Matching Items (8)

Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes: Review and Recommendations for Icelandic Dairy

Description

The aim of this paper is to investigate the B-casein fractions in Scandinavian and Icelandic milk for evidence to either support or refute the claim that the A1 variant of

The aim of this paper is to investigate the B-casein fractions in Scandinavian and Icelandic milk for evidence to either support or refute the claim that the A1 variant of B-casein is diabetogenic in adolescent populations. Based on the theory that differences in milk protein composition explain a lower incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in Iceland when compared to surrounding Nordic countries, an informative poster was created so that a more educated decision can be made by those wishing to take preventative measures against the incidence of the disease. This paper includes a basic background behind the epidemiology of T1D and the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Next, comparison between milk protein composition and consumption in Iceland against the other Nordic countries is performed through an in-depth literature review. The review was conducted using PubMed databases until December of 2018. Key findings of this investigation raise concerns regarding the decision between optimizing milk producing rates or breeding for milk devoid of diabetogenic proteins. The current literature on the impact of cattle genetics on the protein composition of milk sheds light on the safety of Icelandic dairy and the resulting health of their population. Icelandic dairy has been evidenced to contain lower levels of A1 b-casein and is considered less diabetogenic. For these reasons, this author would recommend the consumption of Icelandic dairy products over those from other regions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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TiO2 nanomaterials: human exposure and environmental release

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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial use is becoming more prevalent as is the likelihood of human exposure and environmental release. The goal of this thesis is to develop analytical techniques to

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial use is becoming more prevalent as is the likelihood of human exposure and environmental release. The goal of this thesis is to develop analytical techniques to quantify the level of TiO2 in complex matrices to support environmental, health, and safety research of TiO2 nanomaterials. A pharmacokinetic model showed that the inhalation of TiO2 nanomaterials caused the highest amount to be absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Smaller nanomaterials (< 5nm) accumulated in the kidneys before clearance. Nanoparticles of 25 nm diameter accumulated in the liver and spleen and were cleared from the body slower than smaller nanomaterials. A digestion method using nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and hydrogen peroxide was found to digest organic materials and TiO2 with a recovery of >80%. The samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the method detection limit was 600 ng of Ti. An intratracheal instillation study of TiO2 nanomaterials in rats found anatase TiO2 nanoparticles in the caudal lung lobe of rats 1 day post instillation at a concentration of 1.2 ug/mg dry tissue, the highest deposition rate of any TiO2 nanomaterial. For all TiO2 nanomaterial morphologies the concentrations in the caudal lobes were significantly higher than those in the cranial lobes. In a study of TiO2 concentration in food products, white colored foods or foods with a hard outer shell had higher concentrations of TiO2. Hostess Powdered Donettes were found to have the highest Ti mass per serving with 200 mg Ti. As much as 3.8% of the total TiO2 mass was able to pass through a 0.45 um indicating that some of the TiO2 is likely nanosized. In a study of TiO2 concentrations in personal care products and paints, the concentration of TiO2 was as high as 117 ug/mg in Benjamin Moore white paint and 70 ug/mg in a Neutrogena sunscreen. Greater than 6% of Ti in one sunscreen was able to pass through a 0.45 um filter. The nanosized TiO2 in food products and personal care products may release as much as 16 mg of nanosized TiO2 per individual per day to wastewater.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Building the foundation for wellness: understanding how design components of the convenience food environment impact the consumer-food relationship

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The humans-food relationship is a 2.5 million year old, symbiotic connection of “living together” which encouraged a “system of communication up and down the food chain” (Pollan, 2008). (Reardon,

The humans-food relationship is a 2.5 million year old, symbiotic connection of “living together” which encouraged a “system of communication up and down the food chain” (Pollan, 2008). (Reardon, 2015). Many researchers agree that this connection is a critical foundation for a beneficial relationship with food and engaging in healthy eating behaviors (McKeown, 2010; Neumark-Stainer et al., 2007; Ristovski-Slejepcevic et al., 2008; Simontacchi, 2007). Against the backdrop of a steadily increasing obesity rate and associated spending, it is critical to approach this issue from a systematic perspective such as understanding the powers that impact the consumer-food relationship (Aronne and Havas, 2009). Experts agree that the rapid increase in convenience food environments has contributed to an obesogenic foodscape that has negatively impacted consumers’ understanding of and interactions with food, resulting in consumption of nutritionally poor food, over-nutrition and chronic illness (Brownell and Battle-Horgen, 2004; Nestle, 2002). Additionally, designers and researchers are beginning to recognize the influence the built environment can have on actions (Patel, 2012; Wansink, 2010), behaviors and attitudes (Gallagher, 1993), even hindering or encouraging one to partake in healthy behaviors (Mikkelsen, 2011; Story et al., 2008). The goal of this study is to understand modern built convenience food environment design and its potential to impact the consumer-food relationship. This study utilizes a heavily qualitative approach, structured by a grounded theory methodology due to the lack of existing research (Martin & Hanington, 2012; O’Leary, 2010) and triangulates utilizing an analysis of secondary research, environmental audit through observations and a survey. The final result will be a compilation of design suggestions, based on those findings, for designing a BCCFE that encourages a healthy relationship between the consumer and food.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Effect of a coconut oil supplement (2g/d) on total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio in healthy adults

Description

There are limited studies exploring the direct relationship between coconut oil and cholesterol concentrations. Research in animals and a few intervention trials suggest that coconut oil increases the good cholesterol

There are limited studies exploring the direct relationship between coconut oil and cholesterol concentrations. Research in animals and a few intervention trials suggest that coconut oil increases the good cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, HDL) and thus reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Preliminary research at Arizona State University (ASU) has found similar results using coconut oil as a placebo, positive changes in HDL cholesterol concentrations were observed.

The goal of this randomized, double blind, parallel two arm study, was to further examine the beneficial effects of a 2g supplement of coconut oil taken each day for 8 weeks on cholesterol concentrations, specifically the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, compared to placebo.

Forty-two healthy adults between 18-40 years of age, exercising less than 150 minutes each week, non smoking, BMI between 22-35 and not taking any medications that could effect blood lipids were recruited from the ListServs at ASU. Participants were randomized to receive either a placebo capsule of flour or a coconut oil capsule (Puritan’s Pride brand, coconut oil softgels, 2g each) and instructed to take the capsules for 8 weeks.

Results indicated no significant change in total cholesterol to HDL ratio between baseline and 8 weeks in the coconut oil and placebo groups (p=0.369), no significant change in HDL (p=0.648), no change in LDL (p=0.247), no change in total cholesterol (p=0.216), and no change in triglycerides (p=0.369).

Blood lipid concentrations were not significantly altered by a 2g/day dosage of coconut oil over the course of 8 weeks in healthy adults, and specifically the total cholesterol to HDL ratio did not change or improve.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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From coyote to food:: the transmergent materiality embedded in Southwestern Pueblo literature/

Description

The coyote of the natural world is an anthropomorphic figure that occupies many places within Southwestern Pueblo cultures in oral traditions as well as the natural environs. The modern-day coyote

The coyote of the natural world is an anthropomorphic figure that occupies many places within Southwestern Pueblo cultures in oral traditions as well as the natural environs. The modern-day coyote is a marginalized occupant of Southwestern milieu portrayed as an iconic character found in cartooned animations or conceptualized as a shadowed symbol of a doglike creature howling in front of a rising full moon. Coyote is also a label given to a person who transports undocumented immigrants across the United States–Mexico border. This wild dog is known as coyote, Coyote, Canis latrans, tsócki (Keresan for coyote), trickster, Wylie Coyote, and coywolf. When the biology, history, accounts, myths, and cultural constructs are placed together within the spectrum of coyote names or descriptions, a transmergent materiality emerges at the center of those contributing factors. Coyote is many things. It is constantly adapting to the environment in which it has survived for millions of years. The Southwest landscape was first occupied by rudimentary components of life evolving into a place first populated by animals, followed by humans. To a great extent, the continued existence of both animals and humans relies on their ability to obtain food and find a suitable niche in which to live. This dissertation unpacks how the coyote that is embedded in American Pueblo literature and culture depicts a transmergent materiality representing the constantly changing human–animal interface as it interprets the likewise transformative state of food systems in the American Southwest in the present day.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Assessing the Causes of Food Insecurity among College Students

Description

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of what food insecurity among college students. Qualitative research regarding food insecurity on college campuses has been growing

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of what food insecurity among college students. Qualitative research regarding food insecurity on college campuses has been growing as we gain a better understanding of how prevalent this issue is and its broad impact on students. However, to our knowledge there are only a handful of studies that examined the student and university staff experience using mixed methods. Qualitative data is needed to gain a deeper understanding of the student experience. OBJECTIVE: To gain deeper insights about students’ food insecurity experiences from students themselves and the university staff members who work with them. This insight is necessary to shift university’s current policies and approach to helping students experiencing food insecurity and removing the stigma of the “starving student” experience. METHODS: Surveys and interviews were used to collect data from students to gain an understanding of their current living situations and understand their personal experiences accessing food. University staff completed surveys focused on understanding staff’s experiences with student food insecurity as well as their attitudes and beliefs about students who experience hunger. RESULTS: The current study found that the financial burden of attending college along with student’s food literacy level can contribute to student’s food insecurity. Students identified barriers to food access, discussed their perceptions of their food experience, and also discussed who they lean on for support when struggling with food. Student’s previous life experiences, food literacy, and social support systems all impact the student food experience. University staff identified similar barriers that they perceive students experience when struggling with hunger and also indicated that they have received little to no training or instruction on how to support students experiencing food insecurity. CONCLUSION: These findings can be used as a building block for developing interventions and the implementation of new resources to help minimize food insecurity on college campuses.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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An updated food guide for vegetarians adapted to MyPlate: an evidence based approach

Description

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets has been published, and the graphical format of the nation's food guide has evolved from a pyramid shape into a circular plate. The objective of this research was to examine the post-2002 literature regarding the bioavailability of key nutrients in vegetarian diets; to use this information to update the recommendations made in the 2002 Modified Food Guide Pyramid for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans; and to adapt this revised food plan to the new USDA MyPlate format. This process involved reviewing the scientific literature to determine if the DRIs for the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets are adequate for the vegetarian population and using this information to develop new recommendations for vegetarians if necessary, analyzing the nutrient content of representative foods in different food groups, reconfiguring the food groups so that foods with like nutrient components were grouped together, determining the number of servings of each food group required to meet vegetarians' nutrient requirements at three caloric levels, and developing sample menus. A circular plate graphic, the Vegetarian Plate, was designed to illustrate the recommendations of this updated food guide. This updated, scientifically derived food guide provides a sound base for diet planning for lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans. Further research is needed to assess the Vegetarian Plate's adequacy for children, pregnant and lactating women, athletes, and individuals with medical conditions or chronic diseases.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Governance, reciprocity, redistribution and food security among Tseltales in Los Altos

Description

In Latin America food insecurity is still prevailing in those regions where extreme poverty and political instability are common. Tseltal communities are experiencing changes due to religious conversions and the

In Latin America food insecurity is still prevailing in those regions where extreme poverty and political instability are common. Tseltal communities are experiencing changes due to religious conversions and the incursion of external political institutions. These changes have diminished the importance of traditional reciprocal and redistributive institutions that historically have been essential for personal and community survival. This dissertation investigated the impact that variations on governance systems and presence of reciprocal and distributional exchanges have on the food security status of communities. Qualitative data collected in four communities through 117 free lists and 117 semi-structured interviews was used to elaborate six scales that correspond to the traditional and civic authority system and to inter-community and intra-community reciprocity and redistribution. I explore the relationship that the scores of four communities on those scales have on the food security status of their inhabitants based on their results on the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Findings from this study suggest that in marginalized communities that many scientists would described as experiencing market failure, participation in inter-community reciprocal, intra-community reciprocal and intra-community redistribution are better predictors of food security than enrollment in food security programs. Additionally, communities that participated the most in these non-market mechanisms have stronger traditional institutions. In contrast, communities that participated more in inter-community redistribution scored higher on the civic authority scale, are enrolled in more food aid programs, but are less food secure.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015