Matching Items (9)

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Guidelines for Conducting PTC User Observations and Evaluations Recommendation Report

Description

The purpose of this applied project was to research potential methods for conducting performance and evaluation observations on users of Positive Train Control (PTC) and recommend the most effective measures

The purpose of this applied project was to research potential methods for conducting performance and evaluation observations on users of Positive Train Control (PTC) and recommend the most effective measures of performance (MOPs) and measures of efficiency (MOEs) of those users. I conducted a study to collect and analyze what data could be observed and examined most effectively to produce causal explanations of behaviors when utilizing the PTC system. This study was done through literature review, interviews of PTC users and trainers, and through direct observations as I rode on trains watching crews interact with the system. Additionally, I researched several studies on human computer interface (HCI) usability studies of various software applications. Based upon the results, I recommend that direct-participant observations be employed and apply both the system and individual MOPs and MOEs identified in the report to track user’s proficiency. The data collected from these observations can be centralized and used to identify behavioral trends, drive corrective actions, create future policies as well as training content. These observations will address the need to have structured observations which allow observers to focus undistracted on the specific behaviors that affect train operations. This database would also identify employees that may need additional or refresher training.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12-06

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Developing a Node Graph Tool: Pattern Recognition Through Sound

Description

Although many data visualization diagrams can be made accessible for individuals who are blind or visually impaired, they often do not present the information in a way that intuitively allows

Although many data visualization diagrams can be made accessible for individuals who are blind or visually impaired, they often do not present the information in a way that intuitively allows readers to easily discern patterns in the data. In particular, accessible node graphs tend to use speech to describe the transitions between nodes. While the speech is easy to understand, readers can be overwhelmed by too much speech and may not be able to discern any structural patterns which occur in the graphs. Considering these limitations, this research seeks to find ways to better present transitions in node graphs.

This study aims to gain knowledge on how sequence patterns in node graphs can be perceived through speech and nonspeech audio. Users listened to short audio clips describing a sequence of transitions occurring in a node graph. User study results were evaluated based on accuracy and user feedback. Five common techniques were identified through the study, and the results will be used to help design a node graph tool to improve accessibility of node graph creation and exploration for individuals that are blind or visually impaired.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Dress Your Shape: An Online Shopping Experience to Provide Users with Clothing Style Options that Flatter their Specific Body Shape

Description

Physical appearance is an important communication tool that involves the way people define themselves and others around them. Clothing is a major component of physical appearance. When people can understand

Physical appearance is an important communication tool that involves the way people define themselves and others around them. Clothing is a major component of physical appearance. When people can understand how different clothing styles flatter their specific body shapes, they can use clothing as a means to manipulate their physical appearances. In this way, people can choose deliberate clothing to send out purposeful visual messages that align with their goals and interests. Understanding how clothing affects visual appearance can be a very complicated task (Ilnitsky, 2018; Nix-Rice, 2014). There should be a simple and way for people to pick clothes that will specifically look good on their body. The purpose of this current study is to introduce a new method of online shopping that collects users’ body dimensions and shows them clothing that will flatter their particular body shape. The following study proposes a prototype design for such a shopping experience.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Facial Expression Recognition For Affective Video Games

Description

Affective video games are still a relatively new field of research and entertainment. Even
so, being a form of entertainment media, emotion plays a large role in video games as

Affective video games are still a relatively new field of research and entertainment. Even
so, being a form of entertainment media, emotion plays a large role in video games as a whole.
This project seeks to gain an understanding of what emotions are most prominent during game
play. From there, a system will be created wherein the game will record the player’s facial
expressions and interpret those expressions as emotions, allowing the game to adjust its difficulty
to create a more tailored experience.
The first portion of this project, understanding the relationship between emotions and
games, was done by recording myself as I played three different games of different genres for
thirty minutes each. The same system that would be used in the later game I created to evaluate
emotions was used to evaluate these recordings.
After the data was interpreted, I created three different versions of the same game, based
on a template created by Stan’s Assets, which was a version of the arcade game Stacker. The
three versions of the game included one where no changes were made to the gameplay
experience, it simply recorded the player’s face and extrapolated emotions from that recording,
one where the speed increased in an attempt to maintain a certain level of positive emotions, and
a third where, in addition to increasing the speed of the game, it also decreased the speed in an
attempt to minimize negative emotions.
These tests, together, show that the emotional experience of a player is heavily dependent
on how tailored the game is towards that particular emotion. Additionally, in creating a system
meant to interact with these emotions, it is easier to create a one-dimensional system that focuses
on one emotion (or range of emotions) as opposed to a more complex system, as the system
begins to become unstable, and can lead to undesirable gameplay effects.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The motivational home: designing smart home service provisions for human flourishing

Description

This dissertation explores the role of smart home service provisions (SHSP) as motivational agents supporting goal attainment and human flourishing. Evoking human flourishing as a lens for interaction encapsulates issues

This dissertation explores the role of smart home service provisions (SHSP) as motivational agents supporting goal attainment and human flourishing. Evoking human flourishing as a lens for interaction encapsulates issues of wellbeing, adaptation and problem solving within the context of social interaction. To investigate this line of research a new, motivation-sensitive approach to design was implemented. This approach combined psychometric analysis from motivational psychology's Personal Project Analysis (PPA) and Place Attachment theory's Sense of Place (SoP) analysis to produce project-centered motivational models for environmental congruence. Regression analysis of surveys collected from 150 (n = 150) young adults about their homes revealed PPA motivational dimensions had significant main affects on all three SoP factors. Model one indicated PPA dimensions Fearful and Value Congruency predicted the SoP factor Place Attachment (p = 0.012). Model two indicated the PPA factor Positive Affect and PPA dimensions Value Congruency, Self Identity and Autonomy predicted Place Identity (p = .0003). Model three indicated PPA dimensions Difficulty and Likelihood of Success predicted the SoP factor Place Dependency. The relationships between motivational PPA dimensions and SoP demonstrated in these models informed creation of a set of motivational design heuristics. These heuristics guided 20 participants (n = 20) through co-design of paper prototypes of SHSPs supporting goal attainment and human flourishing. Normative analysis of these paper prototypes fashioned a design framework consisting of the use cases "make with me", "keep me on task" and "improve myself"; the four design principles "time and timing", "guidance and accountability", "project ambiguity" and "positivity mechanisms"; and the seven interaction models "structuring time", "prompt user", "gather resources", "consume content", "create content", "restrict and/or restore access to content" and "share content". This design framework described and evaluated three technology probes installed in the homes of three participants (n = 3) for field-testing over the course of one week. A priori and post priori samples of psychometric measures were inconclusive in determining if SHSP motivated goal attainment or increased environmental congruency between young adults and their homes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Towards Building iBeacon-based Smart Indoor Environments for Visually Impaired Users

Description

Improving accessibility to public buildings by people with special needs has been an important societal commitment that is mandated by federal laws. In the information age, accessibility can mean more

Improving accessibility to public buildings by people with special needs has been an important societal commitment that is mandated by federal laws. In the information age, accessibility can mean more than simply providing physical accommodations like ramps for wheel-chairs. Better yet, accessibility will be fundamentally improved, if a user can be made aware of important location-specific information like functions of offices near the user within a building. A smart environment may help a new person quickly get acquainted about the environment. Such features can be more critical for cases of making an indoor environment more accessible to people with visual impairment. With the intention to promote the integration of visually impaired people in society, this thesis efforts on methodologies for building smart and accessible indoor office environments with the help of Apple's Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology called iBeacon to provide location awareness and enable easy access to information about the environment to people with visual impairment. This thesis presents work done on developing an iterative based approach in improving the configuration of given number of iBeacons to gain optimal signal coverage in a given office space environment and enabling smart features such as tagging points of interest and push notifications. This work aims to exploit the idea to look at visual impairment beyond the level of disability and cash it at as an opportunity to bring about a change of style of living. This work develops a methodology by introducing an end-to-end systems that uses intelligent server side and visually-impaired-friendly client side interfaces to give a prototype of an assistive technology to help them do basic activities like getting familiarized about an office environment without the need for asking for assistance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Exploring the Impact of Augmented Reality on Collaborative Decision-Making in Small Teams

Description

While significant qualitative, user study-focused research has been done on augmented reality, relatively few studies have been conducted on multiple, co-located synchronously collaborating users in augmented reality. Recognizing the need

While significant qualitative, user study-focused research has been done on augmented reality, relatively few studies have been conducted on multiple, co-located synchronously collaborating users in augmented reality. Recognizing the need for more collaborative user studies in augmented reality and the value such studies present, a user study is conducted of collaborative decision-making in augmented reality to investigate the following research question: “Does presenting data visualizations in augmented reality influence the collaborative decision-making behaviors of a team?” This user study evaluates how viewing data visualizations with augmented reality headsets impacts collaboration in small teams compared to viewing together on a single 2D desktop monitor as a baseline. Teams of two participants performed closed and open-ended evaluation tasks to collaboratively analyze data visualized in both augmented reality and on a desktop monitor. Multiple means of collecting and analyzing data were employed to develop a well-rounded context for results and conclusions, including software logging of participant interactions, qualitative analysis of video recordings of participant sessions, and pre- and post-study participant questionnaires. The results indicate that augmented reality doesn’t significantly change the quantity of team member communication but does impact the means and strategies participants use to collaborate.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Taking Fitts' slow: the effects of delayed visual feedback on human motor performance and user experience

Description

ABSTRACT

The present studies investigated the separate effects of two types of visual feedback delay – increased latency and decreased updating rate – on performance – both actual (e.g. response time)

ABSTRACT

The present studies investigated the separate effects of two types of visual feedback delay – increased latency and decreased updating rate – on performance – both actual (e.g. response time) and subjective (i.e. rating of perceived input device performance) – in 2-dimensional pointing tasks using a mouse as an input device. The first sub-study examined the effects of increased latency on performance using two separate experiments. In the first experiment the effects of constant latency on performance were tested, wherein participants completed blocks of trials with a constant level of latency. Additionally, after each block, participants rated their subjective experience of the input device performance at each level of latency. The second experiment examined the effects of variable latency on performance, where latency was randomized within blocks of trials.

The second sub-study investigated the effects of decreased updating rates on performance in the same manner as the first study, wherein experiment one tested the effect of constant updating rate on performance as well as subjective rating, and experiment two tested the effect of variable updating rate on performance. The findings suggest that latency is negative correlated with actual performance as well as subjective ratings of performance, and updating rate is positively correlated with actual performance as well as subjective ratings of performance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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GALLAG strip: a mobile, programming with demonstration environment for sensor-based context-aware application programming

Description

The Game As Life - Life As Game (GALLAG) project investigates how people might change their lives if they think of and/or experience their life as a game. The GALLAG

The Game As Life - Life As Game (GALLAG) project investigates how people might change their lives if they think of and/or experience their life as a game. The GALLAG system aims to help people reach their personal goals through the use of context-aware computing, and tailored games and applications. To accomplish this, the GALLAG system uses a combination of sensing technologies, remote audio/video feedback, mobile devices and an application programming interface (API) to empower users to create their own context-aware applications. However, the API requires programming through source code, a task that is too complicated and abstract for many users. This thesis presents GALLAG Strip, a novel approach to programming sensor-based context-aware applications that combines the Programming With Demonstration technique and a mobile device to enable users to experience their applications as they program them. GALLAG Strip lets users create sensor-based context-aware applications in an intuitive and appealing way without the need of computer programming skills; instead, they program their applications by physically demonstrating their envisioned interactions within a space using the same interface that they will later use to interact with the system, that is, using GALLAG-compatible sensors and mobile devices. GALLAG Strip was evaluated through a study with end users in a real world setting, measuring their ability to program simple and complex applications accurately and in a timely manner. The evaluation also comprises a benchmark with expert GALLAG system programmers in creating the same applications. Data and feedback collected from the study show that GALLAG Strip successfully allows users to create sensor-based context-aware applications easily and accurately without the need of prior programming skills currently required by the GALLAG system and enables them to create almost all of their envisioned applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012