Matching Items (7)

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The Effects of Recent Minimum Wage Increases on the Wage Distribution in the State of Arizona

Description

Minimum wage legislation has always been a controversial topic within the fields of politics and economics. There are those who support it under the belief that those affected will be

Minimum wage legislation has always been a controversial topic within the fields of politics and economics. There are those who support it under the belief that those affected will be better off, seeing increased wages, greater efficiency, and overall economic prosperity, whereas its opponents argue against it under the belief that it could lead to negative effects such as decreased employment, higher prices, and loss of productivity. This is something that has recently come up in Arizona after the enactment of Proposition 206 (Prop.206), a law which is set to raise the state minimum wage from $8.05 in 2016 to $12.00 by 2020. In this paper, rather than taking a political stance, however, we seek to find answers about the real effects that this minimum wage law has had on wage earners through the manner in which it has affected the state’s wage distribution, meaning the percentage of earners making a certain hourly rate, or between a certain wage range (i.e. $10.00 to $10.50). We begin this search by looking at May Wage Estimates offered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). From that data, we created wage distributions for the state of Arizona for the years 2011-2018. These showed us what percentage of workers in the state are making a certain hourly rate based on the total number of employees in Arizona. By summarizing this through tables and histograms, we can also visually see the way in which AZ wage distributions have changed over time. However, we also sought to visually compare the AZ wage distributions with that of nearby states, so we also used wage distribution data from Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico. Finally, we also wanted to quantify the fixed effects of enacting the legislation in the state of AZ. To do so we ran a difference-in-differences analysis that gave us an actual value measuring how recent minimum wage increases have affected the percentage of total wage earning less than $11.40 per hour. We discovered that our results, although not extremely significant (due to available data), do strongly indicate that the recent minimum wage legislation in AZ has increased the percentage of workers earning more than that amount per hour. Following that, we also give recommendations that could improve the results found in this report.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Case for Diversity in the Tech Workplace

Description

Do more diverse teams create better outcomes, creatively and fiscally? Why do heterogeneous groups think more innovatively and create products that reach a wider audience? Diverse teams bring unique perspectives

Do more diverse teams create better outcomes, creatively and fiscally? Why do heterogeneous groups think more innovatively and create products that reach a wider audience? Diverse teams bring unique perspectives that force individuals to reimagine their world views and question what they know. This thesis focuses on the benefits of increased racial and gender diversity in the workplace. There is a dramatic difference in the number of women and people of color in tech companies generally, in STEM roles, and in leadership roles. The benefits of diverse teams (along all axis) is indisputable, yet companies still fight diversifying their employee base. Diversity in the workplace dramatically impacts the bottom line, but it is also incredibly important from a human rights perspective. The first step to reflecting the population's diversity ratio at all levels of business is educating the future leaders of America to its importance, both as a social justice initiative and a capitalistic one as well. I created and hosted a panel with local tech entrepreneurs and investors to discuss gender diversity, the struggles being a woman in business and solutions moving forward.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

H-2B Visa. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Description

For my thesis project I decided to research the H-2B visa program that is run by the United States Department of State. The program allows U.S employers who meet strict

For my thesis project I decided to research the H-2B visa program that is run by the United States Department of State. The program allows U.S employers who meet strict requirements to bring foreign nationals to the U.S in order to fill the jobs that are not being taken by American citizens. The yearly cap for the visas is set at 66,000 workers. 33,000 workers begin their employment the first half of the fiscal year from October 1 to March 31. The second 33,000 workers begin working from April 1 through September 30. I had the chance to speak with an employer and a worker to get a feel for what it was like to be a part of the H-2B visa program. I found out that hiring foreign workers through this program it is not an easy way out of hiring U.S citizens to fill jobs. The cost to hire a worker through the program costs $3,500, plus at least a state required minimum wage. The employer also said that he has to buy ad space in the paper for two weeks, as a pre-requirement to enter the visa program. He says that he will receive one call if he is lucky. The research I did revolves around talking about the myths that surround the visa, such as taking away American jobs, as well as the processing hardships that the employer and worker have to go through before being able to work. YouTube Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UYveMApCml8&feature=em-upload_owner

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Assessing the Economic Impact on Counties in the United States to a Loss of Fossil Fuel Dependence for Energy Production

Description

This project seeks to provide a general picture of the economic dependence on fossil fuels per County in the United States. The purpose for this study is creating a foundation

This project seeks to provide a general picture of the economic dependence on fossil fuels per County in the United States. The purpose for this study is creating a foundation for conversations about the future of fossil fuel workers and counties that depend heavily on fossil fuels. The main indicators utilized for this were employment and payroll data extracted from United States Census Bureau’s County Business Patterns dataset. A section on similarities between fossil fuel workers and other occupations was included, which shows possible alternative industries for fossil fuel workers. The main goal of the project is to provide possible solutions for mitigating job losses in the future. Some proposed solutions include retraining, expanding higher education, and investing in new industries. It is most important for future work to include input from most vulnerable counties and understand the social and cultural complexities that are tied to this problem.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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A Look into Current Immersion Programs and Their Effectiveness in Employment

Description

International students within the United States make up for a large portion of the student
population, especially at Arizona State University (ASU), one of the largest public universities in the

International students within the United States make up for a large portion of the student
population, especially at Arizona State University (ASU), one of the largest public universities in the states (“Most International Students: National Universities”, n.d.). In order to allow for these students to acclimate better to their new surroundings, immersion programs are offered to international students, where they are able to practice and develop their English, as well as learn more about the new culture(s) that surrounds them. This thesis poses the question of how, and in what ways, are immersion programs helping international students in terms of job- and career- readiness. At the conclusion of the thesis, it will recommend different changes that will positively benefit the students. The study focused on third- and fourth-year students at ASU, and the target group were students in the W. P. Carey School of Business. The methodology will be a mixed-methodology approach, starting with a quantitative survey. This survey asks initial questions, such as if a student has been part of an immersion program, in what ways those programs were helpful, and whether or not they had a post-graduate job opportunity in place. Next, a qualitative interview is conducted, where more clarifying questions are asked to deeply examine how students feel about the use, or the lack thereof, of such programs. Through these interviews, the researcher will pull a table of recurrent themes that were mentioned. The study found that the majority of international students at ASU were not part of an immersion program, and there was an overwhelming call for more resources to be put in place for immersion programs to assist students more to be career ready. At the conclusion of the study, three recommendations were made for immersion programs to improve on: placing more emphasis on career planning, a larger focus on interviewing and job preparation, and create more programs that promote more academic planning advising for students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The gendering of criminal stigma: an experiment testing the effects of race/ethnicity and incarceration on women's entry-level job prospects

Description

Over the past 40 years, the rate at which women are incarcerated has increased dramatically. Of the 111,000-plus female inmates currently in prison, most will be returned to the community

Over the past 40 years, the rate at which women are incarcerated has increased dramatically. Of the 111,000-plus female inmates currently in prison, most will be returned to the community and reenter the labor market. Despite its significance in prisoner reentry and in how ex-offenders remain crime-free, previous research finds that employers are unwilling to hire employees with a criminal record. Moreover, Pager (2003) and Pager, Western, and Bonikowski (2009) found that White job applicants with a prison record were more likely to be interviewed or hired than Black or Hispanic applicants without a record. These troubling findings regarding the effect of race/ethnicity, however, are from research that focuses on men's employment. Given the already low job prospects of ex-prisoners makes it more difficult for women with a prison record to find employment, who also face labor market barriers on account of their race/ethnicity and gender. This dissertation research uses two audit methods with an experimental design to examine the independent and interaction effects of race/ethnicity and incarceration on the likelihood women job applicants will advance through the hiring process. Job applications were submitted online and in-person. The effect of race/ethnicity varied by the method used to apply for jobs. When applying for jobs online, Black women had lower odds of employment than White women. Hispanic women, however, had higher odds of employment than White women when food service jobs were applied for in-person. The effect of a prison record was significant in both experiments; the effect was direct online, but conditioned by ethnicity in-person. Hispanic women with a prison record were less likely than White women with a prison record to advance through the hiring process. The results point to the importance of understanding how women are disadvantaged by incarceration and how mass incarceration contributes to racial/ethnic inequality through its effect in the labor market. Several recommendations follow for future research and policies concerning prisoner reentry and the use of criminal record information by employers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The non-criminal consequences of gang membership: impacts on education and employment in the life-course

Description

Research on the consequences of gang membership is limited mainly to the study of crime and victimization. This gives the narrow impression that the effects of gang membership do not

Research on the consequences of gang membership is limited mainly to the study of crime and victimization. This gives the narrow impression that the effects of gang membership do not cascade into other life domains. This dissertation conceptualized gang membership as a snare in the life-course that disrupts progression in conventional life domains. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohort of 1997 (NLSY97) data were used to examine the effects of adolescent gang membership on the nature and patterns of educational attainment and employment over a 12-year period in the life-course. Variants of propensity score weighting were used to assess the effects of gang joining on a range of outcomes pertaining to educational attainment and employment. The key findings in this dissertation include: (1) selection adjustments partially or fully confounded the effects of gang joining; despite this (2) gang joiners had 70 percent the odds of earning a high school diploma and 42 percent the odds of earning a 4-year college degree than matched individuals who avoided gangs; (3) at the 11-year mark, the effect of gang joining on educational attainment exceeded one-half year; (4) gang joiners made up for proximate deficits in high school graduation and college matriculation, but gaps in 4-year college degree and overall educational attainment gained throughout the study; (5) gang joiners were less likely to be employed and more likely to not participate in the labor force, and these differences accelerated toward the end of the study; (6) gang joiners spent an additional one-third of a year jobless relative to their matched counterparts; and (7) the cumulative effect of gang joining on annual income exceeded $14,000, which was explained by the patterning of joblessness rather than the quality of jobs. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are addressed in the concluding chapter of this dissertation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012