Matching Items (10)

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Meta-Analytic Evidence That Racial Discrimination Should Be Considered an Adverse Childhood Experience: A Focus on Depressive Symptoms

Description

A growing body of research suggests a link between adverse childhood experiences and negative health outcomes. However, less is known about where racial discrimination ranks compared to other adverse childhood

A growing body of research suggests a link between adverse childhood experiences and negative health outcomes. However, less is known about where racial discrimination ranks compared to other adverse childhood experiences, such as maltreatment. To address this issue, I conducted two systematic reviews of meta-analyses to compare the magnitudes of the links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms and childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. My aim was to establish if racial discrimination should be considered an adverse childhood experience. My results demonstrated that the link between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms (r = 0.27) is comparable to the links between 4 different manifestations of maltreatment and depressive symptoms (physical abuse: r = 0.257, emotional abuse: r = 0.301, neglect: r = 0.381, sexual abuse: r = 0.408). I discuss the implications of these findings and propose future research directions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Ionic Liquids to Lab: Investigating an Emerging Water Filtration Challenge to Engineering Nanofiber Polymer Membranes as Next-Generation Solutions for Water Purification

Description

The following thesis documents a two-fold approach to investigate challenges pertaining to water purification, first through a meta-analysis of ionic liquid toxicity, then through experimentation aimed at developing water pre-treatment

The following thesis documents a two-fold approach to investigate challenges pertaining to water purification, first through a meta-analysis of ionic liquid toxicity, then through experimentation aimed at developing water pre-treatment membranes. Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with low melting points, typically liquid at room temperature. Several extraordinary physical attributes, e.g. low viscosity, high conductivity, low to no vapor pressure, etc., and seemingly unlimited combinations available, have pushed IL research to the forefront of many research fronts. Concerns are raised as ionic liquids are rushed into commercial production without sufficient environmental regulation. Research has shown that the chemicals are in fact toxic, yet have developed a reputation for being “green” chemicals due to select physical attributes and applications. The meta-analysis discussed focuses on industry perception of ionic liquid toxicity through a patent review, and considers toxicity of ILs comparatively against other chemical families with well-established toxicity. The meta-analysis revealed that the total patent literature pertaining to ILs (n=3358) resulted in 112 patents that addressed the toxicity of ILs, and notably few (n=17) patents defined ILs as toxic, representing only 0.51% of the evaluated body of work on intellectual property claims. Additionally, toxicity of ionic liquids is comparable to that of other chemical families.
The objective of the experimentation was to explore the effect of crosslinker chain length on the morphology of nanofiber mats. Specifically, poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA) was electrospun into nanofiber mats and poly(ethylene) glycol bis(carboxylic acid) (PEG diacid) was used as the crosslinking agent. As-spun fibers had average fiber diameter of 70 ± 30 nm with an average pore size of 0.10 ± 0.16 μm^2. The fiber diameter for the mats crosslinked with the shorter PEG diacid (Mn = 250) increased to 110 ± 40 nm with an average pore size of 0.11 ± 0.04 μm^2. The mats crosslinked with the longer PEG diacid (Mn = 600) had fiber diameters of 180 ± 10 nm with an average pore size 0.01 ± 0.02 μm^2.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Word Decoding in Children with Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Meta-Analysis

Description

Objective: The main goal for this meta-analysis was to examine the word decoding abilities of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) compared to their typically developing peers.

Objective: The main goal for this meta-analysis was to examine the word decoding abilities of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) compared to their typically developing peers. Age, hearing status, language abilities, speech abilities, and socioeconomic status were examined as predictors of the word decoding skills of children with NSCL/P.
Methods: After searching through PubMed and PsycINFO and screening each article to see if the studies matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 studies qualified for this meta-analysis. Across all studies, 274 children with NSCL/P were compared to 267 of their typically developing peers. The mean age for children with NSCL/P was 118.8 months (SD = 49.19) and 119.8 months (SD = 49.81) for typically developing children. Effect sizes and demographic information (i.e. study location, sample size, assessments used, etc.) were pulled from each study.
Results: The average effect size for this systematic review is -0.41, demonstrating that children with NSCL/P performed 0.41 standard deviations less than their typically developing peers on measures of word decoding. This was calculated using the RVE-model. Both the older and younger age range showed deficits in their word decoding abilities compared to their typically developing peers. Hearing status, language abilities, and speech abilities were reported minimally with many inconsistencies between studies.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that children with NSCL/P perform poorer on word decoding tasks than their noncleft peers. These differences are found in both the younger and older populations of our sample. More evidence and fewer inconsistencies in the research are needed to determine whether hearing, language, and speech abilities have an effect on the word decoding skills of children with NSCL/P.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Brief, Non-Pharmacological, Interventions for Pediatric Anxiety: Meta-Analysis and Evidence Base Status

Description

There is a need to reinvent evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for pediatric anxiety problems to better address the demands of real-word service delivery settings and achieve public health impact. The time-

There is a need to reinvent evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for pediatric anxiety problems to better address the demands of real-word service delivery settings and achieve public health impact. The time- and resource-intensive nature of most EBIs for youth anxiety has frequently been noted as a barrier to the utilization of EBIs in community settings, leading to increased attention towards exploring the viability of briefer, more accessible protocols. Principally, this research reports between-group effect sizes from brief-interventions targeting pediatric anxiety and classifies each as well-established, probably efficacious, possibly efficacious, experimental, or questionable. brief interventions yielded an overall mean effect size of 0.19 on pediatric anxiety outcomes from pre to post. Effect sizes varied significantly by level of intervention: Pre to post-intervention effects were strongest for brief-treatments (0.35), followed by brief-targeted prevention (0.22), and weakest for brief-universal prevention (0.09). No participant or other intervention characteristic emerged as significant moderators of effect sizes. In terms of standard of evidence, one brief intervention is well-established, and five are probably efficacious, with most drawing on cognitive and behavioral change procedures and/or family systems models. At this juncture, the minimal intervention needed for clinical change in pediatric anxiety points to in-vivo exposures for specific phobias (~3 hours), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with social skills training (~3 hours), and CBT based parent training (~6 hours, eight digital modules with clinician support). This research concludes with a discussion on limitations to available brief EBIs, practice guidelines, and future research needed to capitalize on the viability of briefer protocols in enhancing access to, and impact of, evidence-based care in the real-world.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Identifying mediators of youth anxiety and depression intervention outcomes: a meta-analytic path analysis

Description

Anxiety and depression are among the most prevalent disorders in youth, with prevalence rates ranging from 15% to 25% for anxiety and 5% to 14% for depression. Anxiety and depressive

Anxiety and depression are among the most prevalent disorders in youth, with prevalence rates ranging from 15% to 25% for anxiety and 5% to 14% for depression. Anxiety and depressive disorders cause significant impairment, fail to spontaneously remit, and have been prospectively linked to problematic substance use and legal problems in adulthood. These disorders often share a high-degree of comorbidity in both clinical and community samples, with anxiety disorders typically preceding the onset of depression. Given the nature and consequences of anxiety and depressive disorders, a plethora of treatment and preventative interventions have been developed and tested with data showing significant pre to post to follow-up reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the mediators by which these interventions achieve their effects. To address this gap in the literature, the present thesis study combined meta-analytic methods and path analysis to evaluate the effects of youth anxiety and depression interventions on outcomes and four theory-driven mediators using data from 55 randomized controlled trials (N = 11,413). The mediators included: (1) information-processing biases, (2) coping strategies, (3) social competence, and (4) physiological hyperarousal. Meta-analytic results showed that treatment and preventative interventions reliably produced moderate effect sizes on outcomes and three of the four mediators (information-processing biases, coping strategies, social competence). Most importantly, findings from the path analysis showed that changes in information-processing biases and coping strategies consistently mediated changes in outcomes for anxiety and depression at both levels of intervention, whereas gains in social competence and reductions in physiological hyperarousal did not emerge as significant mediators. Knowledge of the mediators underlying intervention effects is important because they can refine testable models of treatment and prevention efforts and identify which anxiety and depression components need to be packaged or strengthened to maximize intervention effects. Allocating additional resources to significant mediators has the potential to reduce costs associated with adopting and implementing evidence-based interventions and improve dissemination and sustainability in real-world settings, thus setting the stage to be more readily integrated into clinical and non-clinical settings on a large scale.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Knowledge Advancement in Nonprofit and Public Management Research: The Potential of Meta-Analysis

Description

Knowledge advancement occurs when the creation of new and useful knowledge encompasses and supersedes earlier knowledge. A rapidly growing number of scholars with state-of-the-art research tools has led to the

Knowledge advancement occurs when the creation of new and useful knowledge encompasses and supersedes earlier knowledge. A rapidly growing number of scholars with state-of-the-art research tools has led to the growth of knowledge exploration in almost every field. It, however, has been observed that the findings of new studies frequently differ from previously established evidence and even disagree with one another. Conflicting and contradictory results prevail in the literature. This phenomenon has puzzled many people with respect to which findings are reliable and which should be considered as valid. Inconclusive results in the literature inhibit, rather than facilitate, knowledge advancement in sciences. Meta-analysis, which is referred to as the analysis of analyses, designed to synthesize findings from a large collection of quantitative analyses that produce inconsistent results has become a major research method in the fields of medicine, education, and psychology; however, the method has been slow to penetrate research in nonprofit and public management (NPM). This study, therefore, discusses how meta-analysis contributes to knowledge advancement in the fields of nonprofit and public management by using nonprofit commercialization as an example to examine its impact on nonprofit capacity and donations, respectively. The attention of this discussion is directed toward how the use of meta-regression models is able to offer new and useful knowledge that encompasses and supersedes earlier knowledge in the literature with evidence-based results. Moreover, this study examines whether the use of SEM-based meta-analysis produces equivalent results when compared with results from traditional meta-regression models. The comparison results suggest that the use of SEM-based meta-analysis is able to produce equivalent results even when missing data are present. Overall, this study makes at least two contributions. First, it introduces a newly-developed method for conducting meta-analysis to the field of NPM. This method is especially useful when there are missing data in data sets. Second and most importantly, this study demonstrates how knowledge advancement in NPM can be achieved by conducting meta-analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The effectiveness of music therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis

Description

About 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015). The prevalence of ASD within the

About 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015). The prevalence of ASD within the population of all people with disabilities has increased, percentage changed from 1.8% to 7.1% in ten years (NCES, 2016). Music therapy, as a therapeutic intervention, has been used for children with autism since 1940s (Reschke-Hemandez, 2011). In the past 70 years' practice, music therapy research has explored the efficacy of music therapy in improving the multiple areas of functioning affected by the symptoms of autism. However, the results are varied. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of music therapy on children with autism spectrum disorder using meta-analysis as the statistical analysis methodology to synthesis the research results from all the eligible studies in the field. After a comprehensive search of the literature and screening procedure, 11 studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed a medium to large effects (d = 0.73, CI [0.43-1.03]) of music therapy interventions for children with ASD. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis are conducted for further exploration within the topic.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Meta-analysis of error sources in the determination of micro- and nanoplastics

Description

The occurrence of micro-and nanoplastic (MNP) debris in the environment is a research area of considerable public health concern. Various combinations of methods for extraction, isolation, and quantification of MNP

The occurrence of micro-and nanoplastic (MNP) debris in the environment is a research area of considerable public health concern. Various combinations of methods for extraction, isolation, and quantification of MNP have been applied but literature studies evaluating the appropriateness and efficacy of these protocols are lacking. A meta-analysis of the literature (n=134; years 2010-2017) was conducted to inventory and assess the appropriateness of methodologies employed. Some 30.6% of studies employed visual identification only, which carried a calculated misidentification error of 25.8-74.2%. An additional 6.7% of studies reported counts for particles smaller than the cutoff value of the selected collection pore size, and 9.7% of studies utilized extraction solution densities which exclude some of the polymers commonly occurring in the environments investigated. A composite value of data vulnerability of 43.3% was determined for the sample, indicating considerable weaknesses in the robustness of information available on MNP occurrence and type. Additionally, the oxidizing solutions documented in the literature frequently were deemed unsuccessful in removing interfering organic matter. Whereas nanoplastics measuring <1 µm in diameter are likely principal drivers of health risk, polymer fragments reported on in the literature are much larger, measuring 10+ µm in diameter due to lack of standardized methods. Thus, current inventories of MNP in the environmental MNP feature data quality concerns that should be addressed moving forward by using more robust and standardized techniques for sampling, processing and polymer identification to improve data quality and avoid the risk of misclassification.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis of using Low Impact Development Compared to Traditional Drainage Systems in Arizona: Using Value Engineering to Mitigate Urban Runoff

Description

The rate of urbanization has been impacted by global economic growth. A strong economy results in more people moving to already crowded urban centers to take advantage of increased employment

The rate of urbanization has been impacted by global economic growth. A strong economy results in more people moving to already crowded urban centers to take advantage of increased employment opportunities often resulting in sprawling of the urban area. More natural land resources are being exploited to accommodate these anthropogenic activities. Subsequently, numerous natural land resources such as green areas or porous soil, which are less flood-prone and more permeable are being converted into buildings, parking lots, roads and underground utilities that are less permeable to stormwater runoff from rain events. With the diminishing of the natural landscape that can drain stormwater during a rainfall event, urban underground drainage systems are being designed and built to tackle the excess runoff resulting from urbanization. However, the construction of a drainage system is expensive and usually involves massive land excavations and tremendous environmental disturbances. The option for constructing an underground drainage system is even more difficult in dense urban environments due to the complicated underground environments, creating a need for low footprint solutions. This need has led to emerging opportunities for low impact development (LID) methods or green infrastructures, which are viewed as an environmentally friendly alternative for dealing with stormwater runoff. LID mimics the pre-development environment to retain the stormwater runoff through infiltration, retention, detention and evaporation. Despite a significant amount of prior research having been conducted to analyze the performance of runoff volume reduction and peak flow decrement of various green infrastructures, little is known about the economic benefits of using LID practices.

This dissertation fills the gap in the knowledge regarding the life-cycle-cost effectiveness of green infrastructure in current urban developments. This study’s two research objectives are:

(1) Develop a life cycle cost calculation template to analyze the cost benefits of using LID compared to the traditional drainage system

(2) Quantify the cost benefits based on the real-world construction projects

A thorough literature review led to the data collection of the hydrological benefits of using LIDs in conjunction with overviewing three real-world construction projects to quantify the cost benefits of LIDs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Applied meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability

Description

This thesis presents a meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability. The qualitative analyses of the failure modes of lead- free solder under different stress tests including drop test, bend test, thermal

This thesis presents a meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability. The qualitative analyses of the failure modes of lead- free solder under different stress tests including drop test, bend test, thermal test and vibration test are discussed. The main cause of failure of lead- free solder is fatigue crack, and the speed of propagation of the initial crack could differ from different test conditions and different solder materials. A quantitative analysis about the fatigue behavior of SAC lead-free solder under thermal preconditioning process is conducted. This thesis presents a method of making prediction of failure life of solder alloy by building a Weibull regression model. The failure life of solder on circuit board is assumed Weibull distributed. Different materials and test conditions could affect the distribution by changing the shape and scale parameters of Weibull distribution. The method is to model the regression of parameters with different test conditions as predictors based on Bayesian inference concepts. In the process of building regression models, prior distributions are generated according to the previous studies, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used under WinBUGS environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014