Matching Items (6)

The Development of a Better Electrical Bicycle for Commuting Americans

Description

Each year, the average vehicle contributes 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere [1]. These gases contribute to around 30,000 premature deaths each year [2] and are linked

Each year, the average vehicle contributes 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere [1]. These gases contribute to around 30,000 premature deaths each year [2] and are linked to in the increase in cases of Asthma. Human health is further impacted by the increase of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. Rays from the sun travel to the Earth where they are absorbed. Absorbing the sun’s rays heats up the Earth which is then radiated into space. Greenhouse gasses inhibit this process much like the glass walls in a greenhouse. As a result, the temperature of the Earth steadily increases. The greenhouse effect is dangerous because it can be linked to natural disasters, rising ocean levels, and extinction of species. One of the biggest contributors to the greenhouse effect is burning fossil fuels. Powerplants, agriculture, and transportation are some of the largest contributors to the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. To mitigate the effects of transportation, car companies have invested into production of alternative and renewable fuels for their products. One of the sources which has gained popularity recently, is the use of electricity to power our vehicles. Tesla has spearheaded the electric car movement and is largely responsible for this beneficial shift. One issue with this approach is that a majority, around 76.3%, of Americans drive alone on their commute [13]. The market in its current state encourages inefficient transportation due to the lack of alternatives. While motorcycles may offer a more eco-friendly and economical approach to cars, many are afraid of potential hazards of using this mode of transportation. The introduction of electric bikes offers an interesting approach to improving this efficiency and safety issue. The wide availability to customers offers an alternative which pushes the traditional distance limits for commuting on a bicycle. Since the market is relatively new, several issues pose challenges to consumers. This research aims to clarify and analyze the electric bike market in order to supply a potential customer with the tools needed to acquire a high quality and reasonably price bike.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Automated Bicycle Human-in-the-Loop Control

Description

Bicycles are already used for daily transportation by a large share of the world's population and provide a partial solution for many issues facing the world today. The low environmental

Bicycles are already used for daily transportation by a large share of the world's population and provide a partial solution for many issues facing the world today. The low environmental impact of bicycling combined with the reduced requirement for road and parking spaces makes bicycles a good choice for transportation over short distances in urban areas. Bicycle riding has also been shown to improve overall health and increase life expectancy. However, riding a bicycle may be inconvenient or impossible for persons with disabilities due to the complex and coordinated nature of the task. Automated bicycles provide an interesting area of study for human-robot interaction, due to the number of contact points between the rider and the bicycle. The goal of the Smart Bike project is to provide a platform for future study of the physical interaction between a semi-autonomous bicycle robot and a human rider, with possible applications in rehabilitation and autonomous vehicle research.

This thesis presents the development of two balance control systems, which utilize actively controlled steering and a control moment gyroscope to stabilize the bicycle at high and low speeds. These systems may also be used to introduce disturbances, which can be useful for studying human reactions. The effectiveness of the steering balance control system is verified through testing with a PID controller in an outdoor environment. Also presented is the development of a force sensitive bicycle seat which provides feedback used to estimate the pose of the rider on the bicycle. The relationship between seat force distribution is demonstrated with a motion capture experiment. A corresponding software system is developed for balance control and sensor integration, with inputs from the rider, the internal balance and steering controller, and a remote operator.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Physical Human-Bicycle Interfaces for Robotic Balance Assistance

Description

Riding a bicycle requires accurately performing several tasks, such as balancing and navigation, which may be difficult or even impossible for persons with disabilities. These difficulties may be partly alleviated

Riding a bicycle requires accurately performing several tasks, such as balancing and navigation, which may be difficult or even impossible for persons with disabilities. These difficulties may be partly alleviated by providing active balance and steering assistance to the rider. In order to provide this assistance while maintaining free maneuverability, it is necessary to measure the position of the rider on the bicycle and to understand the rider's intent. Applying autonomy to bicycles also has the potential to address some of the challenges posed by traditional automobiles, including CO2 emissions, land use for roads and parking, pedestrian safety, high ownership cost, and difficulty traversing narrow or partially obstructed paths.

The Smart Bike research platform provides a set of sensors and actuators designed to aid in understanding human-bicycle interaction and to provide active balance control to the bicycle. The platform consists of two specially outfitted bicycles, one with force and inertial measurement sensors and the other with robotic steering and a control moment gyroscope, along with the associated software for collecting useful data and running controlled experiments. Each bicycle operates as a self-contained embedded system, which can be used for untethered field testing or can be linked to a remote user interface for real-time monitoring and configuration. Testing with both systems reveals promising capability for applications in human-bicycle interaction and robotics research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

Balancing Control and Model Validation of Self-Stabilizing Motorcycle

Description

Bicycles and motorcycles offer maneuverability, energy efficiency and acceleration that four wheeled vehicles cannot offer given similar budget for. Two wheeled vehicles have drastically different dynamics from four wheeled vehicles

Bicycles and motorcycles offer maneuverability, energy efficiency and acceleration that four wheeled vehicles cannot offer given similar budget for. Two wheeled vehicles have drastically different dynamics from four wheeled vehicles due to their instability and gyroscopic effect from their wheels.

This thesis focuses on self-stabilization of a motorcycle using an active control momentum gyroscope (CMG) and validation of this multi-degree-of-freedom system’s mathematical model. Physical platform was created to mimic the simulation as accurately as possible and all components used were justified. This process involves derivation of a 3 Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) system’s forward kinematics and its Jacobian matrix, simulation analysis of different controller algorithms, setting the system and subsystem specifications, and real system experimentation and data analysis.

A Jacobian matrix was used to calculate accurately decomposed resultant angular velocities which are used to create the dynamics model of the system torque using the Euler-Lagrange method. This produces a nonlinear second order differential equation that is modeled using MATLAB/Simulink. PID, and cascaded feedback loop are tested in this Simulink model. Cascaded feedback loop shows most promises in the simulation analysis. Therefore, system specifications are calculated according to the data produced by this controller method. The model validation is executed using the Vicon motion capture system which captured the roll angle of the motorcycle. This work contributes to creating a set of procedures for creating a validated dynamic model for a CMG stabilized motorcycle which can be used to create variants of other self-stabilizing motorcycle system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for Robotic Bicycle Stabilization

Description

Bicycle stabilization has become a popular topic because of its complex dynamic behavior and the large body of bicycle modeling research. Riding a bicycle requires accurately performing several tasks, such

Bicycle stabilization has become a popular topic because of its complex dynamic behavior and the large body of bicycle modeling research. Riding a bicycle requires accurately performing several tasks, such as balancing and navigation which may be difficult for disabled people. Their problems could be partially reduced by providing steering assistance. For stabilization of these highly maneuverable and efficient machines, many control techniques have been applied – achieving interesting results, but with some limitations which includes strict environmental requirements. This thesis expands on the work of Randlov and Alstrom, using reinforcement learning for bicycle self-stabilization with robotic steering. This thesis applies the deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm, which can handle continuous action spaces which is not possible for Q-learning technique. The research involved algorithm training on virtual environments followed by simulations to assess its results. Furthermore, hardware testing was also conducted on Arizona State University’s RISE lab Smart bicycle platform for testing its self-balancing performance. Detailed analysis of the bicycle trial runs are presented. Validation of testing was done by plotting the real-time states and actions collected during the outdoor testing which included the roll angle of bicycle. Further improvements in regard to model training and hardware testing are also presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Determinants of bicycle and pedestrian crash severity in San Francisco, CA

Description

Bicyclist and pedestrian safety is a growing concern in San Francisco, CA,

especially given the increasing numbers of residents choosing to bike and walk. Sharing

the roads with automobiles, these alternative road

Bicyclist and pedestrian safety is a growing concern in San Francisco, CA,

especially given the increasing numbers of residents choosing to bike and walk. Sharing

the roads with automobiles, these alternative road users are particularly vulnerable to

sustain serious injuries. With this in mind, it is important to identify the factors that

influence the severity of bicyclist and pedestrian injuries in automobile collisions. This

study uses traffic collision data gathered from California Highway Patrol’s Statewide

Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) to predict the most important

determinants of injury severity, given that a collision has occurred. Multivariate binomial

logistic regression models were created for both pedestrian and bicyclist collisions, with

bicyclist/pedestrian/driver characteristics and built environment characteristics used as

the independent variables. Results suggest that bicycle infrastructure is not an important

predictor of bicyclist injury severity, but instead bicyclist age, race, sobriety, and speed

played significant roles. Pedestrian injuries were influenced by pedestrian and driver age

and sobriety, crosswalk use, speed limit, and the type of vehicle at fault in the collision.

Understanding these key determinants that lead to severe and fatal injuries can help

local communities implement appropriate safety measures for their most susceptible

road users.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016