Matching Items (23)

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User Experience Laws in Learning

Description

The relationship between user experience, learning, and psychology is complex. There are many rules and concepts that guide experience design. It is likely that some of the guidance is valid

The relationship between user experience, learning, and psychology is complex. There are many rules and concepts that guide experience design. It is likely that some of the guidance is valid whereas other guidance is not. This explores some of that guidance and evaluates how they are linked to learning. Do the guidance’s made 25, 50, 100 years ago still hold true today? Additionally, the psychological background behind the way someone holds memory is important. Knowing how information is stored and processed helps educators provide the best learning experience possible. With an eye toward perception and cognition, this paper examines the relevance of the various pieces of guidance. The results suggest that, overall, this guidance is still valid and valuable to current learning trends and designs. This suggests that user experience designers for education need to pay attention to the guidance provided by psychology when designing learning management systems, placing content in a course, and choosing which aesthetics to follow.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Examining the Effects of Exercise Level on Cognition, Perception, and Emotional Response Modulation

Description

Physical activity is something that everyone engages in at varying levels. It has been linked to positively impacting general wellbeing, as well as preparing the mind and body to

Physical activity is something that everyone engages in at varying levels. It has been linked to positively impacting general wellbeing, as well as preparing the mind and body to learn new skills. However, the significance of physical activity remains under-explored in some areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and emotional intelligence, navigation and planning skills, motor skills, memory capacity, and one’s perception of the ‘value’ of an object or an experience. During sessions, participants were equipped with two physiological sensors: the EEG B-Alert X10 or X24 headset, and the Shimmer GSR3. In addition to these, two external sensors were used: a web camera for recording and evaluating facial expressions, and the Tobii X2-30, X2-60, or Tobii T60XL eye tracking systems, used to monitor visual attention. These sensors were used to collect data while participants completed a series of tasks: the Self-Report of Emotional Intelligence Test, the Tower of London Test, the Motor Speed Test, the Working Memory Capacity Battery, watching product-centered videos, and watching experience-centered videos. Multiple surveys were also conducted, including a demographic survey, a nutritional and health survey, and a sports preference survey. Utilizing these metrics, this study found that those who exercise more experience and express higher levels of emotion, including joy, sadness, contempt, disgust, confusion, frustration, surprise, anger, and fear. This implies a difference in emotional response modulation between those who exercise more and those who exercise less, which in turn implies a difference in perception between the two groups. There were no significant findings related to navigation and planning skills, motor skills, or memory capacity from this analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Somatosensory Modulation during Speech Planning

Description

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the internal forward model processing an efferent copy of the motor command and creating a prediction that is used to cancel out the resulting sensory feedback. Currently, there are no published accounts of the perception of tactile signals for motor tasks and contexts related to the lips during both speech planning and production. In this study, we measured the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech planning using light electrical stimulation below the lower lip by comparing perception during mixed speaking and silent reading conditions. Participants were asked to judge whether a constant near-threshold electrical stimulation (subject-specific intensity, 85% detected at rest) was present during different time points relative to an initial visual cue. In the speaking condition, participants overtly produced target words shown on a computer monitor. In the reading condition, participants read the same target words silently to themselves without any movement or sound. We found that detection of the stimulus was attenuated during speaking conditions while remaining at a constant level close to the perceptual threshold throughout the silent reading condition. Perceptual modulation was most intense during speech production and showed some attenuation just prior to speech production during the planning period of speech. This demonstrates that there is a significant decrease in the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech production as well as milliseconds before speech is even produced which has implications for speech disorders such as stuttering and schizophrenia with pronounced deficits in the somatosensory system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Wham-Womb Effect: Words with the Phoneme /æ/ are Rated as More Rousing than those with /u/

Description

Recent findings support that facial musculature accounts for a form of phonetic sound symbolism. Yu, McBeath, and Glenberg (2019) found that, in both English words and Mandarin pinyin, words with

Recent findings support that facial musculature accounts for a form of phonetic sound symbolism. Yu, McBeath, and Glenberg (2019) found that, in both English words and Mandarin pinyin, words with the middle phoneme /i:/ (as in “gleam”) were rated as more positive than their paired words containing the phoneme /ʌ/ (as in “glum”). The present study tested whether a second largely orthogonal dimension of vowel phoneme production (represented by the phonemes /æ/ vs /u/), is related to a second dimension perpendicular to emotional valence, arousal. Arousal was chosen because it is the second dimension of the Russell Circumplex Model of Affect. In phonetic similarity mappings, this second dimension is typically characterized by oral aperture size and larynx position, but it also appears to follow the continuum of consonance/dissonance. Our findings supported the hypothesis that one-syllable words with the center vowel phoneme /æ/ were reliably rated as more rousing, and less calming, than matched words with the center vowel phoneme /u/. These results extend the Yu, et al. findings regarding the potential contribution of facial musculature to sounds associated with the emotional dimension of arousal, and further confirm a model of sound symbolism related to emotional expression. These findings support that phonemes are not neutral basic units but rather illustrate an innate relationship between embodied emotional expression and speech production.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Understanding the processing of degraded speech: electroencephalographic measures as a surrogate for recovery from concussion

Description

The recent spotlight on concussion has illuminated deficits in the current standard of care with regard to addressing acute and persistent cognitive signs and symptoms of mild brain injury. This

The recent spotlight on concussion has illuminated deficits in the current standard of care with regard to addressing acute and persistent cognitive signs and symptoms of mild brain injury. This stems, in part, from the diffuse nature of the injury, which tends not to produce focal cognitive or behavioral deficits that are easily identified or tracked. Indeed it has been shown that patients with enduring symptoms have difficulty describing their problems; therefore, there is an urgent need for a sensitive measure of brain activity that corresponds with higher order cognitive processing. The development of a neurophysiological metric that maps to clinical resolution would inform decisions about diagnosis and prognosis, including the need for clinical intervention to address cognitive deficits. The literature suggests the need for assessment of concussion under cognitively demanding tasks. Here, a joint behavioral- high-density electroencephalography (EEG) paradigm was employed. This allows for the examination of cortical activity patterns during speech comprehension at various levels of degradation in a sentence verification task, imposing the need for higher-order cognitive processes. Eight participants with concussion listened to true-false sentences produced with either moderately to highly intelligible noise-vocoders. Behavioral data were simultaneously collected. The analysis of cortical activation patterns included 1) the examination of event-related potentials, including latency and source localization, and 2) measures of frequency spectra and associated power. Individual performance patterns were assessed during acute injury and a return visit several months following injury. Results demonstrate a combination of task-related electrophysiology measures correspond to changes in task performance during the course of recovery. Further, a discriminant function analysis suggests EEG measures are more sensitive than behavioral measures in distinguishing between individuals with concussion and healthy controls at both injury and recovery, suggesting the robustness of neurophysiological measures during a cognitively demanding task to both injury and persisting pathophysiology.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Feeling the pull: using magnetic modeling to understand emotions in form

Description

Research in design, emotion, and product experience has focused on establishing a connection between the aesthetic qualities of products and emotions. Studies in product expression have demonstrated relevant patterns between

Research in design, emotion, and product experience has focused on establishing a connection between the aesthetic qualities of products and emotions. Studies in product expression have demonstrated relevant patterns between aesthetics and spatial reasoning. In design research, fully understanding latent qualities of consumers assists in developing an immersive product experience which in turn can engender a lasting product relationship. This study evaluates how people interpret the emotionality of form in order to establish a veritable method for interpreting emotional variables in 3D objects.

This research assesses the emotional perception of aesthetic values in 2D and 3D teapots. A teapot image collection and taxonomy was constructed with 101 images of teapots across four centuries. Eighty-four participants completed a card sorting task of twenty randomly distributed teapot images (taken from the total 101 image collection) into Plutchik's eight emotion categories. Individual pieces of the teapots were coded according to the base, handle, lid, or spout that was presented in the image. The coded pieces from the card-sorting task were arranged per frequency in the overall set. Through the use of response data from the card sorting task, a network of the images was developed in Pathfinder. The content of these results were compared to images of models gathered during an interview with an interactive co-creation method referred to as Magnetic Modeling. Magnetic Modeling is a methodological tool that allowed participants to manipulate individualized pieces of 3D printed teapots into proposed emotional labels.

The findings of this research establish prototypical associations in aesthetic traits and teapot piece combinations for each emotion category. Participant responses were categorized into 4 personas representing the types of perceptual bias in the studies' participants. A discussion and comparison of the methods for academic and theoretical practice is provided.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The internal representation of arm position revealed through the spatial pattern of hand location estimation errors

Description

Our ability to estimate the position of our body parts in space, a fundamentally proprioceptive process, is crucial for interacting with the environment and movement control. For proprioception to support

Our ability to estimate the position of our body parts in space, a fundamentally proprioceptive process, is crucial for interacting with the environment and movement control. For proprioception to support these actions, the Central Nervous System has to rely on a stored internal representation of the body parts in space. However, relatively little is known about this internal representation of arm position. To this end, I developed a method to map proprioceptive estimates of hand location across a 2-d workspace. In this task, I moved each subject's hand to a target location while the subject's eyes were closed. After returning the hand, subjects opened their eyes to verbally report the location of where their fingertip had been. Then, I reconstructed and analyzed the spatial structure of the pattern of estimation errors. In the first couple of experiments I probed the structure and stability of the pattern of errors by manipulating the hand used and tactile feedback provided when the hand was at each target location. I found that the resulting pattern of errors was systematically stable across conditions for each subject, subject-specific, and not uniform across the workspace. These findings suggest that the observed structure of pattern of errors has been constructed through experience, which has resulted in a systematically stable internal representation of arm location. Moreover, this representation is continuously being calibrated across the workspace. In the next two experiments, I aimed to probe the calibration of this structure. To this end, I used two different perturbation paradigms: 1) a virtual reality visuomotor adaptation to induce a local perturbation, 2) and a standard prism adaptation paradigm to induce a global perturbation. I found that the magnitude of the errors significantly increased to a similar extent after each perturbation. This small effect indicates that proprioception is recalibrated to a similar extent regardless of how the perturbation is introduced, suggesting that sensory and motor changes may be two independent processes arising from the perturbation. Moreover, I propose that the internal representation of arm location might be constructed with a global solution and not capable of local changes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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What's in a name: effect of breed perceptions & labeling on attractiveness, adoptions & length of stay for pit-bull-type dogs

Description

Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others; however exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog

Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others; however exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter were compared. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels were compared. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels was analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Movement kinematics and fractal properties in Fitts' law task

Description

Fractal analyses examine variability in a time series to look for temporal structure

or pattern that reveals the underlying processes of a complex system. Although fractal

property has been found in many

Fractal analyses examine variability in a time series to look for temporal structure

or pattern that reveals the underlying processes of a complex system. Although fractal

property has been found in many signals in biological systems, how it relates to

behavioral performance and what it implies about the complex system under scrutiny are

still open questions. In this series of experiments, fractal property, movement kinematics,

and behavioral performance were measured on participants performing a reciprocal

tapping task. In Experiment 1, the results indicated that the alpha value from detrended

fluctuation analysis (DFA) reflected deteriorating performance when visual feedback

delay was introduced into the reciprocal tapping task. This finding suggests that this

fractal index is sensitive to performance level in a movement task. In Experiment 2, the

sensitivity of DFA alpha to the coupling strength between sub-processes within a system

was examined by manipulation of task space visibility. The results showed that DFA

alpha was not influenced by disruption of subsystems coupling strength. In Experiment 3,

the sensitivity of DFA alpha to the level of adaptivity in a system under constraints was

examined. Manipulation of the level of adaptivity was not successful, leading to

inconclusive results to this question.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019