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Edge Detection from Spectral Phase Data

Description

The detection and characterization of transients in signals is important in many wide-ranging applications from computer vision to audio processing. Edge detection on images is typically realized using small, local, discrete convolution kernels, but this is not possible when samples

The detection and characterization of transients in signals is important in many wide-ranging applications from computer vision to audio processing. Edge detection on images is typically realized using small, local, discrete convolution kernels, but this is not possible when samples are measured directly in the frequency domain. The concentration factor edge detection method was therefore developed to realize an edge detector directly from spectral data. This thesis explores the possibilities of detecting edges from the phase of the spectral data, that is, without the magnitude of the sampled spectral data. Prior work has demonstrated that the spectral phase contains particularly important information about underlying features in a signal. Furthermore, the concentration factor method yields some insight into the detection of edges in spectral phase data. An iterative design approach was taken to realize an edge detector using only the spectral phase data, also allowing for the design of an edge detector when phase data are intermittent or corrupted. Problem formulations showing the power of the design approach are given throughout. A post-processing scheme relying on the difference of multiple edge approximations yields a strong edge detector which is shown to be resilient under noisy, intermittent phase data. Lastly, a thresholding technique is applied to give an explicit enhanced edge detector ready to be used. Examples throughout are demonstrate both on signals and images.

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2016-05

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DESIGN OF SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME SYSTEM FOR MAPPING AUDIO TO HAPTICS FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANT USERS

Description

In the field of electronic music, haptic feedback is a crucial feature of digital musical instruments (DMIs) because it gives the musician a more immersive experience. This feedback might come in the form of a wearable haptic device that vibrates

In the field of electronic music, haptic feedback is a crucial feature of digital musical instruments (DMIs) because it gives the musician a more immersive experience. This feedback might come in the form of a wearable haptic device that vibrates in response to music. Such advancements in the electronic music field are applicable to the field of speech and hearing. More specifically, wearable haptic feedback devices can enhance the musical listening experience for people who use cochlear implant (CI) devices.
This Honors Thesis is a continuation of Prof. Lauren Hayes’s and Dr. Xin Luo’s research initiative, Haptic Electronic Audio Research into Musical Experience (HEAR-ME), which investigates how to enhance the musical listening experience for CI users using a wearable haptic system. The goals of this Honors Thesis are to adapt Prof. Hayes’s system code from the Max visual programming language into the C++ object-oriented programming language and to study the results of the developed C++ codes. This adaptation allows the system to operate in real-time and independently of a computer.
Towards these goals, two signal processing algorithms were developed and programmed in C++. The first algorithm is a thresholding method, which outputs a pulse of a predefined width when the input signal falls below some threshold in amplitude. The second algorithm is a root-mean-square (RMS) method, which outputs a pulse-width modulation signal with a fixed period and with a duty cycle dependent on the RMS of the input signal. The thresholding method was found to work best with speech, and the RMS method was found to work best with music. Future work entails the design of adaptive signal processing algorithms to allow the system to work more effectively on speech in a noisy environment and to emphasize a variety of elements in music.

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2019-12

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Statistical signal processing for graphs

Description

Analysis of social networks has the potential to provide insights into wide range of applications. As datasets continue to grow, a key challenge is the lack of a widely applicable algorithmic framework for detection of statistically anomalous networks and network

Analysis of social networks has the potential to provide insights into wide range of applications. As datasets continue to grow, a key challenge is the lack of a widely applicable algorithmic framework for detection of statistically anomalous networks and network properties. Unlike traditional signal processing, where models of truth or empirical verification and background data exist and are often well defined, these features are commonly lacking in social and other networks. Here, a novel algorithmic framework for statistical signal processing for graphs is presented. The framework is based on the analysis of spectral properties of the residuals matrix. The framework is applied to the detection of innovation patterns in publication networks, leveraging well-studied empirical knowledge from the history of science. Both the framework itself and the application constitute novel contributions, while advancing algorithmic and mathematical techniques for graph-based data and understanding of the patterns of emergence of novel scientific research. Results indicate the efficacy of the approach and highlight a number of fruitful future directions.

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2015

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Target tracking in environments of rapidly changing clutter

Description

Tracking targets in the presence of clutter is inevitable, and presents many challenges. Additionally, rapid, drastic changes in clutter density between different environments or scenarios can make it even more difficult for tracking algorithms to adapt. A novel approach to

Tracking targets in the presence of clutter is inevitable, and presents many challenges. Additionally, rapid, drastic changes in clutter density between different environments or scenarios can make it even more difficult for tracking algorithms to adapt. A novel approach to target tracking in such dynamic clutter environments is proposed using a particle filter (PF) integrated with Interacting Multiple Models (IMMs) to compensate and adapt to the transition between different clutter densities. This model was implemented for the case of a monostatic sensor tracking a single target moving with constant velocity along a two-dimensional trajectory, which crossed between regions of drastically different clutter densities. Multiple combinations of clutter density transitions were considered, using up to three different clutter densities. It was shown that the integrated IMM PF algorithm outperforms traditional approaches such as the PF in terms of tracking results and performance. The minimal additional computational expense of including the IMM more than warrants the benefits of having it supplement and amplify the advantages of the PF.

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2015

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Adaptive learning of neural activity during deep brain stimulation

Description

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition diagnosed on patients with

clinical history and motor signs of tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia, and the estimated

number of patients living with Parkinson's disease around the world is seven

to ten million. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition diagnosed on patients with

clinical history and motor signs of tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia, and the estimated

number of patients living with Parkinson's disease around the world is seven

to ten million. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides substantial relief of the motor

signs of Parkinson's disease patients. It is an advanced surgical technique that is used

when drug therapy is no longer sufficient for Parkinson's disease patients. DBS alleviates the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease by targeting the subthalamic nucleus using high-frequency electrical stimulation.

This work proposes a behavior recognition model for patients with Parkinson's

disease. In particular, an adaptive learning method is proposed to classify behavioral

tasks of Parkinson's disease patients using local field potential and electrocorticography

signals that are collected during DBS implantation surgeries. Unique patterns

exhibited between these signals in a matched feature space would lead to distinction

between motor and language behavioral tasks. Unique features are first extracted

from deep brain signals in the time-frequency space using the matching pursuit decomposition

algorithm. The Dirichlet process Gaussian mixture model uses the extracted

features to cluster the different behavioral signal patterns, without training or

any prior information. The performance of the method is then compared with other

machine learning methods and the advantages of each method is discussed under

different conditions.

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Date Created
2015

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Multiple detection and tracking in complex time-varying environments

Description

This work considers the problem of multiple detection and tracking in two complex time-varying environments, urban terrain and underwater. Tracking multiple radar targets in urban environments is rst investigated by exploiting multipath signal returns, wideband underwater acoustic (UWA) communications channels

This work considers the problem of multiple detection and tracking in two complex time-varying environments, urban terrain and underwater. Tracking multiple radar targets in urban environments is rst investigated by exploiting multipath signal returns, wideband underwater acoustic (UWA) communications channels are estimated using adaptive learning methods, and multiple UWA communications users are detected by designing the transmit signal to match the environment. For the urban environment, a multi-target tracking algorithm is proposed that integrates multipath-to-measurement association and the probability hypothesis density method implemented using particle filtering. The algorithm is designed to track an unknown time-varying number of targets by extracting information from multiple measurements due to multipath returns in the urban terrain. The path likelihood probability is calculated by considering associations between measurements and multipath returns, and an adaptive clustering algorithm is used to estimate the number of target and their corresponding parameters. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated for different multiple target scenarios and evaluated using the optimal subpattern assignment metric. The underwater environment provides a very challenging communication channel due to its highly time-varying nature, resulting in large distortions due to multipath and Doppler-scaling, and frequency-dependent path loss. A model-based wideband UWA channel estimation algorithm is first proposed to estimate the channel support and the wideband spreading function coefficients. A nonlinear frequency modulated signaling scheme is proposed that is matched to the wideband characteristics of the underwater environment. Constraints on the signal parameters are derived to optimally reduce multiple access interference and the UWA channel effects. The signaling scheme is compared to a code division multiple access (CDMA) scheme to demonstrate its improved bit error rate performance. The overall multi-user communication system performance is finally analyzed by first estimating the UWA channel and then designing the signaling scheme for multiple communications users.

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Date Created
2014

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Biology-based matched signal processing and physics-based modeling for improved detection

Description

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used to identify antigen antibody binding patterns or immunosignatures. In this

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used to identify antigen antibody binding patterns or immunosignatures. In this thesis, an advanced signal processing method is proposed to estimate epitope antigen subsequences as well as identify mimotope antigen subsequences that mimic the structure of epitopes from random-sequence peptide microarrays. The method first maps peptide sequences to linear expansions of highly-localized one-dimensional (1-D) time-varying signals and uses a time-frequency processing technique to detect recurring patterns in subsequences. This technique is matched to the aforementioned mapping scheme, and it allows for an inherent analysis on how substitutions in the subsequences can affect antibody binding strength. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by estimating epitopes and identifying potential mimotopes for eight monoclonal antibody samples.

The proposed mapping is generalized to express information on a protein's sequence location, structure and function onto a highly localized three-dimensional (3-D) Gaussian waveform. In particular, as analysis of protein homology has shown that incorporating different kinds of information into an alignment process can yield more robust alignment results, a pairwise protein structure alignment method is proposed based on a joint similarity measure of multiple mapped protein attributes. The 3-D mapping allocates protein properties into distinct regions in the time-frequency plane in order to simplify the alignment process by including all relevant information into a single, highly customizable waveform. Simulations demonstrate the improved performance of the joint alignment approach to infer relationships between proteins, and they provide information on mutations that cause changes to both the sequence and structure of a protein.

In addition to the biology-based signal processing methods, a statistical method is considered that uses a physics-based model to improve processing performance. In particular, an externally developed physics-based model for sea clutter is examined when detecting a low radar cross-section target in heavy sea clutter. This novel model includes a process that generates random dynamic sea clutter based on the governing physics of water gravity and capillary waves and a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics simulation process based on Maxwell's equations propagating the radar signal. A subspace clutter suppression detector is applied to remove dominant clutter eigenmodes, and its improved performance over matched filtering is demonstrated using simulations.

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Date Created
2014

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Transmit waveform design for coexisting radar and communications systems

Description

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in sharing available bandwidth to avoid spectrum congestion. With an ever-increasing number wireless users, it is critical to develop signal processing based spectrum sharing algorithms to achieve cooperative use of

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in sharing available bandwidth to avoid spectrum congestion. With an ever-increasing number wireless users, it is critical to develop signal processing based spectrum sharing algorithms to achieve cooperative use of the allocated spectrum among multiple systems in order to reduce interference between systems. This work studies the radar and communications systems coexistence problem using two main approaches. The first approach develops methodologies to increase radar target tracking performance under low signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) conditions due to the coexistence of strong communications interference. The second approach jointly optimizes the performance of both systems by co-designing a common transmit waveform.

When concentrating on improving radar tracking performance, a pulsed radar that is tracking a single target coexisting with high powered communications interference is considered. Although the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) on the covariance of an unbiased estimator of deterministic parameters provides a bound on the estimation mean squared error (MSE), there exists an SINR threshold at which estimator covariance rapidly deviates from the CRLB. After demonstrating that different radar waveforms experience different estimation SINR thresholds using the Barankin bound (BB), a new radar waveform design method is proposed based on predicting the waveform-dependent BB SINR threshold under low SINR operating conditions.

A novel method of predicting the SINR threshold value for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is proposed. A relationship is shown to exist between the formulation of the BB kernel and the probability of selecting sidelobes for the MLE. This relationship is demonstrated as an accurate means of threshold prediction for the radar target parameter estimation of frequency, time-delay and angle-of-arrival.

For the co-design radar and communications system problem, the use of a common transmit waveform for a pulse-Doppler radar and a multiuser communications system is proposed. The signaling scheme for each system is selected from a class of waveforms with nonlinear phase function by optimizing the waveform parameters to minimize interference between the two systems and interference among communications users. Using multi-objective optimization, a trade-off in system performance is demonstrated when selecting waveforms that minimize both system interference and tracking MSE.

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Date Created
2016

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Algorithm and Hardware Design for High Volume Rate 3-D Medical Ultrasound Imaging

Description

Ultrasound B-mode imaging is an increasingly significant medical imaging modality for clinical applications. Compared to other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging has the advantage of being safe, inexpensive, and portable. While two

Ultrasound B-mode imaging is an increasingly significant medical imaging modality for clinical applications. Compared to other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging has the advantage of being safe, inexpensive, and portable. While two dimensional (2-D) ultrasound imaging is very popular, three dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging provides distinct advantages over its 2-D counterpart by providing volumetric imaging, which leads to more accurate analysis of tumor and cysts. However, the amount of received data at the front-end of 3-D system is extremely large, making it impractical for power-constrained portable systems.

In this thesis, algorithm and hardware design techniques to support a hand-held 3-D ultrasound imaging system are proposed. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is chosen since its computations can be split into two stages, where the output generated of Stage 1 is significantly smaller in size compared to the input. This characteristic enables Stage 1 to be done in the front end while Stage 2 can be sent out to be processed elsewhere.

The contributions of this thesis are as follows. First, 2-D SASB is extended to 3-D. Techniques to increase the volume rate of 3-D SASB through a new multi-line firing scheme and use of linear chirp as the excitation waveform, are presented. A new sparse array design that not only reduces the number of active transducers but also avoids the imaging degradation caused by grating lobes, is proposed. A combination of these techniques increases the volume rate of 3-D SASB by 4\texttimes{} without introducing extra computations at the front end.

Next, algorithmic techniques to further reduce the Stage 1 computations in the front end are presented. These include reducing the number of distinct apodization coefficients and operating with narrow-bit-width fixed-point data. A 3-D die stacked architecture is designed for the front end. This highly parallel architecture enables the signals received by 961 active transducers to be digitalized, routed by a network-on-chip, and processed in parallel. The processed data are accumulated through a bus-based structure. This architecture is synthesized using TSMC 28 nm technology node and the estimated power consumption of the front end is less than 2 W.

Finally, the Stage 2 computations are mapped onto a reconfigurable multi-core architecture, TRANSFORMER, which supports different types of on-chip memory banks and run-time reconfigurable connections between general processing elements and memory banks. The matched filtering step and the beamforming step in Stage 2 are mapped onto TRANSFORMER with different memory configurations. Gem5 simulations show that the private cache mode generates shorter execution time and higher computation efficiency compared to other cache modes. The overall execution time for Stage 2 is 14.73 ms. The average power consumption and the average Giga-operations-per-second/Watt in 14 nm technology node are 0.14 W and 103.84, respectively.

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Date Created
2019