Matching Items (11)

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Adolescent Relationship with Parents, Romantic Partners, & Close Friends as a Predictor to Depressive Symptoms

Description

Research indicates that adolescents with low quality relationships with parents are susceptible to risk of depression. There is little known about how other relationships relate to depression. This study examined

Research indicates that adolescents with low quality relationships with parents are susceptible to risk of depression. There is little known about how other relationships relate to depression. This study examined adolescent's relationship with parents, romantic partners, and best friends as a predictor of depressive symptoms. A primarily Dutch population of 80 adolescent couples in the age group of 13 to 18 years old (M = 15.48 SD: 1.16) completed the Epidemiological Depression Scale, Investment Scale of Rusbult, along with an Emotional Warmth scale at Time one and then a year later (Time two). Depressive symptoms at Time two was negatively related with adolescent's emotional warmth with parents. There is also a positive correlation between depressive symptoms at Time one and Time two. However, no significant data was found for an association between satisfaction with romantic partner or best friend and depressive symptoms at Time two. These findings indicate that the type of relationship formed with parents might contribute to the depression adolescent's face.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Meta-Analytic Evidence That Racial Discrimination Should Be Considered an Adverse Childhood Experience: A Focus on Depressive Symptoms

Description

A growing body of research suggests a link between adverse childhood experiences and negative health outcomes. However, less is known about where racial discrimination ranks compared to other adverse childhood

A growing body of research suggests a link between adverse childhood experiences and negative health outcomes. However, less is known about where racial discrimination ranks compared to other adverse childhood experiences, such as maltreatment. To address this issue, I conducted two systematic reviews of meta-analyses to compare the magnitudes of the links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms and childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. My aim was to establish if racial discrimination should be considered an adverse childhood experience. My results demonstrated that the link between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms (r = 0.27) is comparable to the links between 4 different manifestations of maltreatment and depressive symptoms (physical abuse: r = 0.257, emotional abuse: r = 0.301, neglect: r = 0.381, sexual abuse: r = 0.408). I discuss the implications of these findings and propose future research directions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Links Between Adolescents’ and Parents’ Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-origin Families

Description

The present study examined associations between depressive symptoms among mothers, fathers,<br/>and adolescents and considered whether different associations emerged by parent and adolescent<br/>gender. In addition, the combination of maternal and paternal

The present study examined associations between depressive symptoms among mothers, fathers,<br/>and adolescents and considered whether different associations emerged by parent and adolescent<br/>gender. In addition, the combination of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms was<br/>examined in relation to adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Participants were 246 families of<br/>Mexican-origin in two-parent households who resided in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Data<br/>were collected during home interviews at Time 1 and phone calls with adolescents at Time 2.<br/>Findings revealed concurrent bivariate associations between adolescents’ and mothers’ and<br/>fathers’ depressive symptoms. Further, mothers’ depressive symptoms predicted increases in<br/>adolescents’ symptoms two years later. However, there were no significant gender differences,<br/>and the combination of mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms did not predict adolescents’<br/>depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to understanding the interrelations between<br/>Mexican-origin mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ depressive symptoms.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Differences in the Symptom Profile of Depression in South Asians

Description

The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) are highly valid depressive testing tools used to measure the symptom profile of depression globally and in

The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) are highly valid depressive testing tools used to measure the symptom profile of depression globally and in South Asia, respectively (Steer et al., 1998; Kroenke et al, 2001). Even though the South Asian population comprises only 23% of the world’s population, it represents one-fifth of the world’s mental health disorders (Ogbo et al., 2018). Although this population is highly affected by mental disorders, there is a lack of culturally relevant research on specific subsections of the South Asian population.

As such, the goal of this study is to investigate the differences in the symptom profile of depression in native and immigrant South Asian populations. We investigated the role of collective self-esteem and perceived discrimination on mental health.
For the purpose of this study, participants were asked a series of questions about their depressive symptoms, self-esteem and perceived discrimination using various depressive screening measures, a self-esteem scale, and a perceived discrimination scale.

We found that immigrants demonstrated higher depressive symptoms than Native South Asians as immigration was viewed as a stressor. First-generation and second-generation South Asian immigrants identified equally with somatic and psychological symptoms. These symptoms were positively correlated with perceived discrimination, and collective self-esteem was shown to increase the likelihood of these symptoms.

This being said, the results from this study may be generalized only to South Asian immigrants who come from highly educated and high-income households. Since seeking professional help and being aware of one’s mental health is vital for wellbeing, the results from this study may spark the interest in an open communication about mental health within the South Asian immigrant community as well as aid in the restructuring of a highly reliable and valid measurement to be specific to a culture.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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A Systematic Review on Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Asian Americans in the United States from 2009-2019

Description

A growing body of research suggest that experiencing racial discrimination is associated with the development of mental health problems. Lee and Ahn (2011) conducted a meta-analysis that documented the relationshi

A growing body of research suggest that experiencing racial discrimination is associated with the development of mental health problems. Lee and Ahn (2011) conducted a meta-analysis that documented the relationship between racial discrimination and psychopathology, including depressive symptoms among Asian Americans. However, evidence of an increase in racial discrimination in the last decade requires examining to what degree its link to depressive symptoms has changed since Lee and Ahn (2011)’s seminal study. To address this issue, I conducted a systematic review of research on racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among Asian Americans from 2009-2019 in the United States. I used PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global to perform my search. My aims were to: 1) understand the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, 2) understand how studies vary across sex, age, measures, socioeconomic and ethnic subgroup (e.g., Chinese Americans, Vietnamese Americans). My results demonstrated that the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms was primarily positive. Factors regarding sex, age, measures, and socioeconomic status varied across studies. Future research should focus more on current issues regarding Asian Americans and use meta-analytic techniques to further investigate any potential moderators such as socioeconomic status and ethnic subgroups.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Relation between family strain and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: the moderating effect of self-compassion

Description

Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions

Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions in a kind and nonjudgmental way. Although theory and empirical evidence suggests that self-compassion is protective against the impact of stress on mental health outcomes, many studies have not investigated how self-compassion operates in the context of relationship strain. In addition, few studies have examined psychological or physiological mechanisms by which self-compassion protects against mental health outcomes, depression in particular. Thus, this study examined 1) the extent to which trait self-compassion buffers the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms, and 2) whether these buffering effects are mediated by hope and inflammatory processes (IL-6) in a sample of 762 middle-aged, community-dwelling adults. Results from structural equation models indicated that family strain was unrelated to depressive symptoms and the relation was not moderated by self-compassion. Hope, but not IL-6, mediated the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms and the indirect effect was not conditional on levels of self-compassion. Taken together, the findings suggest that family strain may lead individuals to experience less hope and subsequent increases in depressive symptoms, and further, that a self-compassionate attitude does not affect this relation. Implications for future self-compassion interventions are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Associations of depression, sleep, and acculturation on glycemic control in Korean Americans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Description

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets of A1C levels below seven percent. Poor glycemic control disproportionately affects minority populations such as Korean Americans (KAs). Successful diabetes self-management requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account depression, sleep, and acculturation to achieve good glycemic control. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the levels of glycemic control, depressive symptoms, sleep quality and duration, and acculturation; 2) examine an association of depressive symptoms with glycemic control; 3) identify mediational roles of sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; and 4) explore a moderation role of acculturation between depressive symptoms and glycemic control in KAs with T2DM. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. A total of 119 first generation KAs with T2DM were recruited from Korean communities in Arizona. A1C levels, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Berlin Questionnaire were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression analyses, path analyses, and the Sobel tests were conducted for data analyses of this study. Poor glycemic control (A1C ≥ 7 %), high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5), and short sleep duration (< 6 hours) were prevalent among KAs with T2DM. The mean score of acculturation (2.18) indicated low acculturation to Western culture. Depressive symptoms were revealed as a significant independent predictor of glycemic control. Physical activity was negatively associated with glycemic control, while cultural identity was positively related to glycemic control. Sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours did not mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Acculturation did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Diabetes self-management interventions of a comprehensive approach that considers depressive symptoms, sleep problems, and cultural differences in minority populations with T2DM are needed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Resilience profiles and postpartum depression in low-Income Mexican American women

Description

The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing

The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing ethnic minority group, and have the highest birth rate in the United States, presenting a significant public health concern. The transition to motherhood can be an emotionally and physically complex time for women, particularly in the context of a stressful low-income environment. Although most low-income women navigate this transition well, a significant number of mothers develop moderate to severe depressive symptoms. The proposed research investigated profiles of resilience during the prenatal period using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis. In alignment with current resilience theories, several domains of resilience were investigated including psychological, social, and cultural adherence (e.g., maintaining specific cultural traditions). Concurrent prenatal depressive symptoms and stress were correlated with the profiles in order to establish validity. Six week postpartum depressive symptoms and physiological processes (e.g., overall cortisol output, heart rate variability, and sleep) were also predicted by the prenatal resilient profiles. The resulting data revealed three separate profiles: low-resource, high-resource Anglo, and high-resource Mexican. These resilience profiles had differential associations with concurrent depressive symptoms and stress, such that women in the high-resource profiles reported less depressive symptoms and stress prenatally. Further, profile differences regarding cortisol output, resting heart rate variability, were also found, but there were no differences in insomnia symptoms. Profile classification also moderated the effects of prenatal economic stress on postpartum depressive symptoms, such that women in the high-resource Mexican profile were at risk for higher postpartum depressive symptoms under high economic stress compared to the high-resource Anglo group, which demonstrated a more resilient response. Overall, the results suggest the presence of multiple clusters of prenatal resilience within a sample of MA mothers facing health disparities, with various effects on perinatal mental health and postpartum physiological processes. The results also highlight the need for multi-dimensional models of resilience and the possible implications for interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Are familism values, family communication, and sleep associated with depressive symptoms?: an investigation of Latino youth well-being over the transition to college

Description

The transition out of high school is a major milestone for adolescents as they earn greater autonomy and responsibilities. An estimated 69.2% of adolescents enroll in higher education immediately following

The transition out of high school is a major milestone for adolescents as they earn greater autonomy and responsibilities. An estimated 69.2% of adolescents enroll in higher education immediately following high school completion, including increasing numbers of Latino adolescents (National Center for Education Statistics, 2016). Integrative model (García Coll et al., 1996) suggests a need for research on promotive and protective contextual factors for ethnic minority children and adolescents. Guided by the model, the proposed research will explore a salient Latino cultural value, familism, and family communication as predictors of changes in depressive symptoms from high school to university among Latino adolescents (N = 209; 35.6% male; Mage=17.59, SD=.53). Furthermore, sleep, a key bioregulatory mechanism, was explored as a potential moderator of these processes (Dahl & El-Sheikh, 2007). On average, familism values were not associated with college depressive symptoms, but family communication was significantly negatively associated with college depressive symptoms. Neither sleep duration nor sleep problems significantly moderated the association between familism values and college depressive symptom. Patterns were similar for family communication. The interaction between sleep problems and familism-support values were significantly associated with college depressive symptoms. However, when simple slopes were probed, none were significant.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress among Asian American adolescents: moderating roles of family racial socialization and nativity status

Description

This dissertation used the risk and resilience framework to examine the associations between perceived racial discrimination, family racial socialization, nativity status, and psychological distress. Regression analyses were conducted to test

This dissertation used the risk and resilience framework to examine the associations between perceived racial discrimination, family racial socialization, nativity status, and psychological distress. Regression analyses were conducted to test the links between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress and the moderation on these associations by family racial socialization and nativity status. Results suggest, for U.S.-born adolescents, cultural socialization strengthened the relation between subtle racial discrimination and anxiety symptoms. In addition, promotion of mistrust buffered the relations of both subtle and blatant racial discrimination on depressive symptoms. For foreign-born adolescents, promotion of mistrust exacerbated the association between blatant racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Overall, the findings revealed the detrimental effects of perceived racial discrimination on the mental health of Asian American adolescents, how some family racial socialization strategies strengthen or weaken the relation between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress, and the different ways foreign-born and U.S-born adolescents may interpret racial discrimination and experience family racial socialization.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012