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An Observational Study of the Motivation of Long Distance Cyclists During Faith Based Charity Ride

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This observational study explored the motivational factors for recreational cyclists participating in a charity cycling event held by a Christian based nonprofit, the Fuller Center. Participants (n=22; men: n=10; women: n=12) cycled at least one 302 mile segment of a

This observational study explored the motivational factors for recreational cyclists participating in a charity cycling event held by a Christian based nonprofit, the Fuller Center. Participants (n=22; men: n=10; women: n=12) cycled at least one 302 mile segment of a bike ride distancing the whole West Coast (1,657 miles). The purpose of the study was to determine the motives for the cyclists' participation and to then classify those motives as intrinsic or extrinsic. A scale used to measure motivation of marathoners was transcribed to match those of the cycling participants to assess motivation. The participants were divided into 4 groups based on self-reported experience levels, and it was shown that across all types of experience levels, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators were expressed but with greater emphasis on intrinsic factors. The most commonly indicated intrinsic motivation subcategories were life meaning, personal goal achievement, and affiliation, with affiliation being recognized by every individual. The most commonly indicated extrinsic subcategories were competition, recognition, health orientation, and weight concern. Though each rider's story was signature to the individual, the very specific religious background and philanthropic mission of the Fuller Center Bike Adventure weighed heavily into each individual's motivation alongside the classified intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this research offered valuable data about motivation of recreational cyclists but future studies should focus on a less specific population.

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2018-05

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Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), a voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for three 30-minute sessions a week, for a total of eight weeks. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and manual dexterity at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that information processing and manual dexterity improved following 8 weeks of cycling for the ACT group. These results were not seen for individuals in the voluntary and non-exercise groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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2015-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Mobility in Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions: 1) Voluntary

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), where participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate and 2) Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT), where the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented by 35% with a motor. In each intervention, the participant completed three, 30-minute cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) was used to evaluate the distance each participant was able to complete in six minutes before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in the distance and velocity of the participants after the intervention with a greater mean improvement for participants in the ACT group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these physical health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adults with DS.

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2015-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Functional Exercise Capacity in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examined the effect of an 8-week exercise intervention on functional exercise capacity in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: assisted cycling (ACT) (n = 17) where participants experienced at

This study examined the effect of an 8-week exercise intervention on functional exercise capacity in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: assisted cycling (ACT) (n = 17) where participants experienced at least a 35% increase in their voluntary cycling speed through the use of a motor, voluntary cycling (VC) (n = 15) where participants cycled at a self-selected cadence, and no cycling (NC) (n = 8) where participants did not participate in any cycling intervention. In each cycling intervention, each participant completed three, 30 minute cycling sessions per week for a total of eight weeks. The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) was administered prior to and after the 8-week intervention in pre-test and post-test assessment sessions, respectively. Our hypothesis was somewhat supported in that functional exercise capacity improved after ACT as measured by an increase in total number of laps walked, total distance walked, and average walking speed during the 6MWT, when compared to VC or NC.

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2015-05

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Preferred Versus Recommended Saddle Height For Optimal Cycling Economy

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of changing a saddle height to a scientifically recommended position on cycling economy for competitive cyclists. Participants completed one maximal effort graded exercise test and two sub-maximal 70% economy trials,

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of changing a saddle height to a scientifically recommended position on cycling economy for competitive cyclists. Participants completed one maximal effort graded exercise test and two sub-maximal 70% economy trials, one at the cyclist’s original saddle height and the second at the saddle height corresponding with a knee flexion angle of 25° at full pedal extension. Due to experimental error and equipment failure heart rate became the main performance measure and cycling economy tests were conducted at an average of 84.4% of heart rate max. The results revealed no apparent differences in performance between the recommended and original saddle height. However, 2D analysis of dynamic knee angles revealed that at the 25° knee angle condition, knee angle increased by an average of 16.1% from the static position (average dynamic knee angle = 29.02±4.61°). Dynamic measures (32.59±4.88°) taken during the original angle tests were only slightly augmented compared to the static measure (31.5±2.18°). It is possible based on this trend that a difference in performance values was not present because the change between the original angle and the experimental angle was not substantial. Additionally these findings suggest that cyclists adjust to these acute changes in saddle height by altering other kinematic variables in an attempt to find a comfortable position and perform maximally.

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2013-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Depression in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions. The interventions were: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), in

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions. The interventions were: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate 2) Assisted Cycling (AC), in which the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented with a motor to ensure the maintenance of 80 rpms. In each intervention, the participant completed three cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. Depression scores did decrease or improved after both AC and VC, but not significantly. There was a greater mean improvement for participants in the AC group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these mental health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adolescents with DS.

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2013-12

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The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Inhibitory Control in Adults with Down Syndrome

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This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on inhibitory control in adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a Resistance Training (RT) session, and a

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on inhibitory control in adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a Resistance Training (RT) session, and a session of No Training (NT). In the baseline assessment, 1-repetition max (1RM) measurements and voluntary pedal rate measurements were taken. In the resistance training session, the leg press, chest press, seated row, leg curl, shoulder press, and latissimus pulldown were performed. In the cycling intervention, the participant completed 30 minutes of cycling. The Erikson Flanker task was administered prior to each session (i.e., pretest) and after the intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were somewhat consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition time improved more following RT and ACT than NT. there was also a significant difference between ACT and NT. Additionally, it was hypothesized that all measures would improve following each acute exercise intervention, but the most significant improvements were seen following ACT. In conclusion, an acute session of ACT demonstrated a significant trend towards improvements in inhibitory control in adults with DS which we interpreted using a model of neural changes.

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2021-05