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The Leading Tone Project

Description

The idea that everything occurs linearly, over the course of time, is evident in the way we construct our sentences and track our understanding of our own lives. It is within this understanding we perform, compose, and listen to music.

The idea that everything occurs linearly, over the course of time, is evident in the way we construct our sentences and track our understanding of our own lives. It is within this understanding we perform, compose, and listen to music. Since language occurs over time, there is the understanding that words and ideas are uttered like marks on a continuous line, some closer together, others with large gaps in-between. It has been the work of linguists and philosophers to understand the patterns, or the rhythm, of speech and language in this way, and while there is no definitive or consistent model for how language is rhythmically produced in any language, it has been determined that rhythm is considered and perceived when language is spoken or heard. It is this perception of rhythm in speech that defines how language comprehension is acquired before phonetic skills. This paper will explore the effects of rhythm in language during infant's prelexical period, the correlations of rhythm and developing reading skills, and finally, explore how the intervals between vocalic utterances become normalized and consistent in poetic readings.

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2018-05

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Word Decoding in Children with Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Meta-Analysis

Description

Objective: The main goal for this meta-analysis was to examine the word decoding abilities of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) compared to their typically developing peers. Age, hearing status, language abilities, speech abilities, and socioeconomic

Objective: The main goal for this meta-analysis was to examine the word decoding abilities of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) compared to their typically developing peers. Age, hearing status, language abilities, speech abilities, and socioeconomic status were examined as predictors of the word decoding skills of children with NSCL/P.
Methods: After searching through PubMed and PsycINFO and screening each article to see if the studies matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 studies qualified for this meta-analysis. Across all studies, 274 children with NSCL/P were compared to 267 of their typically developing peers. The mean age for children with NSCL/P was 118.8 months (SD = 49.19) and 119.8 months (SD = 49.81) for typically developing children. Effect sizes and demographic information (i.e. study location, sample size, assessments used, etc.) were pulled from each study.
Results: The average effect size for this systematic review is -0.41, demonstrating that children with NSCL/P performed 0.41 standard deviations less than their typically developing peers on measures of word decoding. This was calculated using the RVE-model. Both the older and younger age range showed deficits in their word decoding abilities compared to their typically developing peers. Hearing status, language abilities, and speech abilities were reported minimally with many inconsistencies between studies.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that children with NSCL/P perform poorer on word decoding tasks than their noncleft peers. These differences are found in both the younger and older populations of our sample. More evidence and fewer inconsistencies in the research are needed to determine whether hearing, language, and speech abilities have an effect on the word decoding skills of children with NSCL/P.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Information Comprehension and Retention in the Digital Age

Description

This study looked at college-age students' ability to comprehend and retain information learned from news articles depending on what platform they read from. Fifteen participants read three local New York Times articles on each of the platforms provided: iPad, laptop,

This study looked at college-age students' ability to comprehend and retain information learned from news articles depending on what platform they read from. Fifteen participants read three local New York Times articles on each of the platforms provided: iPad, laptop, and paper. They took one test immediately after to test comprehension and another two weeks later to test their retention. Participants were also asked if they found the articles interesting, enjoyable, clear, etc. Results showed that participants' views on each format had little, if any, affect on their number of correct responses. The most consistent results on the participants' perceptions of the formats came from the laptop and paper, whereas the iPad received a bimodal pattern of responses. Participants were also asked to share their news habits while taking the test by selecting how frequently they gain news from various sources such as social media or television. These habits also seemed to have very little effect on their scores.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Information Comprehension and Retention in the Digital Age

Description

This study looked at college-age students' ability to comprehend and retain information learned from news articles depending on what platform they read from. Fifteen participants read three local New York Times articles on each of the platforms provided: iPad, laptop,

This study looked at college-age students' ability to comprehend and retain information learned from news articles depending on what platform they read from. Fifteen participants read three local New York Times articles on each of the platforms provided: iPad, laptop, and paper. They took one test immediately after to test comprehension and another two weeks later to test their retention. Participants were also asked if they found the articles interesting, enjoyable, clear, etc. Results showed that participants' views on each format had little, if any, affect on their number of correct responses. The most consistent results on the participants' perceptions of the formats came from the laptop and paper, whereas the iPad received a bimodal pattern of responses. Participants were also asked to share their news habits while taking the test by selecting how frequently they gain news from various sources such as social media or television. These habits also seemed to have very little effect on their scores.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Literature in the Classroom: What Instructional Practices Foster Improved Reading, Writing, and Critical Thinking Skills?

Description

The purpose of this study is to determine the types of classroom instructional activities commonly used in teaching literature. Data were collected at ASU Preparatory High School. The study determined that literature-based lessons and activities fall under three categories: reading,

The purpose of this study is to determine the types of classroom instructional activities commonly used in teaching literature. Data were collected at ASU Preparatory High School. The study determined that literature-based lessons and activities fall under three categories: reading, writing, and discussion. Classroom observations revealed that reading, writing, and discursive activities were designed to promote higher-ordering thinking. These activities included silent reading, annotating text, reading aloud, keeping reading response journals, practicing essay writing, and participating in Socratic discussion. The teachers at ASU Prep used the listed activities with the intent to challenge their English students to engage in active learning, to improve reading, writing, and discursive skills, and promote critical thinking skills.

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Date Created
2015-05

The Primer Project: Creating an Interactive Children's Storybook

Description

As part of a group project, myself and four teammates created an interactive children's storybook based off of the "Young Lady's Illustrated Primer" in Neal Stephenson's novel The Diamond Age. This electronic book is meant to be read aloud by

As part of a group project, myself and four teammates created an interactive children's storybook based off of the "Young Lady's Illustrated Primer" in Neal Stephenson's novel The Diamond Age. This electronic book is meant to be read aloud by a caregiver with their child, and is designed for reading over long distances through the use of real-time voice and video calling. While one part of the team focused on building the electronic book itself and writing the program, myself and two others wrote the story and I provided illustrations. Our Primer tells the story of a young princess named Charname (short for character name) who escapes from a tower and goes on a mission to save four companions to help her on her quest. The book is meant for reader-insertion, and teaches children problem-solving, teamwork, and critical thinking skills by presenting challenges for Princess Charname to solve. The Primer borrows techniques from modern video game design, focusing heavily on interactivity and feelings of agency through offering the child choices of how to proceed, similar to choose-your-own-adventure books. If brought to market, the medium lends itself well to expanded quests and storylines for the child to explore as they learn and grow. Additionally, resources are provided for the narrator to help create an engaging experience for the child, based off of research on parent-child cooperative reading and cooperative gameplay. The final version of the Primer included a website to run the program, a book-like computer to access the program online, and three complete story segments for the child and narrator to read together.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Accelerated Reader: The Good, the Bad, and the Future of the Program

Description

The Accelerated Reader Program has been a widely used reading program in elementary schools in the United States. However, even with its popularity, there have been controversies on if and how it should be used in the classroom. Arguments in

The Accelerated Reader Program has been a widely used reading program in elementary schools in the United States. However, even with its popularity, there have been controversies on if and how it should be used in the classroom. Arguments in support say the program gets children to read and that it is a helpful tool for teachers to keep track of each students reading abilities. Arguments against suggest that book choice is decreased, book levels are askew, the quizzes do not promote higher level thinking, and the use of incentives may send the wrong signals to students. Schools have started to abandon the program in the recent years, but maybe it will come back bigger and stronger. In the meantime, schools need to make sure that enriching books fill the schools and classrooms to promote reading for their students.

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Date Created
2013-12

A Comparison of Self-Explanation and Note-Taking for Improving Scientific Text Comprehension

Description

The present studies experimentally compared the effectiveness of self-explaining versus taking notes for improving comprehension of a difficult science among readers who varied in prior knowledge, reading skill, and later vocabulary skill. Study 1 (N = 70) examined how

The present studies experimentally compared the effectiveness of self-explaining versus taking notes for improving comprehension of a difficult science among readers who varied in prior knowledge, reading skill, and later vocabulary skill. Study 1 (N = 70) examined how instructions to simply “note-take” or “self-explain” influenced text-based and inferential comprehension. Task did not influence comprehension performance but, as expected, readers with higher science prior knowledge outperformed their less knowledgeable peers, who also earned lower scores on inferential questions compared to text-based questions. To replicate and extend these findings, Study 2 (N = 60) provided readers with more specific, distinct instructions and examples for self-explanation and note-taking tasks prior to engaging in the same task. The results showed that, in the self-explanation task, high-knowledge readers outperformed low-knowledge readers on the text-based questions. These results suggest that self-explanation supported more knowledgeable and skilled readers for text-based questions.

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Date Created
2022-05