Matching Items (26)

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In situ SEM Testing for Fatigue Crack Growth: Mechanical Investigation of Titanium

Description

Widespread knowledge of fracture mechanics is mostly based on previous models that generalize crack growth in materials over several loading cycles. The objective of this project is to characterize crack growth that occurs in titanium alloys, specifically Grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V,

Widespread knowledge of fracture mechanics is mostly based on previous models that generalize crack growth in materials over several loading cycles. The objective of this project is to characterize crack growth that occurs in titanium alloys, specifically Grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V, at the sub-cycle scale, or within a single loading cycle. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), imaging analysis is performed to observe crack behavior at ten loading steps throughout the loading and unloading paths. Analysis involves measuring the incremental crack growth and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of specimens at loading ratios of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5. This report defines the relationship between crack growth and the stress intensity factor, K, of the specimens, as well as the relationship between the R-ratio and stress opening level. The crack closure phenomena and effect of microcracks are discussed as they influence the crack growth behavior. This method has previously been used to characterize crack growth in Al 7075-T6. The results for Ti-6Al-4V are compared to these previous findings in order to strengthen conclusions about crack growth behavior.

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2018-05

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Physiological Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Anthracycline-based Chemotherapy

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Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are

Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, functional impairments, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness. These negative outcomes have implications for early morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise preconditioning (exercise commenced prior to initiating chemotherapy and continued throughout treatment cycles) preserves health-related outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Here, we present a subset of preliminary data from an ongoing trial (NCT02842658) that is focused on VO2peak and skeletal muscle outcomes from the first 10 participants that have enrolled in the trial. Breast cancer patients (N=10; 50 ± 11 y; 168 ± 4 cm; 92 ± 37 kg; 32.3 ± 12.3 kg/m2) scheduled to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: 1) exercise preconditioning, (3 days per week of supervised exercise throughout treatment) or 2) standard of care (attention-control). Pre-testing occurred 1-2 week prior to chemotherapy. The interventions were initiated 1 week prior to chemotherapy and continued throughout anthracycline treatment. Post-testing occurred 3-7 days following the last anthracycline treatment. VO2peak (L/min) was reduced by 16% in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas VO2peak was preserved in the exercise preconditioning group. Trends for greater preservation and/or improvement in the exercise preconditioning group were also observed for lean body mass and peak heart rate. Hand grip strength was not changed in either group (P > 0.05). Both groups demonstrated an increase in ultrasound-derived echogenicity measures of the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05), indicating changes in the composition of the skeletal muscle during treatment. These preliminary data highlight that exercise preconditioning may serve as a strategy to preserve cardiorespiratory fitness and perhaps lean mass during anthracycline treatment of breast cancer. There remains a need for larger, definitive clinical trials to identify strategies to prevent the array of chemotherapy-induced toxicities that are observed in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines.

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2020-05

Cyclic Initiation and Propagation Fracture Properties of Seamless and Stitch Bonded Composite Pipes

Description

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to longitudinal fiber toes is investigated. The process for observing and characterizing fatigue crack damage propagation is presented. The fatigue fracture behavior is compared with data acquired from compact tension samples subjected to static tension tests in order to develop damage tolerant design guidelines for tube structures under fatigue loading.

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2017-05

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Predicting Fatigue in Military Personnel Using Wearable Technology

Description

Military personnel are affected by muscle fatigue during the various missions and training regimens for their work. Muscle fatigue is caused by the overuse and lack of nutrients to muscles. When a soldier is fatigued, they are unable to perform

Military personnel are affected by muscle fatigue during the various missions and training regimens for their work. Muscle fatigue is caused by the overuse and lack of nutrients to muscles. When a soldier is fatigued, they are unable to perform at their maximum potential and are also more susceptible to injury. For military personnel to save time and money as well as become more efficient within the missions they deploy soldiers, muscle fatigue should be predicted. Predicting fatigue will allow for a reduced rate of negative exercise-related impacts. This means that soldiers will be able to avoid potential life threatening situations they encounter due to the muscle fatigue. The newest technology in wearable devices includes clothing that incorporates heart rate monitors, breathing rate and breathing depth sensors, and a database that converts this information into the amount of calories burned during a workout. Fatigue can be tracked and predicted in the military using wearable clothing with activity sensors, preventing further injury to the soldiers and optimizing performance output at all times. For military personnel, the ability to predict fatigue using this technology would be beneficial to the soldiers and the military as a whole.

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2016-05

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Understanding plasticity and fracture in aluminum alloys and their composites by 3D X-ray synchrotron tomography and microdiffraction

Description

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in these materials is critical in assessing their fatigue resistance. Two distinct experimental studies were performed to further the understanding of fatigue damage mechanisms in aluminum alloys and their composites, specifically fracture and plasticity. Fatigue resistance of metal matrix composites (MMCs) depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on the reinforcement characteristics and matrix microstructure. The goal of this work was to obtain a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth behavior in SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composites. In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was performed on two samples at low (R=0.1) and at high (R=0.6) R-ratios. The resulting reconstructed images were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the particles and fatigue crack. Behaviors of the particles and crack, as well as their interaction, were analyzed and quantified. Four-dimensional (4D) visual representations were constructed to aid in the overall understanding of damage evolution. During fatigue crack growth in ductile materials, a plastic zone is created in the region surrounding the crack tip. Knowledge of the plastic zone is important for the understanding of fatigue crack formation as well as subsequent growth behavior. The goal of this work was to quantify the 3D size and shape of the plastic zone in 7075 Al alloys. X-ray synchrotron tomography and Laue microdiffraction were used to non-destructively characterize the volume surrounding a fatigue crack tip. The precise 3D crack profile was segmented from the reconstructed tomography data. Depth-resolved Laue patterns were obtained using differential-aperture X-ray structural microscopy (DAXM), from which peak-broadening characteristics were quantified. Plasticity, as determined by the broadening of diffracted peaks, was mapped in 3D. Two-dimensional (2D) maps of plasticity were directly compared to the corresponding tomography slices. A 3D representation of the plastic zone surrounding the fatigue crack was generated by superimposing the mapped plasticity on the 3D crack profile.

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2014

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Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press

Description

Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable

Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing more force when compared to muscles acting concentrically. Further, research has shown ECC muscle actions may have different fatigue patterns that CON actions. The purpose of this study was to determine if a) ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as measured by one-repetition maximum (1RM), b) there is a difference between the number of repetitions that can be completed concentrically and eccentrically under the same relative intensities of 1RM (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%), c) a prediction model may be able to predict ECC 1RM from CON 1RM or CON repetitions to fatigue. For this study, 30 healthy males (age = 24.63 + 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press, as well as the number of repetitions they were able to complete at various intensities of mode-specific 1RM. A mechanical hoist was affixed to a gantry crane and placed over a standard weightlifting bench. The hoist was connected to 45lb plates that were loaded on a standard barbell, which allowed for mechanical raising and lowering of the barbell. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest and the participant pressed it up. For ECC repetitions, the weight was mechanically raised and the participant lowered it. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (ECC =255.17 + 68.37lbs, CON = 205.83 + 58.43lbs). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM (CON = 4.57 + 2.21 repetitions, ECC = 7.67 + 3.24 repetitions). There were no differences in repetitions completed at any other intensity 1RM. CON 1RM and the number of repetitions completed with two different absolute loads (130-150lbs and 155-175lbs) concentrically and eccentrically were valid predictors of ECC 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities than CON actions, there is no difference in the rate of the fatigue, and ECC 1RM may be predicted from various CON tests.

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2013

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Isometric and dynamic contraction muscle fatigue assessment using time-frequency methods

Description

The use of electromyography (EMG) signals to characterize muscle fatigue has been widely accepted. Initial work on characterizing muscle fatigue during isometric contractions demonstrated that its frequency decreases while its amplitude increases with the onset of fatigue. More recent work

The use of electromyography (EMG) signals to characterize muscle fatigue has been widely accepted. Initial work on characterizing muscle fatigue during isometric contractions demonstrated that its frequency decreases while its amplitude increases with the onset of fatigue. More recent work concentrated on developing techniques to characterize dynamic contractions for use in clinical and training applications. Studies demonstrated that as fatigue progresses, the EMG signal undergoes a shift in frequency, and different physiological mechanisms on the possible cause of the shift were considered. Time-frequency processing, using the Wigner distribution or spectrogram, is one of the techniques used to estimate the instantaneous mean frequency and instantaneous median frequency of the EMG signal using a variety of techniques. However, these time-frequency methods suffer either from cross-term interference when processing signals with multiple components or time-frequency resolution due to the use of windowing. This study proposes the use of the matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) with a Gaussian dictionary to process EMG signals produced during both isometric and dynamic contractions. In particular, the MPD obtains unique time-frequency features that represent the EMG signal time-frequency dependence without suffering from cross-terms or loss in time-frequency resolution. As the MPD does not depend on an analysis window like the spectrogram, it is more robust in applying the timefrequency features to identify the spectral time-variation of the EGM signal.

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2012

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When resilience rides the cycle of fatigue: the role of interpersonal enjoyment on daily fatigue in women with fibromyalgia

Description

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition characterized by debilitating fatigue. This study examined the dynamic relation between interpersonal enjoyment and fatigue in 102 partnered and 74 unpartnered women with FM. Participants provided three daily ratings for 21 days. They

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition characterized by debilitating fatigue. This study examined the dynamic relation between interpersonal enjoyment and fatigue in 102 partnered and 74 unpartnered women with FM. Participants provided three daily ratings for 21 days. They rated their fatigue in late morning and at the end of the day. Both partnered and unpartnered participants reported their interpersonal enjoyment in the combined familial, friendship, and work domains (COMBINED domain) in the afternoon. Additionally, partnered participants reported their interpersonal enjoyment in the spousal domain. The study was guided by three hypotheses at the within-person level, based on daily diaries: (1) elevated late morning fatigue would predict diminished afternoon interpersonal enjoyment; (2) diminished interpersonal enjoyment would predict elevated end-of-day fatigue; (3) interpersonal enjoyment would mediate the late morning to end-of-day fatigue relationship. In cross-level models, the study explored whether individual differences (between-person) in late morning fatigue and afternoon interpersonal enjoyment would moderate within-person relations from late morning fatigue to afternoon interpersonal enjoyment, and from afternoon interpersonal enjoyment to end-of-day fatigue. Furthermore, it explored whether the hypothesized relationships at the within-person level would also emerge at the between-person level (between-person mediation models). Multilevel structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling were employed for model testing, separately for partnered and unpartnered participants. Within-person mediation models supported that on high fatigue mornings, afternoon interpersonal enjoyment was dampened in the spousal and combined domains in partnered and unpartnered samples. Moreover, low afternoon interpersonal enjoyment in both the spousal and combined domains predicted elevated end-of-day fatigue. Afternoon interpersonal enjoyment mediated the relationship of late morning to end-of-day fatigue in the combined domain but in not the spousal domain. Cross-level moderation analyses showed that individual differences in afternoon spousal enjoyment moderated the day-to-day relation between afternoon spousal enjoyment and end-of-day fatigue. Finally, the mediational chain was not observed at the between-person level. These findings suggest that preserving interpersonal enjoyment in non-spousal relations limits within-day increases in FM fatigue. They highlight the importance of examining domain-specificity in interpersonal enjoyment when studying fatigue, and suggest that targeting enjoyment in social relations may improve the efficacy of existing treatments.

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Date Created
2013

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Effect of rolling induced anisotropy on fatigue crack initiation and short crack propagation in Al 2024-T351

Description

A full understanding of material behavior is important for the prediction of residual useful life of aerospace structures via computational modeling. In particular, the influence of rolling-induced anisotropy on fatigue properties has not been studied extensively and it is likely

A full understanding of material behavior is important for the prediction of residual useful life of aerospace structures via computational modeling. In particular, the influence of rolling-induced anisotropy on fatigue properties has not been studied extensively and it is likely to have a meaningful effect. In this work, fatigue behavior of a wrought Al alloy (2024-T351) is studied using notched uniaxial samples with load axes along either the longitudinal or transverse direction, and center notched biaxial samples (cruciforms) with a uniaxial stress state of equivalent amplitude about the bore. Local composition and crystallography were quantified before testing using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Electron Backscattering Diffraction. Interrupted fatigue testing at stresses close to yielding was performed on the samples to nucleate and propagate short cracks and nucleation sites were located and characterized using standard optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results show that crack nucleation occurred due to fractured particles for longitudinal dogbone/cruciform samples; while transverse samples nucleated cracks by debonded and fractured particles. Change in crack nucleation mechanism is attributed to dimensional change of particles with respect to the material axes caused by global anisotropy. Crack nucleation from debonding reduced life till matrix fracture because debonded particles are sharper and generate matrix cracks sooner than their fractured counterparts. Longitudinal samples experienced multisite crack initiation because of reduced cross sectional areas of particles parallel to the loading direction. Conversely the favorable orientation of particles in transverse samples reduced instances of particle fracture eliminating multisite cracking and leading to increased fatigue life. Cyclic tests of cruciform samples showed that crack growth favors longitudinal and transverse directions with few instances of crack growth 45 degrees (diagonal) to the rolling direction. The diagonal crack growth is attributed to stronger influences of local anisotropy on crack nucleation. It was observed that majority of the time crack nucleation is governed by the mixed influences of global and local anisotropies. Measurements of crystal directions parallel to the load on main crack paths revealed directions clustered near the {110} planes and high index directions. This trend is attributed to environmental effects as a result of cyclic testing in air.

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Date Created
2011

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An exploratory study: examining emergency department design-layout and nursing physical fatigue

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ABSTRACT Nursing physical fatigue is a critical issue that may lead to degradation of care delivery and ultimately result in medical errors. This issue is equally relevant due to the looming shortage of nurses, which has been linked to the

ABSTRACT Nursing physical fatigue is a critical issue that may lead to degradation of care delivery and ultimately result in medical errors. This issue is equally relevant due to the looming shortage of nurses, which has been linked to the physical demands and potential occupational hazards intrinsic to the profession; as well as to the graying of the nursing workforce who experiences gradual loss of strength and agility that accompanies aging as time in the career advances. In a hospital Emergency Department, the level of nursing physical fatigue can potentially reach its threshold in light of challenging workloads, scope of job assignments and demanding schedules. While in other safety-sensitive industries such as aviation and nuclear plants, similar concerns have been the object of systematic research and addressed with consequent regulations, just recently, the healthcare sector has been engaged in further investigations. This study proposed to explore the linkage between Emergency Department design-layout and nursing physical fatigue. It was expected that further understanding on this relationship would support evidence-based design propositions linking nursing wellness, job satisfaction, and performance to a higher quality of care and improved patient safety levels. To this end, data collection was performed during four weeks in a community-based hospital. A convenience sample of twenty-four eligible nurses was invited to participate in this two-part study. The first section consisted of the completion of a self-administered questionnaire, which assessed nurses' perception of the impact of working conditions on nursing physical fatigue. The second section included the monitoring, through the use of accelerometers, of nurses' actual activity intensity levels during three consecutive shifts. Among other findings, data demonstrated that nurses perceive several attributes or components of the built environment as potential contributors to physical fatigue. In addition, various operational practices and organizational protocols were linked to physical fatigue. Contrary to nurses' perception of physical fatigue, their actual physical activity levels fell mostly between sedentary or light intensity ranges. This paradox offers the opportunity for design interventions that, in alignment with operational practices and organizational protocols will enhance nurses' performance and improve nurses' retention.

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Date Created
2011