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An Observational Study of the Motivation of Long Distance Cyclists During Faith Based Charity Ride

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This observational study explored the motivational factors for recreational cyclists participating in a charity cycling event held by a Christian based nonprofit, the Fuller Center. Participants (n=22; men: n=10; women: n=12) cycled at least one 302 mile segment of a

This observational study explored the motivational factors for recreational cyclists participating in a charity cycling event held by a Christian based nonprofit, the Fuller Center. Participants (n=22; men: n=10; women: n=12) cycled at least one 302 mile segment of a bike ride distancing the whole West Coast (1,657 miles). The purpose of the study was to determine the motives for the cyclists' participation and to then classify those motives as intrinsic or extrinsic. A scale used to measure motivation of marathoners was transcribed to match those of the cycling participants to assess motivation. The participants were divided into 4 groups based on self-reported experience levels, and it was shown that across all types of experience levels, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators were expressed but with greater emphasis on intrinsic factors. The most commonly indicated intrinsic motivation subcategories were life meaning, personal goal achievement, and affiliation, with affiliation being recognized by every individual. The most commonly indicated extrinsic subcategories were competition, recognition, health orientation, and weight concern. Though each rider's story was signature to the individual, the very specific religious background and philanthropic mission of the Fuller Center Bike Adventure weighed heavily into each individual's motivation alongside the classified intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this research offered valuable data about motivation of recreational cyclists but future studies should focus on a less specific population.

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2018-05

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Preferred Versus Recommended Saddle Height For Optimal Cycling Economy

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of changing a saddle height to a scientifically recommended position on cycling economy for competitive cyclists. Participants completed one maximal effort graded exercise test and two sub-maximal 70% economy trials,

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of changing a saddle height to a scientifically recommended position on cycling economy for competitive cyclists. Participants completed one maximal effort graded exercise test and two sub-maximal 70% economy trials, one at the cyclist’s original saddle height and the second at the saddle height corresponding with a knee flexion angle of 25° at full pedal extension. Due to experimental error and equipment failure heart rate became the main performance measure and cycling economy tests were conducted at an average of 84.4% of heart rate max. The results revealed no apparent differences in performance between the recommended and original saddle height. However, 2D analysis of dynamic knee angles revealed that at the 25° knee angle condition, knee angle increased by an average of 16.1% from the static position (average dynamic knee angle = 29.02±4.61°). Dynamic measures (32.59±4.88°) taken during the original angle tests were only slightly augmented compared to the static measure (31.5±2.18°). It is possible based on this trend that a difference in performance values was not present because the change between the original angle and the experimental angle was not substantial. Additionally these findings suggest that cyclists adjust to these acute changes in saddle height by altering other kinematic variables in an attempt to find a comfortable position and perform maximally.

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2013-05

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DIFFERENCES IN UNILATERAL CHEST PRESS MUSCLE ACTIVATION ON A STABLE VERSUS UNSTABLE SURFACE WHILE HOLDING ONE VERSUS TWO DUMBBELLS

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Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Because of this, many new types of equipment have been created in an

Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Because of this, many new types of equipment have been created in an attempt to induce instability, such as the COR Bench. 15 males and 7 females between the ages of 18 and 30 were recruited for the present study, which tested two forms of instability: using one dumbbell rather than two, and lifting on the COR bench compared to a flat bench. Thusly, EMG was used to measure muscle activity in four separate conditions of unilateral bench press movements: on a flat bench with one dumbbell, on a flat bench with two dumbbells, on the COR Bench with one dumbbell, and on the COR Bench with two dumbbells. Results indicated that lifting with one dumbbell compared to two dumbbells on the flat bench significantly increased muscle activity across all four muscles being analyzed (pectoralis major, p = .005; middle trapezius, p = .008; external obliques, p = .004; and internal obliques, p = .003), but lifting with one dumbbell compared to two dumbbells on the COR Bench only significantly increased muscle activity in the middle trapezius (p = .001), external obliques(p = . 032), and internal obliques (p = .001). The only muscle to exhibit a significant increase in muscle activity when going from one dumbbell on the flat bench to one dumbbell on the COR Bench was the middle trapezius (p = .010). These results imply that the COR Bench itself does not increase muscle activity as much as switching from two dumbbells to one dumbbell, regardless of the bench being used.

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2013-12