Matching Items (10)

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Using a Longitudinal Case Study to Teach Warfarin Concepts to Prelicensure and Postbaccalaureate Nursing Students: A Peer Evaluation

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a peer nursing student who presents a longitudinal case study on warfarin in a pharmacology course classroom influences prelicensure and postbaccalaureate

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a peer nursing student who presents a longitudinal case study on warfarin in a pharmacology course classroom influences prelicensure and postbaccalaureate nursing students' knowledge and perceived knowledge about warfarin. The study was a descriptive design that used a convenience sample of baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in two pharmacology courses. All participating students answered warfarin case-study questions and completed a self-demographic questionnaire, a knowledge pretest and posttest, and a self-efficacy questionnaire after the activity, which evaluated students' knowledge and perceived knowledge on 11 warfarin concepts. For all students (N = 89), the number of correct answers improved significantly between pretests and posttests for Items 2-11 (p < .0001; Wilcoxon signed-rank tests), which evaluated students' knowledge on warfarin's site of action, associated laboratory values, use of vitamin K, and food-drug interactions. However, no significant difference was seen in the number of correct answers for warfarin's mechanism of action. Comparing prelicensure and postbaccalaureate groups by Mann-Whitney tests, no significant difference was seen for pretest total scores (median 7.00, n = 55; median 7.50, n = 34; respectively; p = .399). Similarly, no difference was seen for posttest total scores by groups (prelicensure: median = 9.00, n =54; postbaccalaureate: median = 10.00, n = 32; p = .344). Overall, students in both groups agreed that they could identify and explain all 11 warfarin concepts. The Pearson correlation between the total posttest and total self-efficacy scores for the combined group was .338 (p = .003), demonstrating a low but significant correlation between students' posttest total scores and their perceived warfarin knowledge, as evaluated by the self-efficacy questionnaire.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Pharmacologic Modulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier

Description

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS), including many drugs that could be used to treat diseases in the CNS. Previous studies have shown that activation of the adenosine receptor signaling pathway through the use of agonists has been demonstrated to increase BBB permeability. For example, regadenoson is an adenosine A2A receptor agonist that has been shown to disrupt the BBB and allow for increased drug uptake in the CNS. The goal of this study was to verify this property of regadenoson. We hypothesized that co-administration of regadenoson with a non-brain penetrant macromolecule would facilitate its entry into the central nervous system. To test this hypothesis, healthy mice were administered regadenoson or saline concomitantly with a fluorescent dextran solution. The brain tissue was either homogenized to measure quantity of fluorescent molecule, or cryosectioned for imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy. These experiments did not identify any significant difference in the amount of fluorescence detected in the brain after regadenoson treatment. These results contradict those of previous studies and highlight potential differences in injection methodology, time windows, and properties of brain impermeant molecules.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Synthesis of Novel Rexinoids for Use in Preclinical Trials of Cancer Models

Description

Rexinoids such as Bexarotene have been developed as effective treatments of different diseases including lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. This is due to the widespread nature

Rexinoids such as Bexarotene have been developed as effective treatments of different diseases including lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. This is due to the widespread nature of the retinoid X receptor, which is the target of these drugs, throughout the body. However, Bexarotene is not infallible and has many negative side effects which limit the use of the drug to only a short period of time. This may be fine for chemotherapy, but rexinoids have been proposed to also be effective at preventing cancer as well. This is not currently possible with the side effects seen with approved rexinoids. Due to this, six novel rexinoids were created in hopes of reducing the side effect profile of rexinoids. The idea of dual agonism was also explored with two of the compounds created as well. All six of these compounds, after creation and purification, were sent off for in vitro and in vivo testing to confirm side effect profile and efficacy.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of repeated D₂-like agonist treatment on prepulse Inhibition

Description

Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in sensorimotor gating, the ability to gate out irrelevant stimuli in order to attend to relevant stimuli. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is

Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in sensorimotor gating, the ability to gate out irrelevant stimuli in order to attend to relevant stimuli. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a reliable and valid model of sensorimotor gating across species. Repeated D2-like agonist treatment alleviates prior PPI deficits in rats, termed a PPI recovery, and is observable 28 days after treatment. The aim of the current project is to illuminate the underlying mechanism for this persistent change of behavior and determine the clinical relevance of repeated D2-like agonist treatment. Our results revealed a significant increase in Delta FosB, a transcription factor, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) 10 days after repeated D2-like agonist treatment. Additionally, we investigated if Delta FosB was necessary for long-lasting PPI recovery and discovered a bilateral infusion of dominant-negative Delta JunD prevented PPI recovery after repeated D2-like agonist treatment. To further develop the underlying mechanism of PPI recovery, we observed that dominant negative mutant cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response biding element protein (CREB) prevented repeated D2-like agonist-induced Delta FosB expression in the NAc. We then compared our previous behavioral and intracellular findings to the results of repeated aripiprazole, a novel D2-like partial agonist antipsychotic, to determine if repeated D2-like receptor agonist action is a clinically relevant pharmacological approach. As compared to previous PPI recovery and Delta FosB expression after repeated D2-like agonist treatment, we found similar PPI recovery and Delta FosB expression after repeated aripiprazole treatment in rats. We can conclude that repeated D2-like agonist treatment produces persistent PPI recovery through CREB phosphorylation and Delta FosB, which is necessary for PPI recovery. Furthermore, this pharmacological approach produces behavioral and intracellular changes similar to an effective novel antipsychotic. These findings suggest the underlying intracellular mechanism for sustained PPI recovery is clinically relevant and may be a potential target of therapeutic intervention to alleviate sensorimotor gating deficits, which are associated with cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors

Description

Variability in subjective response to alcohol has been shown to predict drinking behavior as well as the development of alcohol use disorders. The current study examined the extent to

Variability in subjective response to alcohol has been shown to predict drinking behavior as well as the development of alcohol use disorders. The current study examined the extent to which individual differences in alcohol pharmacokinetics impact subjective response and drinking behavior during a single session alcohol administration paradigm. Participants (N = 98) completed measures of subjective response at two time points following alcohol consumption. Pharmacokinetic properties (rate of absorption and metabolism) were inferred using multiple BAC readings to calculate the area under the curve during the ascending limb for absorption and descending limb for metabolism. Following the completion of the subjective response measures, an ad-libitum taste rating task was implemented in which participants were permitted to consume additional alcoholic beverages. The amount consumed during the taste rating task served as the primary outcome variable. Results of the study indicated that participants who metabolized alcohol more quickly maintained a greater level of subjective stimulation as blood alcohol levels declined and reported greater reductions in subjective sedation. Although metabolism did not have a direct influence on within session alcohol consumption, a faster metabolism did relate to increased ad-libitum consumption indirectly through greater acute tolerance to sedative effects and greater maintenance of stimulant effects. Rate of absorption did not significantly predict subjective response or within session drinking. The results of the study add clarity to theories of subjective response to alcohol, and suggest that those at highest risk for alcohol problems experience a more rapid reduction in sedation following alcohol consumption while simultaneously experiencing heightened levels of stimulation. Variability in pharmacokinetics, namely how quickly one metabolizes alcohol, may be an identifiable biomarker of subjective response and may be used to infer risk for alcohol problems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Prosocial influences on nicotine reinforcement, reward, and neural signaling in rodent models

Description

Social influences are important determinants of drug initiation in humans, particularly during adolescence and early adulthood. My dissertation tested three hypotheses: 1) conditioned and unconditioned nicotine and social rewards

Social influences are important determinants of drug initiation in humans, particularly during adolescence and early adulthood. My dissertation tested three hypotheses: 1) conditioned and unconditioned nicotine and social rewards elicit unique patterns of neural signaling in the corticolimbic neurocircuitry when presented in combination versus individually; 2) play behavior is not necessary for expression of social reward; and 3) social context enhances nicotine self-administration. To test the first hypothesis, Fos protein was measured in response to social and nicotine reward stimuli given alone or in combination and in response to environmental cues associated with the rewards in a conditioned place preference (CPP) test. Social-conditioned environmental stimuli attenuated Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens core. A social partner elevated Fos expression in the caudate-putamen, medial and central amygdala, and both nucleus accumbens subregions. Nicotine decreased Fos expression in the cingulate cortex, caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens core. Both stimuli combined elevated Fos expression in the basolateral amygdala and ventral tegmental area, suggesting possible overlap in processing both rewards in these regions. I tested the second hypothesis with an apparatus containing compartments separated by a wire mesh barrier that allowed limited physical contact with a rat or object. While 2 pairings with a partner rat (full physical contact) produced robust CPP, additional pairings were needed for CPP with a partner behind a barrier or physical contact with an object (i.e., tennis ball). The results demonstrate that physical contact with a partner rat is not necessary to establish social-reward CPP. I tested the third hypothesis with duplex operant conditioning chambers separated either by a solid or a wire mesh barrier to allow for social interaction during self-administration sessions. Nicotine (0.015 and 0.03 mg/kg, IV) and saline self-administration were assessed in male and female young-adult rats either in the social context or isolation. Initially, a social context facilitated nicotine intake at the low dose in male rats, but suppressed intake in later sessions more strongly in female rats, suggesting that social factors exert strong sex-dependent influences on self-administration. These novel findings highlight the importance of social influences on several nicotine-related behavioral paradigms and associated neurocircuitry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

Cortical auditory functional activation by cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits

Description

ABSTRACT

Auditory hallucinations are a characteristic symptom of schizophrenia. Research has documented that the auditory cortex is metabolically activated when this process occurs, and that imbalances in the dopaminergic transmission

ABSTRACT

Auditory hallucinations are a characteristic symptom of schizophrenia. Research has documented that the auditory cortex is metabolically activated when this process occurs, and that imbalances in the dopaminergic transmission in the striatum contribute to its physiopathology. Most animal models have focused the effort on pharmacological approaches like non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists to produce activation of the auditory cortex, or dopamine antagonists to alleviate it. I hypothesize that these perceptual phenomena can be explained by an imbalance activation of spiny projecting neurons in the striatal pathways, whereby supersensitive postsynaptic D2-like receptor, signaling in the posterior caudatoputamen generates activation of the auditory cortex. Therefore, I characterized the neuroanatomical component involved in the activation of the auditory cortex. I evaluated the participation of dopamine D2-like receptor using selective dopamine antagonist manipulations and identified the circuits related to the auditory cortex by retrograde trans-synaptic tracing using pseudorabies virus (PRV-152). My results show that dopamine infused in the posterior caudatoputamen dose dependently increases the transcription of the immediate early gene, zif268 in the auditory cortex, predominantly in layers III and IV, but also in cortical columns, suggesting enhanced functional auditory activity. This indicates the participation of the posterior striatum in the modulation of the secondary auditory cortex. I was able to demonstrate also that a coinfusion of a selective dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, eticlopride and dopamine, attenuate the activation of the auditory cortex. Furthermore, using PRV-152 I delineate the distinctive circuit by axial mapping of the infected neurons. Thus, I found secondary projections from the posterior caudatoputamen that synapse in the thalamus before reaching the auditory cortex. These striatal projections correspond to the same brain region affected by dopamine during auditory cortical activation. My results further characterized a mechanism to generate intrinsic perception of sound that may be responsible for auditory hallucinations. I propose this paradigm may elucidate insight on the biological basis of psychotic behavior.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system as a therapeutic target in the treatment of mental health disorders

Description

Development of effective therapeutic interventions for the treatment of mental health disorders has been a significant driving force in the search to understand the human brain. Current treatments for

Development of effective therapeutic interventions for the treatment of mental health disorders has been a significant driving force in the search to understand the human brain. Current treatments for mental health disorders rely on modulating neurotransmitter systems such as norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to achieve clinically relevant relief of symptoms. While many medications are available to the clinician that individually target these neural systems, treatment often results in patients reporting unwanted side effects or experiencing incomplete relief. To counter this lack of treatment efficacy, further investigation of other avenues for achieving similar or better outcomes and potentially reach patients refractory to common therapies must be undertaken. One of these potential new target systems is the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS), which is currently composed of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). These metabotropic seven transmembrane (7-TM) loop G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are responsible for mediating the effects of acute Cannabis ingestion as well as modulating several core functions of the nervous system including emotion, memory, and learning behavior. Due ubiquitous expression of ECS proteins, there is broad overlap between brain regions that show high levels of receptor expression and those thought to be involved in the etiology of a range of mental health disorders including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. Consequently, modulation of cannabinoid receptor function is a novel and potentially clinically relevant mechanism for influencing the levels of other neuromodulators and neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, that are known to play crucial roles in the progression of mental illness. In addition, characterization of endogenous cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors with respect to their normal physiological function and possible roles in pathophysiology may provide insight for the development of future ECS-based therapies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Glutamatergic and neuroimmune mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine-mediated inhibition of cue-induced nicotine seeking

Description

Nicotine self-administration is associated with decreased expression of the glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and the cystine-glutamate exchange protein xCT in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore). N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is

Nicotine self-administration is associated with decreased expression of the glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and the cystine-glutamate exchange protein xCT in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore). N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and glutamatergic agent, restores these proteins associated with increased relapse vulnerability. However, the specific molecular mechanisms driving NAC inhibitory effects on cue-induced nicotine reinstatement are unknown. Thus, the present study assessed NAC’s effects on cue-induced nicotine reinstatement are dependent on NAcore GLT-1 expression. Here, rats were treated with NAC in combination with intra-NAcore vivo-morpholinos to examine the role of GLT-1 in NAC-mediated inhibition of cue-induced nicotine seeking. Subchronic NAC treatment attenuated cue-induced nicotine seeking in male rats and an antisense vivo-morpholino (AS) designed to selectively suppress GLT-1 expression in the NAcore blocked this effect. NAC treatment was also associated with an inhibition of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) expression in the NAcore. As well, GLT-1 AS markedly increased expression of CD40, a known marker of pro-inflammatory M1 activation of microglia and macrophages. To further examine whether NAC-induced decreases in nicotine seeking involve suppression of TNFα, we manipulated a downstream mediator of this pathway, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Considering the putative role of NF-κB in learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity, separate experiments were performed where rats were treated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors designed to increase (HSV-IKKca) or decrease (HSV-IKKdn) NF-κB signaling through interactions with IκB Kinase (IKK). The goal was to examine the role of NF-κB signaling in mediating nicotine seeking behavior and if NF-κB signaling regulates GLT-1 expression. HSV-IKKdn alone and in combination with NAC inhibited cue-induced nicotine reinstatement, while HSV-IKKca blocked the attenuating effect of NAC on reinstatement. Interestingly, both HSV-IKKdn and HSV-IKKca, regardless of NAC treatment, inhibited GLT-1 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that while GLT-1 may be a conserved neurobiological substrate underlying relapse vulnerability across drugs of abuse, immunomodulatory mechanisms may regulate drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic plasticity that mediate cue-induced drug-seeking behavior through GLT-1-independent mechanisms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The role of the serotonin 2 family of receptors in cocaine-elicited and cocaine-conditioned behaviors

Description

5-HT2A receptor (R) antagonists and 5-HT2CR agonists attenuate reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., incentive motivation). 5-HT2Rs are distributed throughout the brain, primarily in regions involved in reward circuitry, including the

5-HT2A receptor (R) antagonists and 5-HT2CR agonists attenuate reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., incentive motivation). 5-HT2Rs are distributed throughout the brain, primarily in regions involved in reward circuitry, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen (CPu), and basolateral (BlA) and central (CeA) amygdala. Using animal models, we tested our hypotheses that 5-HT2ARs in the medial (m) PFC mediate the incentive motivational effects of cocaine and cocaine-paired cues; 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and functional neuronal activation (i.e, Fos protein); and 5-HT2CRs in the BlA mediate the incentive motivational effects of cocaine-paired cues and anxiety-like behavior, while 5-HT2CRs in the CeA mediate the incentive motivational effects of cocaine. In chapter 2, we infused M100907, a selective 5-HT2AR antagonist, directly into the mPFC and examined its effects on reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. We found that M100907 in the mPFC dose- dependently attenuated cue-primed reinstatement, without affecting cocaine-primed reinstatement, cue-primed reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior, or locomotor activity. In chapter 3, we used subthreshold doses of M100907 and MK212, a 5-HT2CR agonist, to investigate whether these compounds interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression. Only the drug combination attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion and cocaine-induced Fos expression in the CPu, but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. Finally, in chapter 4 we investigated the effects of a 5- HT2CR agonist in the BlA and CeA on cocaine-seeking behavior and anxiety-like behavior. We found that CP809101, a selective 5-HT2CR agonist, infused into the BlA increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), but failed to alter cocaine-seeking behavior. CP809101 infused into the CeA attenuated cocaine-primed reinstatement and this effect was blocked by co-administration of a 5-HT2CR antagonist. Together, these results suggest that 5-HT2ARs in the mPFC are involved in cue-primed reinstatement, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2CRs may interact in the nigrostriatal pathway to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression, and 5-HT2CRs are involved in anxiety-like behavior in the BlA and cocaine-primed reinstatement in the CeA. Our findings add to the literature on the localization of 5-HT2AR antagonist and 5-HT2CR agonist effects, and suggest a potential treatment mechanism via concurrent 5-HT2AR antagonism and 5-HT2CR agonism.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013