AJDSP, an Android application evolved from JDSP, providing an intuitive and a easy to use environment for signal processing education. AJDSP is a graphical programming laboratory for digital signal processing developed for the Android platform. It is designed to provide utility; both as a supplement to traditional classroom learning and as a tool for self-learning. The architecture of AJDSP is based on the Model-View-Controller paradigm optimized for the Android platform. The extensive set of function modules cover a wide range of basic signal processing areas such as convolution, fast Fourier transform, z transform and filter design. The simple and intuitive user interface inspired from iJDSP is designed to facilitate ease of navigation and to provide the user with an intimate learning environment. Rich visualizations necessary to understand mathematically intensive signal processing algorithms have been incorporated into the software. Interactive demonstrations boosting student understanding of concepts like convolution and the relation between different signal domains have also been developed. A set of detailed assessments to evaluate the application has been conducted for graduate and senior-level undergraduate students.

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Date Created
2013

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Multiple detection and tracking in complex time-varying environments

Description

This work considers the problem of multiple detection and tracking in two complex time-varying environments, urban terrain and underwater. Tracking multiple radar targets in urban environments is rst investigated by exploiting multipath signal returns, wideband underwater acoustic (UWA) communications channels

This work considers the problem of multiple detection and tracking in two complex time-varying environments, urban terrain and underwater. Tracking multiple radar targets in urban environments is rst investigated by exploiting multipath signal returns, wideband underwater acoustic (UWA) communications channels are estimated using adaptive learning methods, and multiple UWA communications users are detected by designing the transmit signal to match the environment. For the urban environment, a multi-target tracking algorithm is proposed that integrates multipath-to-measurement association and the probability hypothesis density method implemented using particle filtering. The algorithm is designed to track an unknown time-varying number of targets by extracting information from multiple measurements due to multipath returns in the urban terrain. The path likelihood probability is calculated by considering associations between measurements and multipath returns, and an adaptive clustering algorithm is used to estimate the number of target and their corresponding parameters. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated for different multiple target scenarios and evaluated using the optimal subpattern assignment metric. The underwater environment provides a very challenging communication channel due to its highly time-varying nature, resulting in large distortions due to multipath and Doppler-scaling, and frequency-dependent path loss. A model-based wideband UWA channel estimation algorithm is first proposed to estimate the channel support and the wideband spreading function coefficients. A nonlinear frequency modulated signaling scheme is proposed that is matched to the wideband characteristics of the underwater environment. Constraints on the signal parameters are derived to optimally reduce multiple access interference and the UWA channel effects. The signaling scheme is compared to a code division multiple access (CDMA) scheme to demonstrate its improved bit error rate performance. The overall multi-user communication system performance is finally analyzed by first estimating the UWA channel and then designing the signaling scheme for multiple communications users.

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Date Created
2014

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Biology-based matched signal processing and physics-based modeling for improved detection

Description

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used to identify antigen antibody binding patterns or immunosignatures. In this

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used to identify antigen antibody binding patterns or immunosignatures. In this thesis, an advanced signal processing method is proposed to estimate epitope antigen subsequences as well as identify mimotope antigen subsequences that mimic the structure of epitopes from random-sequence peptide microarrays. The method first maps peptide sequences to linear expansions of highly-localized one-dimensional (1-D) time-varying signals and uses a time-frequency processing technique to detect recurring patterns in subsequences. This technique is matched to the aforementioned mapping scheme, and it allows for an inherent analysis on how substitutions in the subsequences can affect antibody binding strength. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by estimating epitopes and identifying potential mimotopes for eight monoclonal antibody samples.

The proposed mapping is generalized to express information on a protein's sequence location, structure and function onto a highly localized three-dimensional (3-D) Gaussian waveform. In particular, as analysis of protein homology has shown that incorporating different kinds of information into an alignment process can yield more robust alignment results, a pairwise protein structure alignment method is proposed based on a joint similarity measure of multiple mapped protein attributes. The 3-D mapping allocates protein properties into distinct regions in the time-frequency plane in order to simplify the alignment process by including all relevant information into a single, highly customizable waveform. Simulations demonstrate the improved performance of the joint alignment approach to infer relationships between proteins, and they provide information on mutations that cause changes to both the sequence and structure of a protein.

In addition to the biology-based signal processing methods, a statistical method is considered that uses a physics-based model to improve processing performance. In particular, an externally developed physics-based model for sea clutter is examined when detecting a low radar cross-section target in heavy sea clutter. This novel model includes a process that generates random dynamic sea clutter based on the governing physics of water gravity and capillary waves and a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics simulation process based on Maxwell's equations propagating the radar signal. A subspace clutter suppression detector is applied to remove dominant clutter eigenmodes, and its improved performance over matched filtering is demonstrated using simulations.

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Date Created
2014

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Distributed Reception in the Presence of Gaussian Interference

Description

An analysis is presented of a network of distributed receivers encumbered by strong in-band interference. The structure of information present across such receivers and how they might collaborate to recover a signal of interest is studied. Unstructured (random coding) and

An analysis is presented of a network of distributed receivers encumbered by strong in-band interference. The structure of information present across such receivers and how they might collaborate to recover a signal of interest is studied. Unstructured (random coding) and structured (lattice coding) strategies are studied towards this purpose for a certain adaptable system model. Asymptotic performances of these strategies and algorithms to compute them are developed. A jointly-compressed lattice code with proper configuration performs best of all strategies investigated.

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Date Created
2019

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The design of a matrix completion signal recovery method for array processing

Description

For a sensor array, part of its elements may fail to work due to hardware failures. Then the missing data may distort in the beam pattern or decrease the accuracy of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. Therefore, considerable research has been conducted

For a sensor array, part of its elements may fail to work due to hardware failures. Then the missing data may distort in the beam pattern or decrease the accuracy of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. Therefore, considerable research has been conducted to develop algorithms that can estimate the missing signal information. On the other hand, through those algorithms, array elements can also be selectively turned off while the missed information can be successfully recovered, which will save power consumption and hardware cost.

Conventional approaches focusing on array element failures are mainly based on interpolation or sequential learning algorithm. Both of them rely heavily on some prior knowledge such as the information of the failures or a training dataset without missing data. In addition, since most of the existing approaches are developed for DOA estimation, their recovery target is usually the co-variance matrix but not the signal matrix.

In this thesis, a new signal recovery method based on matrix completion (MC) theory is introduced. It aims to directly refill the absent entries in the signal matrix without any prior knowledge. We proposed a novel overlapping reshaping method to satisfy the applying conditions of MC algorithms. Compared to other existing MC based approaches, our proposed method can provide us higher probability of successful recovery. The thesis describes the principle of the algorithms and analyzes the performance of this method. A few application examples with simulation results are also provided.

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Date Created
2016