Matching Items (5)

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Mood Influences Working Memory Capacity

Description

Working memory is the cognitive system responsible for storing and maintaining information in short-term memory and retrieving cues from long-term memory. Working memory capacity (WMC) is needed for goal maintenance

Working memory is the cognitive system responsible for storing and maintaining information in short-term memory and retrieving cues from long-term memory. Working memory capacity (WMC) is needed for goal maintenance and to ignore task-irrelevant stimuli (Engle & Kane, 2003). Emotions are one type of task-irrelevant stimuli that could distract an individual from a task (Smallwood, Fitzgerald, Miles, & Phillips, 2009). There are studies that show there is a relation between emotions and working memory capacity. The direction of this relationship, though, is unclear (Kensinger, 2009). In this study, emotions served as a distractor and task performance was examined for differences in the effect of emotion depending on participants' working memory capacity. The participants watched a mood induction video, then were told to complete a complex-span working memory task. The mood induction was successful- participants watching the negative emotional video were in a less positive mood after watching the video than the participants that watched a neutral video. However, the results of the complex-span working memory task showed no significant difference in the results between participants in the negative versus neutral mood. These results may provide support to an alternative hypothesis: cognitive tasks can diminish the effects of emotions (Dillen, Heslenfeld, & Koole, 2009).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Exploring the Relation Between Motivational and Cognitive Systems: The Case of Individual Differences in Religiosity and Working Memory

Description

This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity

This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity questionnaire and engaged in a battery of tasks that were used to assess their Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and overall ability to maintain goal-directed behavior. The Stroop task was used to examine the participants' ability to maintain goals in the face of interference. It was predicted that religiosity and WMC would be inversely related and that when we controlled for religiosity, WMC would be the only significant predictor of Stroop performance. Furthermore, we hypothesized that religiosity and Stoop would be inversely related, whereas WMC and Stroop would be positively correlated with one another. Religiosity and Stroop performance were each divided into three different components. Religiosity was divided into: Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and CARMA. Stroop Performance was measured through Stroop Accuracy, the Stroop Effect, and Post-Error Slowing. The results of our study supported each of our hypotheses. These findings demonstrated that there is a cognitive process underlying motivational systems, such as religion, which affect an individual's ability to sustain goal-directed behavior.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Escaping the Problem: Consumer’s Reactions to a Self-Discrepancy

Description

Self-discrepancies motivate consumers to reduce the discrepancy’s negative effects by seeking products that make them feel better. Consumers use various strategies to mitigate these effects through within-domain purchases, across-domain purchases,

Self-discrepancies motivate consumers to reduce the discrepancy’s negative effects by seeking products that make them feel better. Consumers use various strategies to mitigate these effects through within-domain purchases, across-domain purchases, or purchases designed to distract. Currently, there is a gap in the literature regarding how consumers trade off various compensatory consumption strategies when they face the option to evaluate different strategy at the same time. Through the current research presented here, as well as two proposed studies, I aim to find that people prefer escapism products and services (versus direct resolution and fluid consumption) when faced with a self-discrepancy. I address the literature gap by proposing studies for a mediator (working memory capacity) and a moderator (ease of the solution) on this relationship. This phenomenon occurs because self-discrepancies decrease working memory capacity (cognition): when cognitive resources are low, people will tend to prefer affective stimuli (escapism products). Finally, I plan an experiment to show that difficulty moderates this relationship. When the relative difficulty of the escapism solution is high, participants may be more likely to choose a different, relatively easier strategy. The current findings and suggested future studies contribute to the literature on compensatory consumption, escapism, and working memory capacity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The role of inhibitory control in working memory capacity and reasoning ability

Description

Retrieving an item from memory can cause subsequent suppression of related items. This phenomenon, involving a procedure where participants retrieve category-exemplar pairs (e.g. FRUIT-orange), is known as Retrieval Induced

Retrieving an item from memory can cause subsequent suppression of related items. This phenomenon, involving a procedure where participants retrieve category-exemplar pairs (e.g. FRUIT-orange), is known as Retrieval Induced Forgetting (RIF). Individuals who demonstrate greater amounts of RIF also exhibit greater working memory capacity (WMC). Reasoning ability is highly related to WMC, which may suggest that a similar relation exists between RIF and Reasoning ability. The goal of the present investigation was to examine this possibility. Rotation Span and a Letter Number task were used as indicators of WMC and a Cognitive Reflection Test was used to measure Reasoning ability. A significant RIF effect was found, but it did not significantly correlate with WMC or Reasoning ability. These results demonstrate the importance of designing a RIF task appropriately, selecting measures of Reasoning ability, and the theoretical accounts of the RIF effect. One possibility is that by not controlling for output interference, the obtained RIF effect cannot be reasoned to come from the executive control process as suggested by the inhibition account. Although this account is the chief explanation of the RIF effect, it has been challenged by alternative accounts and it remains unclear how the underlying mechanism of RIF is related to higher cognitive abilities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Self-explaining and individual differences in multimedia learning

Description

Multimodal presentations have been found to facilitate learning, however, may be a disadvantage for low spatial ability students if they require spatial visualization. This disadvantage stems from their limited capacity

Multimodal presentations have been found to facilitate learning, however, may be a disadvantage for low spatial ability students if they require spatial visualization. This disadvantage stems from their limited capacity to spatially visualize and retain information from both text and diagrams for integration. Similarly, working memory capacity (WMC) likely plays a key role in a learner's ability to retain information presented to them via both modalities. The present study investigated whether or not the act of self-explaining helps resolve deficits in learning caused by individual differences in spatial ability, working memory capacity, and prior knowledge when learning with text, or text and diagrams. No interactions were found, but prior knowledge consistently predicted performance on like posttests. The author presents methodological and theoretical explanations as to the null results of the present study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014