Matching Items (18)

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Prison Rape and Psychological Sequelae: A Call for Research

Description

Prison rape is a pervasive and serious problem affecting many male inmates in U.S. prisons. This paper reviews the literature on prison rape prevalence, victimization risk factors, and the psychological

Prison rape is a pervasive and serious problem affecting many male inmates in U.S. prisons. This paper reviews the literature on prison rape prevalence, victimization risk factors, and the psychological and non-psychological sequelae of prison rape. We address several areas of inquiry needed to guide research and facilitate solutions to the problem of prison rape, especially given the context and intent of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) passed in 2003 by the U.S. Congress. Mental health correlates remain to be studied; for example, the complex post-rape symptoms of prison rape survivors do not appear to be captured by current diagnostic nomenclature. To date, psychology has been largely silent on the issue of prison rape but may have much to offer in terms of describing and treating the psychological impact of victimization, documenting the personal and situational risk and protective factors associated with prison rape, and in designing programs and policy to reduce prison rape.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Prosecutor Pre-Trial Attitudes and Plea-Bargain Behavior Toward Veterans With PTSD

Description

Prosecutors are handling increasing numbers of criminal cases concerning veterans from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). How these prosecutors handle such cases

Prosecutors are handling increasing numbers of criminal cases concerning veterans from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). How these prosecutors handle such cases may reflect their attitudes toward veterans or offenders with PTSD. In turn, their attitudes may affect perceptions of blameworthiness, as well as negotiations about sentencing during the pre-trial stage. The present study investigated the effect of a defendant’s military experience and mental health status (i.e., PTSD) on prosecutors’ offers at the pre-trial stage and their ratings of the defendant’s blameworthiness. Prosecutors’ offers were more lenient to stress-disordered veterans; specifically, they were offered more diversion programs compared to veterans without PTSD and to other offenders with PTSD. Prosecutors also perceived veterans and those with PTSD as less criminally culpable; they also empathized and identified more with veterans and those with PTSD than non-veterans and offenders without PTSD.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Self-Reported Cognitive Symptoms in Military Veteran College Students

Description

An increasing number of military veterans are enrolling in college, primarily due to the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which provides educational benefits to veterans who served on active duty since September

An increasing number of military veterans are enrolling in college, primarily due to the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which provides educational benefits to veterans who served on active duty since September 11, 2001. With rigorous training, active combat situations, and exposure to unexpected situations, the veteran population is at a higher risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and depression. All of these conditions are associated with cognitive consequences, including attention deficits, working memory problems, and episodic memory impairments. Some conditions, particularly mild TBI, are not diagnosed or treated until long after the injury when the person realizes they have cognitive difficulties. Even mild cognitive problems can hinder learning in an academic setting, but there is little data on the frequency and severity of cognitive deficits in veteran college students. The current study examines self-reported cognitive symptoms in veteran students compared to civilian students and how those symptoms relate to service-related conditions. A better understanding of the pattern of self-reported symptoms will help researchers and clinicians determine the veterans who are at higher risk for cognitive and academic difficulties.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Does Chronically Administered Intermittent Restraint Stress (IRS) have Long-Lasting Effects on Fear Extinction and Depressive-Like Behavior?

Description

The current study investigated whether intermittent restraint stress (IRS) would impair fear extinction learning and lead to increased anxiety and depressive- like behaviors and then be attenuated when IRS ends

The current study investigated whether intermittent restraint stress (IRS) would impair fear extinction learning and lead to increased anxiety and depressive- like behaviors and then be attenuated when IRS ends and a post- stress rest period ensues for 6 weeks. Young adult, male Sprague Dawley rats underwent restraint stress using wire mesh (6hr/daily) for five days with two days off before restraint resumed for three weeks for a total of 23 restraint days. The groups consisted of control (CON) with no restraint other than food and water restriction yoked to the restrained groups, stress immediate (STR-IMM), which were restrained then fear conditioned soon after the end of the IRS paradigm, and stress given a rest for 6 weeks before fear conditioning commenced (STR-R6). Rats were fear conditioned by pairing a 20 second tone with a footshock, then given extinction training for two days (15 tone only on each day). On the first day of extinction, all groups discriminated well on the first trial, but then as trials progressed, STR-R6 discriminated between tone and context less than did CON. On the second day of extinction, STR- IMM froze more to context in the earlier trials than compared to STR-R6 and CON. As trials progressed STR-IMM and STR-R6 froze more to context than compared to CON. Together, CON discriminated between tone and context better than did STR-IMM and STR-R6. Sucrose preference, novelty suppressed feeding, and elevated plus maze was performed after fear extinction was completed. No statistical differences were observed among groups for sucrose preference or novelty suppressed feeding. For the elevated plus maze, STR-IMM entered the open arms and the sum of both open and closed arms fewer than did STR- R6 and CON. We interpret the findings to suggest that the stress groups displayed increased hypervigilance and anxiety with STR-R6 exhibiting a unique phenotype than that of STR-IMM and CON.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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PTSD Onset Susceptibility as a Function of Perceived Self-Efficacy and Resilience

Description

The interplay between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and self-efficacy lies in the efficacy-activated processes that comprise an individual’s cognitive and belief systems. Previous research shows that low self-efficacy contributes

The interplay between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and self-efficacy lies in the efficacy-activated processes that comprise an individual’s cognitive and belief systems. Previous research shows that low self-efficacy contributes to development and maintenance of mental disorders like PTSD, while high self-efficacy influences ability to visualize, implement, and maintain success scenarios (resilience) related to effective mental coping. Negative cognition makes it difficult to pursue a coping success scenario in the presence of overriding self-doubt and often arises because a traumatic event has made it difficult to retrieve positive self-identities or has reactivated negative self-identities. Consistent with this model, we predict that a negative association exists between self-efficacy and PTSD onset susceptibility. We employed a pre-test/post-test design using a susceptibility/resilience questionnaire to assess predisposition to PTSD. Vignettes, designed to either raise or lower self-efficacy, were used to separate participants into groups and revealed a significant interaction between low and high self-efficacy across the pre- and post-tests, supporting the assertion that high self-efficacy guards against PTSD onset susceptibility while low self-efficacy may make someone more susceptible to developing PTSD-related symptoms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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A Lot More

Description

A playwright behind the scenes of my personal struggle with PTSD, experience that caused it, and journey to healing from it. The playwright consists of deeper causes of PTSD and

A playwright behind the scenes of my personal struggle with PTSD, experience that caused it, and journey to healing from it. The playwright consists of deeper causes of PTSD and its effects, more than the average textbook can teach anyone. With the help of a couple people and Russ, a famous artist, I was able to grow and become stronger and show it all within my playwright. Enjoy the journey to healing of a person, a warrior who wanted to fight and made it through the night.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

Erosion: A Collection of Poems

Description

Erosion: A Collection of Poems consists of ten prose poems that explore the processing of trauma through a single lens. We follow the work’s main character as she navigates recovery

Erosion: A Collection of Poems consists of ten prose poems that explore the processing of trauma through a single lens. We follow the work’s main character as she navigates recovery following a medical trauma in Peru from which she ought to have died. The pieces challenge the readers to immerse themselves within her narrative to understand the isolation that trauma ushers in, as she struggles to know her own newfound aloneness.

While the poems illustrate the complexity of one’s experience with both PTSD and its stages of recovery (e.g., emergency, numbness, intrusive/repetitive, integration), they are anchored in the sensory, the concrete. Amidst the terror of the symptoms at the most basic, raw level, she attempts to reclaim selfhood, which involves wrestling with philosophical suicide, reconciling realities, numbness and the widening of a barrier, stunning intimacies, the craving to feel, and both the desire and the need to connect authentically without being able to satiate such inclinations.

Influenced by the works of Frank Bidart, Claudia Rankine, James Longenbach, and Carolyn Forché, the pieces rely heavily upon rhythm and spacing, imagery, and associative linkages throughout the work to craft a sense of physical, intellectual, and emotional movement within the space.

The collection focuses upon the narrative of one survivor of trauma, and though traumas may be experienced differently, and while PTSD may manifest itself in profoundly diverse ways, the pieces aim to capture the shared foundation of the experience — the isolation and the pure, unadulterated pain — in order to cast a universal veil onto the exploration, providing the audience with insight into one of trauma’s most important facets.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An Approach to Assessing PTSD in Refugee Children

Description

Post-traumatic stress disorder is prevalent in refugees. The population of refugees in the United States is continuing to increase, of which the majority of the incoming refugees are children. A

Post-traumatic stress disorder is prevalent in refugees. The population of refugees in the United States is continuing to increase, of which the majority of the incoming refugees are children. A more comprehensive approach is needed to assess children for PTSD. This creative project involved reviewing existing literature on refugees in the United States, child refugees, Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, and available and applicable PTSD assessment tools. I developed a reference chart that compared the available assessment tools. I recognized that a PTSD assessment tool for refugee children does not exist. In response, I created an approach to assessing PTSD in refugee children ages 5-12. In creating this toolkit, I determined who is appropriate for administering the assessment, discovered how to create trust between the clinician and the child, created the assessment tool, including implementation instructions, and then provided directions on scoring and referrals. The tool itself is called the Child Refugee PTSD Assessment Tool (CRPAT-12). The creation of the CRPAT-12 will hopefully be disseminated and will encourage refugee resettlement organizations to assess children for PTSD upon intake. Early identification of symptoms of distress will help the child receive the appropriate treatment and will help prevent more extreme mental health complications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Analyzing PTSD and Building a Network of Resources to Alleviate Psychological Trauma in NICU Families

Description

Posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychiatric disorder that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event, and it can cause affected individuals to relive the associated event through flashbacks or

Posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychiatric disorder that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event, and it can cause affected individuals to relive the associated event through flashbacks or nightmares. This project centers around the prevalence of PTSD in parents of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Past research has shown that these parents are at increased risk of developing traumatic stress symptoms, with affliction rates as high as 53% in mothers and 33% in fathers (Hua et al., 2018). With this statistic as a catalyst, the present text has a variety of aims, all hinging on the goal of easing the NICU journey for parents. This thesis explores the different types of therapy used in the treatment of traumatic stress, with a focus on trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as these were shown to be the most effective in past research. A compilation of resources was also gathered that can now be distributed to NICU parents, including information on PTSD, how to access a therapist, and other helpful articles. An additional component of this project included the administration of a survey to NICU parents to gain a better understanding of their stress levels, what resources were most helpful to them, what barriers limited their ability to seek help, and their thoughts on a text-messaging resource service. Institutional IRB approval was received for this survey. The survey indicated that parents were very stressed when admitted to the NICU, but their stress levels tend to decrease over time. Parents also faced a variety of barriers, with the need to return to work or maintain a busy schedule being the most pervasive. Additionally, an analysis was completed on federal legislation relating to healthcare and the NICU experience. Furthermore, special considerations for limited English proficient (LEP) families were also considered. The paper concludes with steps that should be taken, in both research and action, to improve on the NICU experience for at-risk parents. The implementation of a text-messaging resource service for NICU parents was desired by survey respondents and is a recommended next step. Changes in policy surrounding insurance reform and longer, paid family leave would also be beneficial. Training of NICU staff on how to provide resources and communicate sensitively and effectively with parents is also crucial if the current situation is to be improved. There are definitive steps that should be taken immediately to ease the journey and provide comfort for NICU parents.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

The Devil and the Deep Blue: Exploring Identity through Poetry

Description

Poetry is a way of living for me both as a writer and as a survivor of child sexual (CSA) and physical abuse. I have been turning to poetry for

Poetry is a way of living for me both as a writer and as a survivor of child sexual (CSA) and physical abuse. I have been turning to poetry for as long as I can remember as a companion on my journey through my trauma, trying to figure out who exactly it is. In Devil and the Deep Blue: Exploring Identity through Poetry, I take my trauma from my past and dissect it. I have taken old poems and edited them along with the guidance of Dr. Dombrowski and Dr. McNeil as my director and second reader respectively and edited them down into a collection of micro-poems. My goal in making these poems is to both put my own trauma to rest in a way, but to also make something for other trauma survivors who may not know they are not alone. My poems are one perspective on trauma, as I can only write what I have felt, but they are meant to show that there is someone who has felt that pain, as well as trying to make myself a better person through my own writing. Along with the micro poems, there are covers that I designed using childhood photos of my father and I, of which there are only a few remaining photographs, as well as designs I drew alongside those photos. The 3rd cover is an amalgam of childhood photos of my parents as well as photos of our family today, intending to show the change in message in the poems as they progress through the collection; they begin in introspection, move into the exploration of the more piercing pieces of trauma that I had yet to even uncover until now, and then the third group of poems is focused on the calmer pieces of aftermath that I still experience and how I am trying to withstand all of that.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05