Matching Items (22)

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E-Cigarette and Subsequent Smoking Use and Relationship to E-Cigarette Quit Attempts Among College Students

Description

The present study investigated the student population at Arizona State University to: (1) assess how electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is associated with subsequent smoking (cigarette, hookah, cigarillo, smokeless tobacco, marijuana) use; (2) investigate the relationship of e-cigarette use with non-electronic

The present study investigated the student population at Arizona State University to: (1) assess how electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is associated with subsequent smoking (cigarette, hookah, cigarillo, smokeless tobacco, marijuana) use; (2) investigate the relationship of e-cigarette use with non-electronic smoking cessation, and vice versa; and (3) compare how e-cigarette use is associated with cessation of non-electronic smoking. Based on previous related research and tools, the cross-sectional study included an anonymous online screening, followed by a survey that assessed e-cigarette use and non-electronic smoking, e-cigarette withdrawal and cessation, and non-electronic smoking quit attempts. Participants (N=65) were recruited via flyer advertisements, social media advertisements, ASU online advertisements, and email notices. Major findings of this study include: Participants who used non-electronic smoking primarily used cigarettes or marijuana; participants who used both electronic and non-electronic smoking more frequently used e-cigarettes than non-electronic forms; and participants who previously attempted e-cigarette cession believe that they will successfully withdraw from e-cigarette use in the future, by either using marijuana or not using non-electronic smoking in the future. Based on these findings, nurses should assess all youth and young adults for e-cigarette “core constructs”; provide evidence-based interventions; and encourage future, successful e-cigarette cessation.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05

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Associative Recognition of Odor Stimuli Variance and a Proposal to Test This in Odor Experience Restricted Honey Bees

Description

Recent data suggests that olfactory input is important for antennal lobe development in honey bees. Chronic association of a single odor to food resources during crucial stages of development results in delayed antennal lobe development for mature foraging bees. The

Recent data suggests that olfactory input is important for antennal lobe development in honey bees. Chronic association of a single odor to food resources during crucial stages of development results in delayed antennal lobe development for mature foraging bees. The antennal lobes of these bees instead closely resemble an immature network observed in young, newly emerged bees. Using an odor stimuli variance assay, learning and memory tests can be used to explore how well honey bees discriminate single odors within complex odor mixtures. Here we are validating two different odor mixtures, a Brassica rapa floral blend and a second replicate mixture composed of common molecularly dissimilar odors. Odors in each mixture are either held constant or varied in concentration over 16 conditioning trials. Subsequent memory tests are performed two hours later to observe the ability of bees to distinguish and recognize specific odor components in each mixture. So far in our assay we find high rates of generalization for both odor mixtures. In general, more bees responded to all odors in the replicate treatment group over the Brassica treatment group. Additionally, bees in the Brassica treatment group did not respond to the target odor. More data is being collected to validate this assay. In future studies, I propose to apply this behavioral assay to bees with an altered olfactory developmental in order to see the functional impacts of this chronic odor association treatment.

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Created

Date Created
2017-05

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Prevalence of Optimal Lifestyle Behaviors in College Undergraduate Students

Description

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and remains a great public health challenge. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., unhealthy diet, sedentary behavior, cigarette smoking, and obesity) are associated with a greater risk of

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and remains a great public health challenge. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., unhealthy diet, sedentary behavior, cigarette smoking, and obesity) are associated with a greater risk of incident CVD and all-cause mortality. From the prevention strategy, maintaining a healthy lifestyle throughout a lifetime is a key to CVD prevention. Nonetheless, the prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors in US communities is low as 3 to 5%. Moreover, the prevalence of a healthy population among college students remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors among college students. Methods: We recruited 747 undergraduate students from Arizona State University using a survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire investigated demographic characteristics, body mass index, dietary habits, physical activity habits, and smoking habits. The chi-square test was used to investigate the frequency of ideal lifestyle behaviors in college students. Results: Prevalence of students who met all 4 ideal health behaviors (ideal cardiovascular health) is very low at 7.6%. Approximately 55.7% of students had only 2 or less ideal lifestyle behaviors (poor cardiovascular health). In addition, there were no statistical differences in combined ideal lifestyle behaviors across gender and different years of undergraduate studies. Conclusion: College students had a very low prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Increasing healthy low-risk students throughout college education is an important strategy to prevent chronic disease morbidity and mortality at individual and population level.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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How do perceptions of nutrition influence student nutritional health behavior and nutritional health seeking behavior?

Description

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease in fruits and vegetables and an increase in unhealthy items such as desserts, alcohol, and late night snacking after dinner. A survey of college students was constructed to gauge students' perceptions of nutrition how these perceptions influenced dietary practices and behaviors. Survey results indicated that awareness of nutrition and health does not translate to dietary practices, aligning with results from previous studies. Several sex differences were noted in regards to dietary choices and perceptions, knowledge seeking behavior, and sources of information. While there were some similarities, it is clear from the results obtained that men and women have different approaches and thoughts with regard to nutrition. The results showed that college students who actively seek our nutritional information are more likely to do so in the form of social media or Internet sources. This study could be useful for those planning on conducting college-based nutritional programs in that the results indicate patterns and trends that should be taken into consideration in order for a successful nutrition intervention

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

The Examination of Efficacy in Miniature Horse Breeding Practices

Description

There are problems in the breeding practices of miniature horses. This study seeks to determine the source of these detrimental outcomes based on an evaluation of primary attributes selected for by breeders and the lack of genetic information and understanding

There are problems in the breeding practices of miniature horses. This study seeks to determine the source of these detrimental outcomes based on an evaluation of primary attributes selected for by breeders and the lack of genetic information and understanding of these attributes. In order to do this a program model was created to test the effects of selection criteria on breeder behavior and the resultant foals of these crosses. Moving forwards this program will evolve into a database of the equine genome for different horses. This will allow breeders to input their horses and do faux crosses in order to decrease the incidence of negative and detrimental outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Preschool Yogis: A Pilot Study to Determine the Feasibility of a Structured Classroom-Based Yoga Program

Description

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility (i.e., acceptability) of a yoga intervention implemented within a preschool with typically and atypically developing children.
Participants: 29 children between the ages of three and five years that are

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility (i.e., acceptability) of a yoga intervention implemented within a preschool with typically and atypically developing children.
Participants: 29 children between the ages of three and five years that are currently attending the Mary Lou Fulton Teacher’s College Preschool.

Methods: Children participated in eight ~15-20-minute yoga sessions consisting of an opening circle, breathing, mindful movement, and a closing circle with relaxation time. Parents completed weekly homework assignments and surveys about the homework. Parents and teachers both completed daily behavior logs to track their child’s number of outbursts, mention of yoga, and use of yoga. Additionally, parents completed a post-intervention survey to determine overall satisfaction.

Results: The Preschool Behavior Questionnaire paired t-test results did not demonstrate any significant differences in pre-intervention (M=13.00, SD±7.55) and post-intervention (M=11.95, SD±6.92) scores, t(17)=0.94, p=0.36. There were no visible correlations between outbursts and use of yoga as reported by parents, but the use of yoga increased with the number of outbursts as reported by parents. Overall, parents felt the sessions had a positive effect on their child’s behavior and felt their children enjoyed the sessions.

Conclusion: Implementing classroom-based yoga programs could be an acceptable, realistic option to manage and prevent negative behaviors in preschool children.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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SoundSwarm: An Interactive Exploration of 3-Dimensional and Behavioral Modeled Sound

Description

This paper outlines the development of a software application that explores the plausibility and potential of interacting with three-dimensional sound sources within a virtual environment. The intention of the software application is to allow a user to become engaged with

This paper outlines the development of a software application that explores the plausibility and potential of interacting with three-dimensional sound sources within a virtual environment. The intention of the software application is to allow a user to become engaged with a collection of sound sources that can be perceived both graphically and audibly within a spatial, three-dimensional context. The three-dimensional sound perception is driven primarily by a binaural implementation of a higher order ambisonics framework while graphics and other data are processed by openFrameworks, an interactive media framework for C++. Within the application, sound sources have been given behavioral functions such as flocking or orbit patterns, animating their positions within the environment. The author will summarize the design process and rationale for creating such a system and the chosen approach to implement the software application. The paper will also provide background approaches to spatial audio, gesture and virtual reality embodiment, and future possibilities for the existing project.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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The analysis of reverse tandem running of Temnothorax rugatulus colonies

Description

Collective decision making in social organism societies involves a large network of communication systems. Studying the processes behind the transmission of information allows for greater understanding of the decision making capabilities of a group. For Temnothorax rugatulus colonies, information is

Collective decision making in social organism societies involves a large network of communication systems. Studying the processes behind the transmission of information allows for greater understanding of the decision making capabilities of a group. For Temnothorax rugatulus colonies, information is commonly spread in the form of tandem running, a linear recruitment pattern where a leading ant uses a short-ranged pheromone to direct a following ant to a target location (in tandem).The observed phenomenon of reverse tandem running (RTR), where a follower is lead from a target back to the home nest, has not been as extensively studied as forward tandem running and transportation recruitment activities. This study seeks to explain a potential reason for the presence of the RTR behavior; more specifically, the study explores the idea that reverse tandem run followers are being shown a specific route to the home nest by a highly experienced and efficient leading ant. Ten colonies had migrations induced experimentally in order to generate some reverse tandem running activity. Once an RTR has been observed, the follower and leader were studied for behavior and their pathways were analyzed. It was seen that while RTR paths were quite efficient (1.4x a straight line distance), followers did not experience a statistically significant improvement in their pathways between the home and target nests (based on total distance traveled) when compared to similar non-RTR ants. Further, RTR leading ants were no more efficient than other non-RTR ants. It was observed that some followers began recruiting after completion of an RTR, but the number than changed their behavior was not significant. Thus, the results of this experiment cannot conclusively show that RTR followers are utilizing reverse tandem runs to improve their routes between the home and target nests.

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Date Created
2014-12

Effect of Dietary/Nutritional Treatment on Symptoms of Autism

Description

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a disorder that makes learning, socializing and daily living much more challenging for affected children and adults because of their atypical behaviors. A few examples of these behaviors are repetitive movements, impulsive actions, inability to communicate

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a disorder that makes learning, socializing and daily living much more challenging for affected children and adults because of their atypical behaviors. A few examples of these behaviors are repetitive movements, impulsive actions, inability to communicate in a social setting, and many more. There is a stigma behind autism that is caused by those who are not well informed on the disorder. These people lack information, and in the past, it was assumed that the disorder is caused by "bad parenting." The parents are then afraid of social shame brought upon them by their child and neglect or avoid a diagnosis for their child's disorder. This becomes a vicious cycle that has negative effects on the affected individuals and their loved ones. Neglect of a diagnosis may also be caused by misinformation interpreted by the parents as their child develops. The parents do not realize this child developing outside of normal behavioral patterns. Years of research have been done to attempt to alleviate the symptoms of autism and cure the disorder. The Autism and Asperger's Program at ASU has developed a year-long dietary plan that increases supplementation to alleviate nutritional deficiencies in participants with autism. These deficiencies include vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, sulfate, carnitine, and digestive enzymes such as sucrase, maltase, and lactase. The participants were also put on a gluten-free casein-free diet toward the end of the study. To test the effectiveness of the treatment, the Severity of Autism Scale (SAS) and Social Responsiveness Scales (SRS) were used. The SAS tested the overall severity of ASD participants by rating them from one to ten, ten being "very severe" in terms of ASD symptoms. The results of this scale were compared at the beginning of the study (day 0) and at the end of the study (day 365). The SRS tested the social responsiveness of participants in the form of overall SRS and five subscales that included awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. These results were also compared at the beginning and end of the study. After analysis of the data, there seemed to be no correlation between age and severity of autism/social responsiveness of participants. There was also no statistically significant data to suggest that there was a correlation between gender and severity of autism/social responsiveness of participants. However, there was statistically significant evidence that the treatment group did improve over the non-treatment/delayed treatment group in both the SAS and SRS. Neither age nor gender had a significant effect on the effectiveness of the treatment. These positive findings suggest that the integrated dietary
utritional therapy was beneficial, and future research on dietary treatments for autism and other disorders is recommended. This may also further discoveries of affected epigenomes with regards to nutritional treatments in disorders like ASD. The epigenome is the methylation and demethylation of the genome that mediates gene expression.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Investigation of Sniffing as a Viable Measure of Odor Habituation in Mice

Description

Mammalian olfaction relies on active sniffing, which both shapes and is shaped by olfactory stimuli. Habituation to repeated exposure of an olfactory stimuli is believed to be mediated by decreased sniffing; however, this decrease may be reserved by exposure to

Mammalian olfaction relies on active sniffing, which both shapes and is shaped by olfactory stimuli. Habituation to repeated exposure of an olfactory stimuli is believed to be mediated by decreased sniffing; however, this decrease may be reserved by exposure to novel odorants. Because of this, it may be possible to use sniffing itself as a measure of novelty, and thus as a measure of odorant similarity. Thus, I investigated the use of sniffing to measure habituation, cross-habituation, and odorant similarity. During habituation experiments, increases in sniff rate seen in response to odorant presentation decreased in magnitude between the first and second presentations, suggesting of habituation. Some of this reduction in sniff rate increases was revered by the presentation of a novel odorant in cross-habituations. However the effect sizes in cross-habituation experiments were low, and the variability high, forestalling the conclusion that sniffing accurately measured cross-habituation. I discuss improvements to the experimental protocol that may allow for cross-habituation to be more accurately measured using sniffing alone in future experiments.

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Date Created
2015-12