Matching Items (24)

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Trichoplax adhaerens: A Novel Model Organism in Cancer Research

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Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa) is the simplest multicellular animal to be described. This organism lacks nervous tissue, muscle tissue and organs, and is composed of only five cell types organized into three layers. Placozoa are gaining popularity as a model organism

Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa) is the simplest multicellular animal to be described. This organism lacks nervous tissue, muscle tissue and organs, and is composed of only five cell types organized into three layers. Placozoa are gaining popularity as a model organism due to their simple make-up and completely sequenced genome. The complete sequencing of this organism’s genome has revealed the presence of important genes in cancer such as TP53 and MDM2 genes. Along with the presence of these genes, there are also additional pathways commonly deregulated in cancer that are well conserved in this organism. T. adhaerens are able to survive exposure to 160Gy and even 240Gy of X-ray radiation. Though small dark bodies form within the main body, they tend to extrude those masses, and continue to reproduce afterwards. After exposure to both grades of radiation, there was a greater increase in the apparent population size of the treated population than the control population. There was also a greater decrease in surface area of the organisms exposed to 160Gy than the control organisms. This increase in population and decrease in surface area of the treated organisms could be due to the extruded bodies. We hypothesize that the observed extrusion is a novel cancer defense mechanism for ridding the animal of damaged or mutated cells. This hypothesis should be tested through longitudinal observation and genetic analysis of the extruded bodies.

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2019-12

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Downwind

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In the 1950s-60s, the United States performed nuclear testing 60 miles north of Las Vegas. The prevailing winds carried radiation from those tests across the United States. It didn't take long for groups of people to begin developing cancer, possibly

In the 1950s-60s, the United States performed nuclear testing 60 miles north of Las Vegas. The prevailing winds carried radiation from those tests across the United States. It didn't take long for groups of people to begin developing cancer, possibly as a side effect of the testing. In 1990, Congress established a program to compensate downwind victims of the test site. But one portion of one county in Arizona was never compensated, despite the impact cancer had in the area. This documentary is their story. (Documentary and website accessible at downwinddocumentary.com)

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2014-05

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Analyzing the Effects of Conduction, Convection, and Radiation in a Rotary Drum

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Rotary drums are tools used extensively in various prominent industries for their utility in heating and transporting particulate products. These processes are often inefficient and studies on heat transfer in rotary drums will reduce energy consumption as operating parameters are

Rotary drums are tools used extensively in various prominent industries for their utility in heating and transporting particulate products. These processes are often inefficient and studies on heat transfer in rotary drums will reduce energy consumption as operating parameters are optimized. Research on this subject has been ongoing at ASU; however, the design of the rotary drum used in these studies is restrictive and experiments using radiation heat transfer have not been possible.<br/><br/>This study focuses on recounting the steps taken to upgrade the rotary drum setup and detailing the recommended procedure for experimental tests using radiant heat transfer upon completed construction of the new setup. To develop an improved rotary drum setup, flaws in the original design were analyzed and resolved. This process resulted in a redesigned drum heating system, an altered thinner drum, and a larger drum box. The recommended procedure for radiant heat transfer tests is focused on determining how particle size, drum fill level, and drum rotation rate impact the radiant heat transfer rate.

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2021-05

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Accuracy of Error Correction Code and Regression Analysis within a Python Software

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In collaboration with Moog Broad Reach and Arizona State University, a<br/>team of five undergraduate students designed a hardware design solution for<br/>protecting flash memory data in a spaced-based radioactive environment. Team<br/>Aegis have been working on the research, design, and implementation of

In collaboration with Moog Broad Reach and Arizona State University, a<br/>team of five undergraduate students designed a hardware design solution for<br/>protecting flash memory data in a spaced-based radioactive environment. Team<br/>Aegis have been working on the research, design, and implementation of a<br/>Verilog- and Python-based error correction code using a Reed-Solomon method<br/>to identify bit changes of error code. For an additional senior design project, a<br/>Python code was implemented that runs statistical analysis to identify whether<br/>the error correction code is more effective than a triple-redundancy check as well<br/>as determining if the presence of errors can be modeled by a regression model.

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2021-05

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Total dose simulation for high reliability electronics

Description

New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these technologies is high reliability electronics devised to meet stringent design

New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these technologies is high reliability electronics devised to meet stringent design goals and to operate consistently for many years deployed in the field. An on-going concern for engineers is the consequences of ionizing radiation exposure, specifically total dose effects. For many of the different applications, there is a likelihood of exposure to radiation, which can result in device degradation and potentially failure. While the total dose effects and the resulting degradation are a well-studied field and methodologies to help mitigate degradation have been developed, there is still a need for simulation techniques to help designers understand total dose effects within their design. To that end, the work presented here details simulation techniques to analyze as well as predict the total dose response of a circuit. In this dissertation the total dose effects are broken into two sub-categories, intra-device and inter-device effects in CMOS technology. Intra-device effects degrade the performance of both n-channel and p-channel transistors, while inter-device effects result in loss of device isolation. In this work, multiple case studies are presented for which total dose degradation is of concern. Through the simulation techniques, the individual device and circuit responses are modeled post-irradiation. The use of these simulation techniques by circuit designers allow predictive simulation of total dose effects, allowing focused design changes to be implemented to increase radiation tolerance of high reliability electronics.

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2014

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Plasmonic nanoparticles and their suspensions for solar energy conversion

Description

Plasmon resonance in nanoscale metallic structures has shown its ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into sub-wavelength volumes. Metal nanostructures exhibit a high extinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared spectrum due to their large absorption and scattering cross sections

Plasmon resonance in nanoscale metallic structures has shown its ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into sub-wavelength volumes. Metal nanostructures exhibit a high extinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared spectrum due to their large absorption and scattering cross sections corresponding to their surface plasmon resonance. Hence, they can serve as an attractive candidate for solar energy conversion. Recent papers have showed that dielectric core/metallic shell nanoparticles yielded a plasmon resonance wavelength tunable from visible to infrared by changing the ratio of core radius to the total radius. Therefore it is interesting to develop a dispersion of core-shell multifunctional nanoparticles capable of dynamically changing their volume ratio and thus their spectral radiative properties. Nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids) are known to offer a variety of benefits for thermal transport and energy conversion. Nanofluids have been proven to increase the efficiency of the photo-thermal energy conversion process in direct solar absorption collectors (DAC). Combining these two cutting-edge technologies enables the use of core-shell nanoparticles to control the spectral and radiative properties of plasmonic nanofluids in order to efficiently harvest and convert solar energy. Plasmonic nanofluids that have strong energy concentrating capacity and spectral selectivity can be used in many high-temperature energy systems where radiative heat transport is essential. In this thesis,the surface plasmon resonance effect and the wavelength tuning ranges for different metallic shell nanoparticles are investigated, the solar-weighted efficiencies of corresponding core-shell nanoparticle suspensions are explored, and a quantitative study of core-shell nanoparticle suspensions in a DAC system is provided. Using core-shell nanoparticle dispersions, it is possible to create efficient spectral solar absorption fluids and design materials for applications which require variable spectral absorption or scattering.

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Date Created
2012

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Response of metal structures on chalcogenide thin films to thermal, ultraviolet and microwave processing

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Microwave (MW), thermal, and ultraviolet (UV) annealing were used to explore the response of Ag structures on a Ge-Se chalcogenide glass (ChG) thin film as flexible radiation sensors, and Te-Ti chalcogenide thin films as a material for diffusion barriers in

Microwave (MW), thermal, and ultraviolet (UV) annealing were used to explore the response of Ag structures on a Ge-Se chalcogenide glass (ChG) thin film as flexible radiation sensors, and Te-Ti chalcogenide thin films as a material for diffusion barriers in microelectronics devices and processing of metallized Cu. Flexible resistive radiation sensors consisting of Ag electrodes on a Ge20Se80 ChG thin film and polyethylene naphthalate substrate were exposed to UV radiation. The sensors were mounted on PVC tubes of varying radii to induce bending strains and annealed under ambient conditions up to 150 oC. Initial sensor resistance was measured to be ~1012 Ω; after exposure to UV radiation, the resistance was ~104 Ω. Bending strain and low temperature annealing had no significant effect on the resistance of the sensors. Samples of Cu on Te-Ti thin films were annealed in vacuum for up to 30 minutes and were stable up to 500 oC as revealed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and four-point-probe analysis. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) indicates Cu grain growth up to 500 oC and phase instability of the Te-Ti barrier at 600 oC. MW processing was performed in a 2.45-GHz microwave cavity on Cu/Te-Ti films for up to 30 seconds to induce oxide growth. Using a calibrated pyrometer above the sample, the temperature of the MW process was measured to be below a maximum of 186 oC. Four-point-probe analysis shows an increase in resistance with an increase in MW time. XRD indicates growth of CuO on the sample surface. RBS suggests oxidation throughout the Te-Ti film. Additional samples were exposed to 907 J/cm2 UV radiation in order to ensure other possible electromagnetically induced mechanisms were not active. There were no changes observed using XRD, RBS or four point probing.

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2013

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Modeling of total ionizing dose effects in advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technologies

Description

The increased use of commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies in harsh radiation environments has resulted in a new approach to radiation effects mitigation. This approach utilizes simulation to support the design of integrated circuits (ICs) to meet targeted tolerance specifications.

The increased use of commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies in harsh radiation environments has resulted in a new approach to radiation effects mitigation. This approach utilizes simulation to support the design of integrated circuits (ICs) to meet targeted tolerance specifications. Modeling the deleterious impact of ionizing radiation on ICs fabricated in advanced CMOS technologies requires understanding and analyzing the basic mechanisms that result in buildup of radiation-induced defects in specific sensitive regions. Extensive experimental studies have demonstrated that the sensitive regions are shallow trench isolation (STI) oxides. Nevertheless, very little work has been done to model the physical mechanisms that result in the buildup of radiation-induced defects and the radiation response of devices fabricated in these technologies. A comprehensive study of the physical mechanisms contributing to the buildup of radiation-induced oxide trapped charges and the generation of interface traps in advanced CMOS devices is presented in this dissertation. The basic mechanisms contributing to the buildup of radiation-induced defects are explored using a physical model that utilizes kinetic equations that captures total ionizing dose (TID) and dose rate effects in silicon dioxide (SiO2). These mechanisms are formulated into analytical models that calculate oxide trapped charge density (Not) and interface trap density (Nit) in sensitive regions of deep-submicron devices. Experiments performed on field-oxide-field-effect-transistors (FOXFETs) and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors permit investigating TID effects and provide a comparison for the radiation response of advanced CMOS devices. When used in conjunction with closed-form expressions for surface potential, the analytical models enable an accurate description of radiation-induced degradation of transistor electrical characteristics. In this dissertation, the incorporation of TID effects in advanced CMOS devices into surface potential based compact models is also presented. The incorporation of TID effects into surface potential based compact models is accomplished through modifications of the corresponding surface potential equations (SPE), allowing the inclusion of radiation-induced defects (i.e., Not and Nit) into the calculations of surface potential. Verification of the compact modeling approach is achieved via comparison with experimental data obtained from FOXFETs fabricated in a 90 nm low-standby power commercial bulk CMOS technology and numerical simulations of fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-channel transistors.

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2011

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Separating radiation and thermal effects on lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors operating in the space environment

Description

Radiation-induced gain degradation in bipolar devices is considered to be the primary threat to linear bipolar circuits operating in the space environment. The damage is primarily caused by charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetosphere, the solar wind, and cosmic

Radiation-induced gain degradation in bipolar devices is considered to be the primary threat to linear bipolar circuits operating in the space environment. The damage is primarily caused by charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetosphere, the solar wind, and cosmic rays. This constant radiation exposure leads to early end-of-life expectancies for many electronic parts. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the density of oxide and interfacial defects in bipolar oxides leading to an increase in base current in bipolar junction transistors. Radiation-induced excess base current is the primary cause of current gain degradation. Analysis of base current response can enable the measurement of defects generated by radiation exposure. In addition to radiation, the space environment is also characterized by extreme temperature fluctuations. Temperature, like radiation, also has a very strong impact on base current. Thus, a technique for separating the effects of radiation from thermal effects is necessary in order to accurately measure radiation-induced damage in space. This thesis focuses on the extraction of radiation damage in lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors and the space environment. It also describes the measurement techniques used and provides a quantitative analysis methodology for separating radiation and thermal effects on the bipolar base current.

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2011

Study of a night sky radiator cooling system utilizing direct fluid radiation emission and varying cover materials

Description

As the demand for power increases in populated areas, so will the demand for water. Current power plant technology relies heavily on the Rankine cycle in coal, nuclear and solar thermal power systems which ultimately use condensers to cool the

As the demand for power increases in populated areas, so will the demand for water. Current power plant technology relies heavily on the Rankine cycle in coal, nuclear and solar thermal power systems which ultimately use condensers to cool the steam in the system. In dry climates, the amount of water to cool off the condenser can be extremely large. Current wet cooling technologies such as cooling towers lose water from evaporation. One alternative to prevent this would be to implement a radiative cooling system. More specifically, a system that utilizes the volumetric radiation emission from water to the night sky could be implemented. This thesis analyzes the validity of a radiative cooling system that uses direct radiant emission to cool water. A brief study on potential infrared transparent cover materials such as polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl carbonate (PVC) was performed. Also, two different experiments to determine the cooling power from radiation were developed and run. The results showed a minimum cooling power of 33.7 W/m2 for a vacuum insulated glass system and 37.57 W/m2 for a tray system with a maximum of 98.61 Wm-2 at a point when conduction and convection heat fluxes were considered to be zero. The results also showed that PE proved to be the best cover material. The minimum numerical results compared well with other studies performed in the field using similar techniques and materials. The results show that a radiative cooling system for a power plant could be feasible given that the cover material selection is narrowed down, an ample amount of land is available and an economic analysis is performed proving it to be cost competitive with conventional systems.

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2011