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Overcoming the Constraints of Biosimilar Legislation through Creating Transparency

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Biosimilar pharmaceuticals are new lower-cost drugs awaiting large-scale approval within the United States (U.S). Biosimilar pharmaceuticals or simply biosimilars, are complex, large-molecule, and biologically-derived drugs that are deemed molecularly similar

Biosimilar pharmaceuticals are new lower-cost drugs awaiting large-scale approval within the United States (U.S). Biosimilar pharmaceuticals or simply biosimilars, are complex, large-molecule, and biologically-derived drugs that are deemed molecularly similar to currently approved reference biologics. Biologics and biosimilars both treat a wide range of conditions with no clinically meaningful difference between them. However, numerous states, with help from large pharmaceutical companies lobbying, are passing legislation complicating the prescribing and dispensing process for biosimilars by mandating a "notification" or "communication" requirement. The notification requirement requires pharmacists to contact prescribers when dispensing an interchangeable biosimilar in place of its reference biologic. This type of mandate is not only unprecedented in current U.S. pharmaceutical law, but it also incentivizes pharmacists to dispense more expensive biologics in place of biosimilars. The notification or communication requirement also falsely gives consumers the appearance that biosimilars are more dangerous in comparison to other types of biological medicines. These two factors, pharmacist hesitation and consumer distrust, serve as barriers to successful biosimilar market entry. High research and development costs and forecasted poor sales inhibit biosimilar companies from making the investment in innovating new drugs. The lack of investment in research and development prevents new biosimilars from entering the market to compete with currently approved biologics. In turn, current biosimilar legislation is reducing pharmaceutical competition and increasing drug prices. Information Measurement Theory supports the notion that in climates without competition (caused by a lack of transparency) sparks low quality and high costs. Transparency and improved biosimilar market conditions can be achieved through repealing the large pharmaceutical company backed notification requirement.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The Opportunities and Challenges Presented to Pharmacists Concerning Low Health Literacy in Arizona

Description

More than 90 million Americans suffer from low health literacy levels that can lead to detrimental health practices. One of the greatest issues stemming from low health literacy is the

More than 90 million Americans suffer from low health literacy levels that can lead to detrimental health practices. One of the greatest issues stemming from low health literacy is the misuse of medication, which results in 125,000 deaths per year and close to $200 billion dollars in health care funds (Ngoh 2009). With their implementation into neighborhood settings and consequently the everyday lives of individuals, pharmacies show potential in being great assets towards increasing health literacy on an individual and societal level. However, pharmacists must first be made aware of the opportunities and challenges that exist concerning this effort. Through a three step literature review and corresponding comparative analysis, the results of this study show that pharmacists should focus on four main areas: overall assessment of health literacy in a pharmacy setting, individualization and tailoring of health/ medication plans, development of verbal and written communication tools, and the pharmacist-patient relationship. Each area presents a set of opportunities and challenges that must be accounted for in order to design more effective initiatives and tools in the pharmacists' aim to increase health literacy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Curricular Design in Languages for Specific Purposes: The Case of a Needs Analysis for the Design of a Spanish for Pharmacists Course

Description

Curricular Design in Languages for Specific Purposes: The Case of a Needs Analysis for the Design of a Spanish for Pharmacists Course is a thesis project that argues for the

Curricular Design in Languages for Specific Purposes: The Case of a Needs Analysis for the Design of a Spanish for Pharmacists Course is a thesis project that argues for the creation of a Spanish course for pharmacists based in the model of Languages for Specific Purposes courses. In order to do this, a needs analysis was conducted by surveying and interviewing a pharmacist and medical Spanish instructor. Based on these results, objectives, activities, and evaluation criteria were created for such a course. The needs analysis found that Spanish use in a pharmacy is not limited to one ability or task, but rather an integration of many such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking. This course would be an invaluable addition to pharmacy schools in the United States due to the growing Hispanic population across the country.

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Date Created
  • 2019-12