Matching Items (9)

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Drinking Water Quality and Management in Arizona

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Access to clean drinking water has been identified by the National Academy of Engineering as one of the Grand Challenges of the 21st century. This thesis investigated clean drinking water

Access to clean drinking water has been identified by the National Academy of Engineering as one of the Grand Challenges of the 21st century. This thesis investigated clean drinking water access in the greater Phoenix area, specifically with regards to drinking water quality standards and management strategies. This research report provides an introduction to water quality, treatment, and management; a background on the Salt River Project; and an analysis on source water mix and drinking water quality indicators for water delivered to Tempe, Arizona water treatment facilities.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Relationship Between Chlorine Residual and Oxidation Reduction Potential in Drinking Water and Cost Analysis

Description

Chlorine is a typical disinfectant that is used in water treatment. There are different forms and types of chlorine that are used as disinfectants, City of Tempe uses free chlorine.

Chlorine is a typical disinfectant that is used in water treatment. There are different forms and types of chlorine that are used as disinfectants, City of Tempe uses free chlorine. Regulations require that a residual is detected to ensure drinking water is “safe.” Large commercial buildings can undergo difficulties with maintaining a chlorine residual on every floor due to issues with underusage or lack of occupancy. Monitoring systems can activate an automatic flow of fresh water throughout the building or in a specific location based on set levels of chlorine within the monitoring system. There are different approaches to monitoring chlorine residual. Chlorine sensors are the typical process, but can be very expensive due to replacement materials required to promote further use of the sensor and acquire accurate measurements. Also, the chlorine system may require continual maintenance due to membrane replacement and management of the pressurized flow, which is required for accurate measurements. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) is an efficient alternative from a cost perspective and accurate if the relationship between chlorine and ORP is understood.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Hexavalent chromium removal using ultraviolet photocatalytic reactor

Description

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove hexavalent chromium from drinking or industrial waters via a UV/titanium dioxide (TiO2) process. Using an integrated UV lamp/ceramic membrane system to recirculate TiO2, both hexavalent and total chromium levels were reduced through photocatalytic processes without additional chemicals. Cr(VI) removal increased as a function of higher energy input and TiO2 dosage, achieving above 90% removal for a 1g/L dose of TiO2. Surface analysis of effluent TiO2 confirmed the presence of chromium species.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Modeling occurrence and assessing public perceptions of de facto wastewater reuse across the USA

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The National Research Council 2011 report lists quantifying the extent of de facto (or unplanned) potable reuse in the U.S. as the top research need associated with assessing the potential

The National Research Council 2011 report lists quantifying the extent of de facto (or unplanned) potable reuse in the U.S. as the top research need associated with assessing the potential for expanding the nations water supply through reuse of municipal wastewater. Efforts to identify the significance and potential health impacts of de facto water reuse are impeded by out dated information regarding the contribution of municipal wastewater effluent to potable water supplies. This project aims to answer this research need. The overall goal of the this project is to quantify the extent of de facto reuse by developing a model that estimates the amount of wastewater effluent that is present within drinking water treatment plants; and to use the model in conjunction with a survey to help assess public perceptions. The four-step approach to accomplish this goal includes: (1) creating a GIS-based model coupled with Python programming; (2) validating the model with field studies by analyzing sucralose as a wastewater tracer; (3) estimating the percentage of wastewater in raw drinking water sources under varying streamflow conditions; (4) and assessing through a social survey the perceptions of the general public relating to acceptance and occurrence of de facto reuse. The resulting De Facto Reuse in our Nations Consumable Supply (DRINCS) Model, estimates that treated municipal wastewater is present at nearly 50% of drinking water treatment plant intake sites serving greater than 10,000 people (N=2,056). Contrary to the high frequency of occurrence, the magnitude of occurrence is relatively low with 50% of impacted intakes yielding less than 1% de facto reuse under average streamflow conditions. Model estimates increase under low flow conditions (modeled by Q95), in several cases treated wastewater makes up 100% of the water supply. De facto reuse occurs at levels that surpass what is publically perceived in the three cities of Atlanta, GA, Philadelphia, PA, and Phoenix, AZ. Respondents with knowledge of de facto reuse occurrence are 10 times more likely to have a high acceptance (greater than 75%) of treated wastewater at their home tap.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Biosensor platform for rapid detection of E. coli in drinking water

Description

The need for rapid, specific and sensitive assays that provide a detection of bacterial indicators are important for monitoring water quality. Rapid detection using biosensor is a novel approach

The need for rapid, specific and sensitive assays that provide a detection of bacterial indicators are important for monitoring water quality. Rapid detection using biosensor is a novel approach for microbiological testing applications. Besides, validation of rapid methods is an obstacle in adoption of such new bio-sensing technologies. In this study, the strategy developed is based on using the compound 4-methylumbelliferyl glucuronide (MUG), which is hydrolyzed rapidly by the action of E. coli β-D-glucuronidase (GUD) enzyme to yield a fluorogenic product that can be quantified and directly related to the number of E. coli cells present in water samples. The detection time required for the biosensor response ranged from 30 to 120 minutes, depending on the number of bacteria. The specificity of the MUG based biosensor platform assay for the detection of E. coli was examined by pure cultures of non-target bacterial genera and also non-target substrates. GUD activity was found to be specific for E. coli and no such enzymatic activity was detected in other species. Moreover, the sensitivity of rapid enzymatic assays was investigated and repeatedly determined to be less than 10 E. coli cells per reaction vial concentrated from 100 mL of water samples. The applicability of the method was tested by performing fluorescence assays under pure and mixed bacterial flora in environmental samples. In addition, the procedural QA/QC for routine monitoring of drinking water samples have been validated by comparing the performance of the biosensor platform for the detection of E. coli and culture-based standard techniques such as Membrane Filtration (MF). The results of this study indicated that the fluorescence signals generated in samples using specific substrate molecules can be utilized to develop a bio-sensing platform for the detection of E. coli in drinking water. The procedural QA/QC of the biosensor will provide both industry and regulatory authorities a useful tool for near real-time monitoring of E. coli in drinking water samples. Furthermore, this system can be applied independently or in conjunction with other methods as a part of an array of biochemical assays in order to reliably detect E. coli in water.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Photocatalysis for reductive transformation of nitrate and chromate in drinking water

Description

Contamination of drinking water supplies from oxo-anion pollutants necessitates treatment prior to potable use. This dissertation aims to inform and improve light delivery (emission spectra, radiant intensity, reactor configuration) in

Contamination of drinking water supplies from oxo-anion pollutants necessitates treatment prior to potable use. This dissertation aims to inform and improve light delivery (emission spectra, radiant intensity, reactor configuration) in order to enhance the photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and nitrate, two common oxo-anions in drinking water, and photocatalytic oxidation of two model organic pollutants (methylene blue, (MB) and para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)). By varying the photon fluence dose, two metrics (contaminant quantum yield (Φ), and electrical energy per order (EEO)) were used to assess photocatalytic reactor performance. A detailed literature review and experimental results demonstrated how different irradiance sources with variable intensity and emission spectra synergistically enhanced contaminant removal by a coupled photolytic/photocatalytic reaction mechanism. Cr(VI) was photocatalytically reduced on TiO2 and formed Cr(OH)3(s) in a large-scale slurry reactor, but Cr(III) was then photolyzed and reformed Cr(VI). UV light also led to photo-aggregation of TiO2 which improved its recovery by the ceramic membrane within the reactor. For nitrate reduction, light source emission spectra and fluence dose delineate the preferred pathways as intermediates were reduced via wavelength-dependent mechanisms. HONO was identified as a key nitrate reduction intermediate, which was reduced photocatalytically (UV wavelengths) and/or readily photolyzed at 365nm, to yield nitrogen gases. Photocatalytic nitrate reduction efficiency was higher for discrete wavelength irradiation than polychromatic irradiation. Light delivery through aqueous media to the catalyst surface limits efficiency of slurry-based photocatalysts because absorption and scattering of light in nanomaterial slurries decreases effective photon transmittance and minimizes photolytic reactions. The use of optical fibers coupled to light emitting diodes (OF-LED) with immobilized catalyst demonstrated higher performance compared to slurry systems. OF-LED increased Φ for MB degradation by increasing direct photon delivery to the photocatalyst. Design of OF-LED reactors using bundled optical fibers demonstrated photocatalytic pCBA removal with high Φ and reduced EEO due to increased surface area and catalytic sites compared to single OF/LED couples. This work advances light delivery as well as the suspension and attachment of nanoparticles in photocatalytic water treatment for selective transformation of oxo-anions and organic compounds to innocuous species.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Designing institutions and health education interventions for sustainable supply of safe water in urban informal settlements: the case of Kenya

Description

Diarrheal diseases caused by poor water, sanitation and hygiene continue to kill more children in Sub-Saharan Africa's burgeoning informal urban settlements than in any other part of the world. In

Diarrheal diseases caused by poor water, sanitation and hygiene continue to kill more children in Sub-Saharan Africa's burgeoning informal urban settlements than in any other part of the world. In recent years, Delegated Management Model (DMM), a partnership in which a utility delegates service management to slum residents have been promoted as new models to improve services.

This dissertation examines the benefits of DMM by comparing water services in three informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya: two slums where DMM has been implemented, and one, a control, where it has not. In addition, the research examined how school-based hygiene interventions could be designed to improve safe water and hygiene knowledge in urban informal settlements. This study compared outcomes of two approaches to hygiene education, one which combined messages with participatory water testing; the second used hygiene messages alone.

Results of the DMM study showed that DMM implementation had lowered water cost and improved provider accountability. However, unhygienic water collection and handling practices on the part of the service users could contaminate drinking water that was clean at the delivery point, thus preventing the intended health outcomes of DMM from being realized. Results of the hygiene education intervention showed that one week after the inventions, hygiene knowledge among students who received the intervention that combined hygiene messages with participatory water testing was significantly improved. Evaluation of the intervention 12 months after implementation showed that the hygiene knowledge gained was sustained.

The research findings suggest that: i) regular monitoring of water quality at the kiosks is essential to ensure that the DMM model achieves intended health outcomes, ii) sanitation conditions at kiosk sites need to be regulated to meet minimum hygiene standards, and iii) customers need to be educated on safe water collection and storage practices. Finally, school-based hygiene education could be made more effective by including hands-on water testing by students. Making sustainable impact on health and wellbeing of slum residents requires not only building effective partnerships for water delivery, but also paying close attention to the other points of intervention within the water system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Occurrence and treatment of hexavalent chromium and arsenic in Arizona municipal and industrial waters

Description

Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) occur naturally in AZ surface and groundwaters, pose different health impacts, and exhibit different treatment efficacies. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has newly recognized human health concerns,

Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) occur naturally in AZ surface and groundwaters, pose different health impacts, and exhibit different treatment efficacies. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has newly recognized human health concerns, and State and Federal agencies are evaluating a low Cr(VI)-specific maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. Occurrence of Cr and As in municipal drinking waters and industrial cooling tower waters was quantified by grab samples and compared with sampling results obtained from a new passive sampler developed specifically for Cr(VI). Cr(VI) and As concentrations in groundwater used for cooling tower make-up water concentrations were ~3 ppb and ~4 ppb, respectively, and were concentrated significantly in blowdown water (~20 ppb and ~40 ppb). Based upon pending Cr(VI), As, and other metal regulations, these blowdown waters will need routine monitoring and treatment. Cr(VI) concentrations in a water treatment plant (WTP) raw and finished water samples varied from 0.5 and 2 ppb for grab samples collected every 4 hours for 7 consecutive days using an ISCO sampler. The development of an ion exchange (IX) based passive sampler was validated in the field at the WTP and yielded an average exposure within 1 standard deviation of ISCO sampler grab data. Sampling at both the WTP and cooling towers suggested sources of Cr(III) from treatment chemicals or wood preservatives may exist. Since both facilities use chlorine oxidants, I quantified the apparent (pH=5) second-order rate constant for aqueous chlorine (HOCl/OCl-) with Cr(III) to form Cr(VI) as 0.7 M-1s-1. Under typical conditions (2 ppb Cr(III) ; 2 mg/L Cl2) the half-life for the conversion of Cr(III) to the more toxic form Cr(VI) is 4.7 hours. The occurrence studies in AZ and CA show the Cr(VI) and As treatment of groundwaters will be required to meet stringent Cr(VI) regulations. IX technologies, both strong base anion (SBA) and weak base anion (WBA) resin types were screened (and compared) for Cr removal. The SBA IX process for As removal was optimized by utilizing a reactive iron coagulation and filtration (RCF) process to treat spent IX brine, which was then reused to for SBA resin regeneration.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Sustainable drinking water treatment: using weak base anion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles to simultaneously remove multiple oxoanions

Description

Ion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles can have high affinity and high capacity to simultaneously remove multiple oxygenated anion contaminants from drinking water. This research pursued answering the

Ion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles can have high affinity and high capacity to simultaneously remove multiple oxygenated anion contaminants from drinking water. This research pursued answering the question, “Can synthesis methods of nano-composite sorbents be improved to increase sustainability and feasibility to remove hexavalent chromium and arsenic simultaneously from groundwater compared to existing sorbents?” Preliminary nano-composite sorbents outperformed existing sorbents in equilibrium tests, but struggled in packed bed applications and at low influent concentrations. The synthesis process was then tailored for weak base anion exchange (WBAX) while comparing titanium dioxide against iron hydroxide nanoparticles (Ti-WBAX and Fe-WBAX, respectively). Increasing metal precursor concentration increased the metal content of the created sorbents, but pollutant removal performance and usable surface area declined due to pore blockage and nanoparticle agglomeration. An acid-post rinse was required for Fe-WBAX to restore chromium removal capacity. Anticipatory life cycle assessment identified critical design constraints to improve environmental and human health performance like minimizing oven heating time, improving pollutant removal capacity, and efficiently reusing metal precursor solution. The life cycle environmental impact of Ti-WBAX was lower than Fe-WBAX as well as a mixed bed of WBAX and granular ferric hydroxide for all studied categories. A separate life cycle assessment found the total number of cancer and non-cancer cases prevented by drinking safer water outweighed those created by manufacture and use of water treatment materials and energy. However, treatment relocated who bore the health risk, concentrated it in a sub-population, and changed the primary manifestation from cancer to non-cancer disease. This tradeoff was partially mitigated by avoiding use of pH control chemicals. When properly synthesized, Fe-WBAX and Ti-WBAX sorbents maintained chromium removal capacity while significantly increasing arsenic removal capacity compared to the parent resin. The hybrid sorbent performance was demonstrated in packed beds using a challenging water matrix and low pollutant influent conditions. Breakthrough curves hint that the hexavalent chromium is removed by anion exchange and the arsenic is removed by metal oxide sorption. Overall, the hybrid nano-sorbent synthesis methods increased sustainability, improved sorbent characteristics, and increased simultaneous removal of chromium and arsenic for drinking water.

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Date Created
  • 2016