Matching Items (27)

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Prison Rape and Psychological Sequelae: A Call for Research

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Prison rape is a pervasive and serious problem affecting many male inmates in U.S. prisons. This paper reviews the literature on prison rape prevalence, victimization risk factors, and the psychological

Prison rape is a pervasive and serious problem affecting many male inmates in U.S. prisons. This paper reviews the literature on prison rape prevalence, victimization risk factors, and the psychological and non-psychological sequelae of prison rape. We address several areas of inquiry needed to guide research and facilitate solutions to the problem of prison rape, especially given the context and intent of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) passed in 2003 by the U.S. Congress. Mental health correlates remain to be studied; for example, the complex post-rape symptoms of prison rape survivors do not appear to be captured by current diagnostic nomenclature. To date, psychology has been largely silent on the issue of prison rape but may have much to offer in terms of describing and treating the psychological impact of victimization, documenting the personal and situational risk and protective factors associated with prison rape, and in designing programs and policy to reduce prison rape.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material and its Correlation to Sexual Offending

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The primary purpose of this project is to study the correlation between exposure to sexually-explicit materials and sexual offending. A thorough literature review has been conducted. The analyses include the

The primary purpose of this project is to study the correlation between exposure to sexually-explicit materials and sexual offending. A thorough literature review has been conducted. The analyses include the definitions and history of sexual deviancy and paraphilia, a review of existing research that examines the complex relationship between said materials and criminal behavior, methods individuals use to access sexually-explicit materials, and case studies of individuals whose behavior is relevant to the purposes of this study. There does not appear to be a causal relationship between these two factors. However, there is an intricate, interrelated dynamic between the two that is worth examining more thoroughly. Further research should study the timeline in which sexual offenders first consumed sexually-explicit material, as well as the genesis of their sexually-deviant behaviors. This may lead to a clearer comprehension of their psychosexual criminality. Further understanding will hopefully lead to improved policies proposed by law makers, refined prevention/intervention strategies by law enforcement, and more effective rehabilitative methods for offenders.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Sexual Assault on College Campuses: An Analysis of Prevention Methods

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The purpose of this thesis is to examine the background of sexual assault on college campuses and identify prevention methods utilized by both Arizona State University and other colleges in

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the background of sexual assault on college campuses and identify prevention methods utilized by both Arizona State University and other colleges in the United States. An analysis of these prevention methods have led to the formulation of three core components in the solution to the sexual assault epidemic on college campuses. Recommendations for ASU to combat a culture of sexual violence are provided based on this research along with rationale as to why they are the best methods to focus on.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Respect Movement: An Evaluation of a Student-Driven Sexual Assault Intervention at Arizona State University

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Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of a student-driven sexual assault intervention at Arizona State University. The first aim is to develop a

Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of a student-driven sexual assault intervention at Arizona State University. The first aim is to develop a theoretical framework of the organization and its relation to the Integrated Behavioral Health model. The second aim analyze change in attitudes and beliefs about sexual violence and bystander behaviors as well as barriers and facilitators of change including perceived control and self-efficacy for students involved in the Respect Movement. The final aim is to analyze how this change transmits through the broader social network of students involved in the Respect Movement.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Effectiveness of ASU Wellness' Sexual Violence Prevention Initiatives

Description

Sexual violence is a serious issue, particularly on college campuses, and many sexual assaults among college students involve alcohol consumption. Universities have begun implementing sexual violence prevention programs on their

Sexual violence is a serious issue, particularly on college campuses, and many sexual assaults among college students involve alcohol consumption. Universities have begun implementing sexual violence prevention programs on their campuses, but many do not examine their programs to determine if they are actually effective in increasing students' knowledge on consent and therefore reducing rates of sexual violence on their campuses. This study examines a sexual violence prevention program at Arizona State University called Consent 101, given by the ASU Wellness Department. This research seeks to determine if attending the presentation increases students' knowledge about the conditions of consent; specifically, if students are more likely to correctly answer a question regarding sobriety and consent after viewing the presentation. The hypothesis is that attending the Consent 101 presentation increases the likelihood that students will perceive that people must be sober in order to consent to sexual activities. A survey was used to test students' knowledge about consent and sexual violence, as well as their attitudes. Some students took the survey prior to attending the presentation while others took it after, allowing the groups to be compared to determine effectiveness. This study specifically focuses on whether students correctly choose true, incorrectly choose false, or choose don't know when given the statement "people must be sober in order to give valid consent to sex". There were 685 participants in the study. The "before" group contained 59% of the total participants, while the "after" group contained 41%. In the before group, 87.1% correctly answered true, 6.43% incorrectly answered false, and 6.18% answered don't know. In the after group, 85.71% answered true, 12.09% answered false, and 2.13% answered don't know. The results were significant and the hypothesis was not supported, meaning students were more likely to incorrectly answer the question after the presentation than before. There are multiple explanations for why this was found, including: different pre- and post-groups, misinterpreting the question and resistance to consent education. Ideas for future research and ways to increase effectiveness are provided.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Exploring Sexual Violence Victimization at Arizona State University

Description

For my honors thesis project in Barrett, the Honors College, I conducted an online college survey that measured student attitudes and perceptions with regard to gender, sexual assault, and domestic

For my honors thesis project in Barrett, the Honors College, I conducted an online college survey that measured student attitudes and perceptions with regard to gender, sexual assault, and domestic violence. In doing so, I also asked students situational questions about their experiences with sexual violence. The research question for the project centered around hidden victims who have been affected by gender-based violence but have yet to report the incident to law enforcement or university officials, despite a number of prominent educational and prevention campaigns on campus and in mainstream media. At the conclusion of the Spring 2016 semester, I received 683 responses from current students at Arizona State University. For the majority of situational questions, 20-30% of individuals answered "yes" to experiencing incidents of sexual violence, many of which focused on if someone had used alcohol/drugs, threats, or physical force to obtain sexual intercourse. For the survey, 11% of women said yes to the question, "have you ever been raped?" Additionally, a significant number of students hesitate to report incidents to law enforcement or university officials because: (1) they were ashamed or embarrassed, (2) wanted to forget it happened, and (3) believed it was a private matter that they wanted to deal with on their own. With this information, university administrators can develop a better understanding of the ASU campus culture as it relates to sexual violence. Additionally, organizational and institutional efforts can be organized and designed to meet the specific needs of our student body with the goal of ultimately reducing the number of sexual assaults that take place.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Charlotte: A Face of Rape Statistics

Description

The purpose of this research is to examine rape and sexual assault as discussed in the literature including by not limited to the evolution of definitions pertaining to rape and

The purpose of this research is to examine rape and sexual assault as discussed in the literature including by not limited to the evolution of definitions pertaining to rape and sexual assault; the role of law-enforcement in re-victimization of victims through aggressive questioning tactics; the perpetuation of victim-blame as a consequence of internal guilt and external sources; and to extrapolate conditions surrounding the occurrence of rape and sexual assault. The methodology for this research is as follows: a literature review which was accomplished by searching for research and literature pertaining to sexual assault \u2014 particularly research pertaining to involvement of law-enforcement in sexual assault and rape cases, victim-blame, both internal and external, and attempting to uncover a universally accepted definition for rape; a testimonial: n=1 case study, written in the form of a narrative; and, an analysis synthesizing the literature review and testimonial. This analysis seeks to answer "what aspects of the literature does the testimonial support and which does it dispute?"; "what conditions of rape and sexual assault does it suggest, that may have yet to be identified or fully discussed and understood?" Furthermore, it strives to discuss the benefits of including a victim story, in its entirety, as told by the victim without any editing or censoring done by the researcher. The concluded findings for this research suggest that literature and research pertaining to sexual assault is quite vast, however the topics being researched are the same year after year. There is little headway being made to understand the conditions surrounding rape and sexual assault, characteristics of the victim and the perpetrator, and making efforts to move away from false perceptions of what must happen during rape for a victim to be classified a victim. Moreover, the findings conclude that there are few first-hand narratives of sexual assault and rape experiences. Researchers include snippets of a victim's words, but only those words that corroborate the findings the researcher is hoping to prove and solidify. By including the victim's story in its entirety, we are allowing for further exploration and understanding of why rape and sexual continue to frequently occur.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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What's in a name? A person not a number

Description

What's in a name? A person not a number is a multimedia eBook that will explore how the media treats coverage of sexual assault victims and challenges the traditional no-naming

What's in a name? A person not a number is a multimedia eBook that will explore how the media treats coverage of sexual assault victims and challenges the traditional no-naming policy instilled in almost every professional newsroom. Historical context to no-naming policies, opinions from critics of the no-naming policy and legal information will be provided. This book serves to encourage journalists and editors to consider identifying victims after long, thoughtful discussions, to educate media consumers on the topic, to eradicate the societal stigma of rape, and to reflect the views of survivors so that they may feel more willing to share their stories. Identifying sexual assault victims conforms to the journalistic imperative to tell the truth as fully as possible and to inform the public as completely as possible. When the information is part of the public record and there are no legal limitations on its use, identifying sexual assault victims will have a positive impact in educating the public and eradicating the stigma associated with being the victim of sexual assault. This book proposes that through educated, thoughtful and truthful stories about sexual assault can spark careful conversations and help turn around the stigma our society has placed on victims. The full eBook, complete with photos, videos and other audio components, is available at https://alejandraarmstrong.atavist.com/whats-in-a-name-a-person-not-a-n….

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Institutional Accountability, Media Coverage and Military Sexual Assault: A Case-Based Analysis

Description

As the U.S. reckons with the reality of sexual assault and harassment in the wake of the #MeToo movement, it is particularly important to consider sexual assault in the military,

As the U.S. reckons with the reality of sexual assault and harassment in the wake of the #MeToo movement, it is particularly important to consider sexual assault in the military, an institution that is a massive employer and the face of the U.S. abroad. Media coverage is a catalyst for change, and the nature and scope of coverage is indicative of public and political attitudes. This thesis uses both quantitative and qualitative data to analyze characteristics of military sexual assault cases that complicate media coverage and to identify strengths and weaknesses of the media's approach to such stories. On the quantitative side, it takes advantage of nearly 600 case reports of sexual assault from U.S. military bases in Japan that were categorized to identify themes such as disposition outcomes, alcohol involvement and victim participation in investigations. Qualitatively, this thesis includes interviews with military officials, victims' advocates, journalists and other stakeholders that help to create a more holistic understanding of how media cover military sexual assault. Notably, this thesis finds that a lack of public interest in the military, a lack of congruency between military and civilian systems, and a highly complex hierarchy that limits journalists' access to military sources and data all complicate coverage. Drawing from these conclusions, it recommends that the media avoid episodic reporting, focus on personalizing stories in an institutional context, embrace accountability journalism and dedicate resources to pursuing complex investigations. It also acknowledges the important role of non-traditional media in the future of information sharing on the topic of military sexual assault.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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From Report to Prosecution: A Comprehensive Approach to Sexual Assault Response in Arizona

Description

Every minute and a half, an American is sexually assaulted (Department of Justice, 2017). After an instance of sexual assault, some victims are given the choice of having a

Every minute and a half, an American is sexually assaulted (Department of Justice, 2017). After an instance of sexual assault, some victims are given the choice of having a sexual assault evidence kit (SAK) collected. These kits are designed to collect DNA evidence that will, in the best case scenario, result in the identification of the perpetrator. If the perpetrator cannot be located, the DNA profile can still be submitted to the FBI’s CODIS databank, which houses hundreds of thousands of DNA profiles from criminal cases, and may still lead to apprehension of the rapist. Unfortunately, some SAKs experience long delays, decades even, before being tested. To date, there are hundreds of thousands of untested SAKs that remain in police custody awaiting to be submitted for forensic profiling across the country. Here, we completed a holistic investigation of sexual assault response and SAK processing in Arizona. It is important to notice that the focus of our study not only includes SAK processing and the backlog but sexual assault prevention and improving victim reporting in an effort to understand the SAK “pipeline,” from assault to prosecution.
We identified problems in three major categories that negatively impact the SAK pipeline: historical inertia, legislative and institutional limitations, and community awareness. We found that a large number of SAKs in Arizona have remained untested due insufficient funding and staffing for public crime labs making it difficult for state labs to alleviate the SAK backlog while simultaneously responding to incoming cases (“Why the Backlog Exists,” n.d.). However, surveys of ASU undergraduate students revealed a significant interest in campus assault and the SAK backlog. Based on our findings, we suggest harnessing the interest of undergraduate students and recruiting them to specialized SAK-oriented forensic technician and sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) training at ASU with the goal of creating a workforce that will alleviate the absence of trained professionals within the country. We also explore the possibility of the creation of a private crime laboratory at ASU devoted the processing of SAKs in Arizona as a measure of alleviating the demand on local public laboratories and providing a more economic alternative to commercial laboratories. The creation of an SAK laboratory at ASU would provide undergraduates the opportunity to learn more about real forensic analysis on campus, provide a pipeline for students to become technicians themselves, and help reduce and prevent a future SAK backlog in Arizona.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05