Matching Items (9)

Parental Overprotection and Temperamental Negative Affectivity as Predictors of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Young Adulthood

Description

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and classic risk factors only predict half of the variance of cases. In this study, parental overprotection and

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and classic risk factors only predict half of the variance of cases. In this study, parental overprotection and temperamental negative affectivity both significantly correlated with blood pressure and heart rate, which suggests the importance of examining early life factors when determining one's risk for CVD.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Retinal Vessel Diameter and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Young Adults

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Previous studies suggest an association between depression and anxiety in childhood and adolescence and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of the present study was to

Previous studies suggest an association between depression and anxiety in childhood and adolescence and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of the present study was to test whether depression and anxiety symptoms in young adulthood were associated with retinal vessel diameter, a subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease. We further tested whether associations for depression were similar to associations for anxiety. Participants completed questionnaires about their depression and anxiety symptoms and underwent retinal imaging. Retinal vessel diameter was assessed using computer software. Results showed no association between depression or anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel diameter, suggesting that retinal vessel diameter may not signal subclinical cardiovascular risk in young adults with symptoms of depression and anxiety.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Physiological Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Anthracycline-based Chemotherapy

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Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer

Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, functional impairments, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness. These negative outcomes have implications for early morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise preconditioning (exercise commenced prior to initiating chemotherapy and continued throughout treatment cycles) preserves health-related outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Here, we present a subset of preliminary data from an ongoing trial (NCT02842658) that is focused on VO2peak and skeletal muscle outcomes from the first 10 participants that have enrolled in the trial. Breast cancer patients (N=10; 50 ± 11 y; 168 ± 4 cm; 92 ± 37 kg; 32.3 ± 12.3 kg/m2) scheduled to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: 1) exercise preconditioning, (3 days per week of supervised exercise throughout treatment) or 2) standard of care (attention-control). Pre-testing occurred 1-2 week prior to chemotherapy. The interventions were initiated 1 week prior to chemotherapy and continued throughout anthracycline treatment. Post-testing occurred 3-7 days following the last anthracycline treatment. VO2peak (L/min) was reduced by 16% in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas VO2peak was preserved in the exercise preconditioning group. Trends for greater preservation and/or improvement in the exercise preconditioning group were also observed for lean body mass and peak heart rate. Hand grip strength was not changed in either group (P > 0.05). Both groups demonstrated an increase in ultrasound-derived echogenicity measures of the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05), indicating changes in the composition of the skeletal muscle during treatment. These preliminary data highlight that exercise preconditioning may serve as a strategy to preserve cardiorespiratory fitness and perhaps lean mass during anthracycline treatment of breast cancer. There remains a need for larger, definitive clinical trials to identify strategies to prevent the array of chemotherapy-induced toxicities that are observed in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Effects of Yoga on Cardiovascular Measures

Description

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare cardiovascular responses of two different types of yoga (Vinyasa Flow and Meditative).
Methods: 9 female college students (age 18-24)

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare cardiovascular responses of two different types of yoga (Vinyasa Flow and Meditative).
Methods: 9 female college students (age 18-24) were assigned to two yoga sessions, Vinyasa Flow and Meditative yoga. Each participant attended one session of each type of yoga, where their cardiovascular responses were measured both pre and post yoga session. Heart rate, Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood pressure were all measured.
Results: Meditative yoga showed a significant difference in the acute response of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and RPE. Vinyasa Flow yoga showed a significant difference the acute response of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and RPE. Heart rate was significantly different when comparing measurements before each yoga session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and RPE were all significantly different when comparing acute measurements after each respective session. Significance was set to p < 0.05.
Conclusions: Overall, the hypothesis was supported that there was a difference in cardiovascular measurements. Meditative yoga was better at significantly decreasing blood pressure acutely, whereas Vinyasa Flow yoga increased blood pressure acutely. This suggests that Meditative yoga could be suggested over Vinyasa Flow yoga for certain individuals with hypertension. Differences between the yoga practices were found and the cardiovascular effects of different yoga practices can be better understood due to this research.

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  • 2019-05

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The efficacy of nopales (Opuntia spp) on lipoprotein profile and oxidative stress among moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

Description

Background: Evidence about the purported hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of nopales (prickly pear cactus pads) is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of nopales for improving cardiometabolic risk factors and

Background: Evidence about the purported hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of nopales (prickly pear cactus pads) is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of nopales for improving cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress, compared to control, in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Design: In a randomized crossover trial, participants were assigned to a 2-wk intervention with 2 cups/day of nopales or cucumbers (control), with a 2 to 3-wk washout period. The study included 16 adults (5 male; 46±14 y; BMI = 31.4±5.7 kg/m2) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c] = 137±21 mg/dL), but otherwise healthy. Main outcomes measured included: dietary intake (energy, macronutrients and micronutrients), cardiometabolic risk markers (total cholesterol, LDL-c, high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], triglycerides, cholesterol distribution in LDL and HDL subfractions, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment, and C-reactive protein), and oxidative stress markers (vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, oxidized LDL, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation). Effects of treatment, time, or interactions were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There was no significant treatment-by-time effect for any dietary composition data, lipid profile, cardiometabolic outcomes, or oxidative stress markers. A significant time effect was observed for energy, which was decreased in both treatments (cucumber, -8.3%; nopales, -10.1%; pTime=0.026) mostly due to lower mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake (pTime=0.023 and pTime=0.003, respectively). Both treatments significantly increased triglyceride concentrations (cucumber, 14.8%; nopales, 15.2%; pTime=0.020). Despite the lack of significant treatment-by-time effects, great individual response variability was observed for all outcomes. After the cucumber and nopales phases, a decrease in LDL-c was observed in 44% and 63% of the participants respectively. On average LDL-c was decreased by 2.0 mg/dL (-1.4%) after the cucumber phase and 3.9 mg/dL (-2.9%) after the nopales phase (pTime=0.176). Pro-atherogenic changes in HDL subfractions were observed in both interventions over time, by decreasing the proportion of HDL-c in large HDL (cucumber, -5.1%; nopales, -5.9%; pTime=0.021) and increasing the proportion in small HDL (cucumber, 4.1%; nopales, 7.9%; pTime=0.002). Conclusions: These data do not support the purported benefits of nopales at doses of 2 cups/day for 2-wk on markers of lipoprotein profile, cardiometabolic risk, and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic adults.

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Date Created
  • 2013

Fish oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk in individuals of blood type A and blood type O

Description

The omega-3 fatty acids in fatty fish and fish oil, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), have been associated with a reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease. Blood type

The omega-3 fatty acids in fatty fish and fish oil, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), have been associated with a reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease. Blood type is a known contributor to risk for cardiovascular events. This study evaluated the effect of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular risk markers in adults with blood types A or O. An 8-week parallel-arm, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in healthy adult men and women with either blood type A (BTA) or blood type O (BTO). Participants were randomized to receive fish oil supplements (n=10 [3 BTA/7 BTO]; 2 g [containing 1.2 g EPA+DHA]/d) or a coconut oil supplement (n=7 [3 BTA/4 BTO]; 2 g/d). Markers that were examined included total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C). Results indicated that the percent change in LDL cholesterol was significantly greater in the coconut oil group vs the fish oil group (-14.8±12.2% vs +2.8±18.9% respectively, p=0.048). There were no other significant differences between treatment groups, or between blood types A and O, for the other cardiovascular risk markers. Further research with a larger and more diverse sample may yield a more conclusive result.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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An experimental replication and refinement of the undoing hypothesis of positive emotions

Description

Broaden and build theory (BBT; Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) postulates that positive emotions expand the scope of one's attention and thought-action repertoires (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005). Within the boundaries of BBT,

Broaden and build theory (BBT; Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) postulates that positive emotions expand the scope of one's attention and thought-action repertoires (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005). Within the boundaries of BBT, the undoing hypothesis (Fredrickson, 1998, Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998) argues that positive emotions themselves do not bring forth specific action tendencies or urges; therefore, they do not consequently require an increase in cardiovascular activity to carry out the urge. On the other hand, positive emotions have evolved to subdue the cardiovascular response previously initiated by negative emotions. This dissertation proposes that the real power of positive emotions might be to undo not the effects of negative emotions themselves, however, but simply reduce the arousal itself. This dissertation used minor physiological arousal (e.g., a step-stool task) to simulate the cardiovascular effects of the stress manipulations used in previous tests of the undoing hypothesis by Fredrickson and colleagues. This dissertation asks if positive emotions undo the cardiovascular reactivity of an emotionally neutral stimulus. Positive emotions were induced through one film clip (i.e., a happy film clip) and was compared to a neutral film clip (no emotion elicited). An experimental design measured the effects of arousal induction and film clip on participants' cardiovascular activity. Results indicated that positive emotions had the same effect as no emotions on participants' cardiovascular activity. Implications for theory and research are provided, as well as an assessment of the study's strengths and limitations. Finally, several directions for future research are offered.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Comparison of high-nitrate versus low-nitrate diets on cardiovascular health in post-menopausal women

Description

Background. Despite research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of essential hypertension, instances of this condition continue to rise. Recent findings indicate that the administration of dietary nitrates, in the

Background. Despite research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of essential hypertension, instances of this condition continue to rise. Recent findings indicate that the administration of dietary nitrates, in the form of beetroot juice and other nitrate-rich vegetables, may offer anti-hypertensive effects in various study populations.

Objective. This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial sought to compare the effects of high-nitrate vegetable salads to the effects of low-nitrate canned vegetables on plasma nitrate
itrite concentration, peripheral and central-aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse wave velocity, and flow-mediated dilation.

Methods. Healthy, post-menopausal women (n=5; 80% Caucasian; 52.6 ± 5.7 years) with mildly elevated blood pressure (mean blood pressure ≥ 115/70 mm Hg and < 140/80 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to ingest a fresh, high-nitrate vegetable salad or a low-nitrate vegetable medley, twice per day, for a total of 10 consecutive days. Given the crossover design of the trial, participants observed a two to three week washout period followed by reassignment to the opposite condition. Findings were considered significant at a p-value < 0.05, and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests compared mean differences between conditions.

Results. Plasma nitrate
itrite concentration was significantly higher following consumption of the high-nitrate versus the low-nitrate condition (p = 0.043). Conversely, the differences in peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not statistically significant (p = 0.345 and p = 0.684 for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively) nor were the differences in central-aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures statistically significant (p = 0.225 and p = 0.465 for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively). Similarly, when comparing the effects of the high-nitrate condition to the low-nitrate condition, the difference in pulse wave velocity was not statistically significant (p = 0.465). Finally, flow-mediated dilation tended to improve following consumption of the high nitrate condition (p = 0.080).

Conclusion. Twice daily consumption of a fresh, high-nitrate vegetable salad significantly increased plasma nitrate
itrite concentration. Although the trial was underpowered, there was a trend for improved flow-mediated dilation. Finally, twice daily consumption of a fresh, high-nitrate vegetable salad did not significantly lower peripheral or central-aortic systolic or diastolic blood pressures or pulse wave velocity.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Does Touch and Talk Increase Cardiovascular Synchrony in Married Couples?

Description

Literature was reviewed about how synchrony occurs in infant-parent dyads, in emotion, and physiologically in couple dyads. Social baseline theory suggests that both conversation and interpersonal touch confer benefits by

Literature was reviewed about how synchrony occurs in infant-parent dyads, in emotion, and physiologically in couple dyads. Social baseline theory suggests that both conversation and interpersonal touch confer benefits by reducing burden on the participants through coregulatory processes. The current study examined how affectionate touch and positive conversation influenced physiological synchrony, a potential mechanism of physiological coregulation, in couples. Because synchrony is believed to occur within the autonomic nervous system, in the present study, physiological synchrony was measured using cardiac interbeat interval (IBI) as an indicator of autonomic nervous system activation. Couples were assigned to one of four conditions: interpersonal touch with positive conversation, interpersonal touch without conversation, positive conversation with no interpersonal touch, and neither interpersonal touch nor conversation. We hypothesized that 1) IBI synchrony between spouses within the real data would be significantly higher than within a phase-shuffled version of the data; and 2) synchrony would be strongest in the touch-talk condition, followed by the touch-no talk condition, followed by the talk-no touch- condition, and finally by the no touch-no talk condition. We also investigated whether there was a tendency for husbands or wives to serve as leader or follower in the four conditions. Using windowed lagged cross-correlations, we found that synchrony within the real data was stronger than synchrony within the shuffled data, suggesting that it reflects an ongoing interpersonal process. Next, we found that there was significantly greater synchrony in the touch-talk than in the touch-no talk condition, marginally greater synchrony in the touch-no talk condition than in the no touch-talk condition, and significantly greater synchrony in the no touch-talk than in the no touch-no talk conditions, suggesting that talk, rather than touch, was driving these synchrony levels. We also found that the only condition with a significant level of leading-following pattern was the no touch-talk condition. More husbands than wives led the covariation in IBI when couples were conversing but not touching. When touch was included this effect did not occur. Future research should include potential moderators such as marital satisfaction and investigate whether seeing one’s partner influences synchrony.

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Date Created
  • 2018