Matching Items (3)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

134138-Thumbnail Image.png

Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction

Description

This thesis was prepared by Tyler Maynard and Hayley Monroe, who are students at Arizona State University studying to complete their B.S.E.s in Civil Engineering and Construction Engineering, respectively. Both students are members of Barrett, the Honors College, at Arizona

This thesis was prepared by Tyler Maynard and Hayley Monroe, who are students at Arizona State University studying to complete their B.S.E.s in Civil Engineering and Construction Engineering, respectively. Both students are members of Barrett, the Honors College, at Arizona State University, and have prepared the following document for the purpose of completing their undergraduate honors thesis. The early sections of this document comprise a general, introductory overview of earthquakes and liquefaction as a phenomenon resulting from earthquakes. In the latter sections, this document analyzes the relationship between the furthest hypocentral distance to observed liquefaction and the earthquake magnitude published in 2006 by Wang, Wong, Dreger, and Manga. This research was conducted to gain a greater understanding of the factors influencing liquefaction and to compare the existing relationship between the maximum distance for liquefaction and earthquake magnitude to updated earthquake data compiled for the purpose of this report. As part of this research, 38 different earthquake events from the Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association with liquefaction data were examined. Information regarding earthquake depth, distance to the furthest liquefaction event (epicentral and hypocentral), and earthquake magnitude (Mw) from recent earthquake events (1989 to 2016) was compared to the previously established relationship of liquefaction occurrence distance to moment magnitude. The purpose of this comparison was to determine if recent events still comply with the established relationship. From this comparison, it was determined that the established relationship still generally holds true for the large magnitude earthquakes (magnitude 7.5 or above) that were considered herein (with only 2.6% falling above the furthest expected liquefaction distance). However, this relationship may be too conservative for recent, low magnitude earthquake events; those events examined below magnitude 6.3 did not approach established range of furthest expected liquefaction distance. The overestimation of furthest hypocentral distance to liquefaction at low magnitudes suggest the empirical relationship may need to be adjusted to more accurately capture recent events, as reported by GEER.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-12

135563-Thumbnail Image.png

Geomembrane Seam Strain Concentrations in Landfill Liners

Description

This dissertation details an attempt to experimentally evaluate the Giroud et al. (1995) concentration factors for geomembranes loaded in tension perpendicular to a seam by laboratory measurement. Field observations of the performance of geomembrane liner systems indicates that tears occur

This dissertation details an attempt to experimentally evaluate the Giroud et al. (1995) concentration factors for geomembranes loaded in tension perpendicular to a seam by laboratory measurement. Field observations of the performance of geomembrane liner systems indicates that tears occur at average strains well below the yield criteria. These observations have been attributed, in part, to localized strain concentrations in the geomembrane loaded in tension in a direction perpendicular to the seam. Giroud et al. (1995) has presented theoretical strain concentration factors for geomembrane seams loaded in tension when the seam is perpendicular to the applied tensile strain. However, these factors have never been verified. This dissertation was prepared in fulfillment of the requirements for graduation from Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University. The work described herein was sponsored by the National Science Foundation as a part of a larger research project entitled "NEESR: Performance Based Design of Geomembrane Liner Systems Subject to Extreme Loading." The work is motivated by geomembrane tears observed at the Chiquita Canyon landfill following the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Numerical analysis of the strains in the Chiquita Canyon landfill liner induced by the earthquake indicated that the tensile strains, were well below the yield strain of the geomembrane material. In order to explain why the membrane did fail, strain concentration factors due to bending at seams perpendicular to the load in the model proposed by Giroud et al. (1995) had to be applied to the geomembrane (Arab, 2011). Due to the localized nature of seam strain concentrations, digital image correlation (DIC) was used. The high resolution attained with DIC had a sufficient resolution to capture the localized strain concentrations. High density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane samples prepared by a leading geomembrane manufacturer were used in the testing described herein. The samples included both extrusion fillet and dual hot wedge fusion seams. The samples were loaded in tension in a standard triaxial test apparatus. to the seams in the samples including both extrusion fillet and dual hot wedge seams. DIC was used to capture the deformation field and strain fields were subsequently created by computer analysis.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2016-05

156935-Thumbnail Image.png

Application of EICP for Soil Improvement for Finer-Grained Soils

Description

The public has expressed a growing desire for more sustainable and green technologies to be implemented in society. Bio-cementation is a method of soil improvement that satisfies this demand for sustainable and green technology. Bio-cementation can be performed

The public has expressed a growing desire for more sustainable and green technologies to be implemented in society. Bio-cementation is a method of soil improvement that satisfies this demand for sustainable and green technology. Bio-cementation can be performed by using microbes or free enzymes which precipitate carbonate within the treated soil. These methods are referred to as microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) and enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP). The precipitation of carbonate is the formation of crystalline minerals that fill the void spaces within a body of soil.

This thesis investigates the application of EICP in a soil collected from the Arizona State University Polytechnic campus. The surficial soil in the region is known to be a clayey sand. Both EICP and MICP have their limitations in soils consisting of a significant percentage of fines. Fine-grained soils have a greater surface area which requires the precipitation of a greater amount of carbonate to increase the soil’s strength. EICP was chosen due to not requiring any living organisms during the application, having a faster reaction rate and size constraints.

To determine the effectiveness of EICP as a method of improving a soil with a significant amount of fines, multiple comparisons were made: 1) The soil’s strength was analyzed on its own, untreated; 2) The soil was treated with EICP to determine if bio-cementation can strengthen the soil; 3) The soil had sand added to reduce the fines content and was treated with EICP to determine how the fines percentage effects the strength of a soil when treated with EICP.

While the EICP treatment increased the strength of the soil by over 3-fold, the strength was still relatively low when compared to results of other case studies treating sandy soils. More research could be done with triaxial testing due to the samples of the Polytechnic soil’s strength coming from capillarity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018