Matching Items (6)

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Conditioning Vegetable Preferences through Texture Pairing in Children

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Neophobia is a sensory phenomenon common in children that makes novel foods taste unpleasant. Our study tested exposure and pairing effects on neophobia in children by exposing them to novel

Neophobia is a sensory phenomenon common in children that makes novel foods taste unpleasant. Our study tested exposure and pairing effects on neophobia in children by exposing them to novel vegetables paired with varying textures. Results showed a significant increase in liking for all subject groups after six exposures, which is less exposure than required in other studies. Except in one case, texture was not related to a change in liking that differed significantly from other groups.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Perceived Ratio of Vegetable to Fruit in Juice Diets: A Case Study of the Online Juicing Population

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The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the

The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the liquid part of a plant, fruit, or vegetable. Food can be ground, pressed, and spun to separate the liquid from the pulp. A juice diet involves juicing and consuming a variety of vegetables and fruits. The primary objective of this study was to gather information about the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated in freshly made juices during a juice diet. Therefore, the study survey inquired about various topics related to ingredient ratio during a juice diet. The survey data allowed for examination of the relationships between ingredient ratio and certain variables (e.g. gender, age, length of time juicing, juice fast participation, health effects, etc.). The study participants were recruited using online social media. Facebook was the primary method for reaching the online juicing community. A written invitation was distributed in several health related Facebook groups encouraging any person with experience juicing to complete an anonymous survey. This post was also shared via Twitter and various health related websites. The study survey data was used to examine the relationships between ingredient ratio and specific variables. The survey data showed participants had varying levels of experience with juicing. The responses indicated many participants were familiar with juice fasting and many participants completed more than one juice fast. Based on the survey response data, the most common ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by the participants during a juice diet was 80% vegetable to 20% fruit. The majority of participants indicated daily consumption of freshly made juice containing 70% -100% vegetables. Based on the survey response data, beginner juicers may be less inclined to incorporate organic produce into their juice diet compared to advanced juicers. The majority of participants reported positive health benefits during a juice diet. Some of the positive health benefits indicated by participants include weight loss, increased energy, and a positive impact on disease symptoms. Some of the negative side effects experienced by participants during a juice diet include frequent urination, headache, and cravings. Cross tabulation calculations between the ratio of ingredients and several variables covered by the study survey demonstrated statistical significance (i.e. length of time juicing, frequency of drinking juice, juice fast participation, number of juice fasts completed, servings of vegetables/fruit in a juice, percent of organic vegetables/fruit used in a juice, perceived positive side effects, and perceived negative side effects). This study provided insight about the average ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by participants during a juice diet. When analyzing the data it is important to consider the survey data was self-reported. Therefore, every result and conclusion is based on the individual perceptions of the study participants. In future experimentation, the use of medical tests and blood work would be useful to determine the biological and biochemical effects of drinking raw vegetable and/or fruit juice on the human body.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Role of Fruits and Vegetables in Hydration of 3-13 y Old Children

Description

Background: Inadequate hydration can have several adverse effects on health. In children, it can negatively affect their health and cognitive performance. The effects of fruits and vegetables on the hydration

Background: Inadequate hydration can have several adverse effects on health. In children, it can negatively affect their health and cognitive performance. The effects of fruits and vegetables on the hydration of children have not been adequately studied. This study included 177 children in this age group and examined the contribution of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on total water intake (TWI).

Methods: Two-day dietary and fluid intake records as well as 24-h urine samples were collected from 177 children over different weekends. The dietary records were analyzed with Nutrition Data System for Research to obtain TWI from food (TWI-F) as well as TWI from fruits and vegetables (TWI-FV). The fluid intake data was used to determine TWI from liquids (TWI-L). The urine samples were analyzed for volume (UVol), urine osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UCol) to examine hydration. Age was categorized into 3, 4-8, and 9-13 y based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

Results: About 52% of the children did not meet water intake recommendations by IOM and 39.8% of the children were underhydrated based on elevated urine osmolality. The average TWI was found to be 1,911± 70 mL. TWI-F was observed to be 492±257 mL, while TWI-L was 1,419±702 mL. TWI-FV only contributed 200±144 mL. As expected TWI was significantly higher in the older children (9-13 y) than children in other age group (3 and 4-8 y). The average UVol was 709±445 mL, USG was 1.019±0.006, UOsm was 701±233 mOsm·kg-1, and UCol was a 3±1 (based on the urine color chart). Only urine volume seemed to be influenced by the age of the children as it was significantly higher for the children in the 9-13 y age group.

Conclusion: Nearly half of the children did not meet water recommendations by IOM and were underhydrated. Fruits and vegetables did not have a significant contribution to TWI. Dietary interventions to increase F&V consumption, lower consumption of SSB, as well as maintain proper hydration may benefit the health of children.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The flavor station: a pilot salad bar trial to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school children

Description

Most American children consume less than the recommend amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V), 74% and 84%, respectively. Eating too few F&V in childhood is associated with increased risk of

Most American children consume less than the recommend amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V), 74% and 84%, respectively. Eating too few F&V in childhood is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, respiratory symptoms, and some cancers later in life. Adequate F&V consumption favorably impacts antioxidant status, gut flora, mood, and cognitive functioning. Nutrients such as vitamin C and fiber are only naturally occurring in plant foods. For many children, school lunches are an important source of F&V. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of providing condiments to increase children’s consumption of salad bar F&V in an elementary school cafeteria at lunchtime. The trial site was a single Title 1 elementary school in a large, urban district in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Taste tests were conducted on three convenience samples of children in grades 3 – 7, aged 8 – 12 years (n=57) to identify the most popular condiment flavors. The five highest rated flavors were made available daily at a “flavor station” in the school’s lunchroom for three consecutive weeks during the Fall 2018 semester. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. A cost analysis was conducted for capital outlays related to the flavor station. School employee perceptions of F&V and the flavor station were assessed via posttest online surveys. Peanut butter was rated the best tasting condiment by children and was the only condiment that increased in popularity throughout the intervention. Overall, daily F&V consumption increased 17 g per child. There was a linear increase in F&V consumption during the study (r=0.986; P=0.014). As a proportion of the total F&V selected, F&V waste decreased by nearly 3%. The average daily cost of providing the flavor station was $0.09 per student. Sixty-five percent of school staff felt that the flavor station should continue at their school. Peanut butter is an affordable, nutrient-dense food that accommodates the USDA Food and Nutrition Service meal patterns and nutrition standards, and thus, is a viable strategy for increasing F&V consumption and decreasing F&V waste. The results herein inform the development of future interventions to improve the palatability of F&V for children.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Individual differences in the efficacy of sodium chloride and sucrose as bitterness suppressors of brassicaceae vegetables

Description

The unpleasant bitter taste found in many nutritious vegetables may deter their consumption. While bitterness suppression by prototypical tastants is well-studied in the chemical and pharmacological fields, mechanisms to

The unpleasant bitter taste found in many nutritious vegetables may deter their consumption. While bitterness suppression by prototypical tastants is well-studied in the chemical and pharmacological fields, mechanisms to reduce the bitterness of foods such as vegetables remain to be elucidated. Here tastants representing the taste primaries of salty and sweet were investigated as potential bitterness suppressors of three types of Brassicaceae vegetables. The secondary aim of these studies was to determine whether the bitter masking agents were differentially effective for bitter-sensitive and bitter-insensitive individuals. In all experiments, participants rated vegetables plain and with the addition of tastants. In Experiments 1-3, sucrose and NNS suppressed the bitterness of broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower, whereas NaCl did not. Varying concentrations of NaCl and sucrose were introduced in Experiment 4 to assess the dose-dependency of the effects. While sucrose was a robust bitterness suppressor, NaCl suppressed bitterness only for participants who perceived the plain Brussels sprouts as highly bitter. Experiment 5, through the implementation of a rigorous control condition, determined that some but not all of this effect can be accounted for by regression to the mean. Individual variability in taste perception as determined by sampling of aqueous bitter, salty, and sweet solutions did not influence the degree of suppression by NaCl or sucrose. Consumption of vegetables is deterred by their bitter taste. Utilizing tastants to mask bitterness, a technique that preserves endogenous nutrients, can circumvent this issue. Sucrose is a robust bitter suppressor whereas the efficacy of NaCl is dependent upon bitterness perception of the plain vegetables.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Individual differences in taste perception and bitterness masking

Description

The unpleasant bitter taste found in many nutritious vegetables may deter people from consuming a healthy diet. We investigated individual differences in taste perception and whether these differences influence the

The unpleasant bitter taste found in many nutritious vegetables may deter people from consuming a healthy diet. We investigated individual differences in taste perception and whether these differences influence the effectiveness of bitterness masking. To test whether phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) `supertasters' also taste salt and sugar with greater intensity, as suggested by Bartoshuk and colleagues (2004), we infused strips of paper with salt water or sugar water. The bitterness rating of the PTC strip had a significant positive linear relationship with ratings of both the intensity of sweet and salt, but the effect sizes were very low, suggesting that the PTC strip does not give a complete picture of tasting ability. Next we investigated whether various seasonings could mask the bitter taste of vegetables and whether this varied with tasting ability. We found that sugar decreased bitterness and lemon decreased liking for vegetables of varying degrees of bitterness. The results did not differ by ability to taste any of the flavors. Therefore, even though there are remarkable individual differences in taste perception, sugar can be used to improve the initial palatability of vegetables and increase their acceptance and consumption.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012