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Accurate Articulation of /r/: Relationships between Signal Processing Analysis of Speech and Ultrasound Images of the Tongue

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Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used X-Ray, MRI, and electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer systems. More recently, the

Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used X-Ray, MRI, and electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer systems. More recently, the signal processing technique of Mel-log spectral plots has been used to study /r/ production in children and female adults. Ultrasound imaging of the tongue also has been used to image the tongue during speech production in both clinical and research settings. The current study attempts to describe /r/ production in three different allophonic contexts; vocalic, prevocalic, and postvocalic positions. Ultrasound analysis, formant analysis, Mel-log spectral plots, and /r/ duration were measured for /r/ production in 29 adult speakers (10 male, 19 female). A possible relationship between these variables was also explored. Results showed that the amount of superior constriction in the postvocalic /r/ allophone was significantly lower than the other /r/ allophones. Formant two was significantly lower and the distance between formant two and three was significantly higher for the prevocalic /r/ allophone. Vocalic /r/ had the longest average duration, while prevocalic /r/ had the shortest duration. Signal processing results revealed candidate Mel-bin values for accurate /r/ production for each allophone of /r/. The results indicate that allophones of /r/ can be distinguished based the different analyses. However, relationships between these analyses are still unclear. Future research is needed in order to gather more data on /r/ acoustics and articulation in order to find possible relationships between the analyses for /r/ production.

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2017-05

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Student-To-Student Anatomy Volume 1: Heart, Lungs, ENT

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Student to Student: A Guide to Anatomy is an anatomy guide written by students, for students. Its focus is on teaching the anatomy of the heart, lungs, nose, ears and throat in a manner that isn't overpowering or stress inducing.

Student to Student: A Guide to Anatomy is an anatomy guide written by students, for students. Its focus is on teaching the anatomy of the heart, lungs, nose, ears and throat in a manner that isn't overpowering or stress inducing. Daniel and I have taken numerous anatomy courses, and fully comprehend what it takes to have success in these classes. We found that the anatomy books recommended for these courses are often completely overwhelming, offering way more information than what is needed. This renders them near useless for a college student who just wants to learn the essentials. Why would a student even pick it up if they can't find what they need to learn? With that in mind, our goal was to create a comprehensive, easy to understand, and easy to follow guide to the heart, lungs and ENT (ear nose throat). We know what information is vital for test day, and wanted to highlight these key concepts and ideas in our guide. Spending just 60 to 90 minutes studying our guide should help any student with their studying needs. Whether the student has medical school aspirations, or if they simply just want to pass the class, our guide is there for them. We aren't experts, but we know what strategies and methods can help even the most confused students learn. Our guide can also be used as an introductory resource to our respective majors (Daniel-Biology, Charles-Speech and Hearing) for students who are undecided on what they want to do. In the future Daniel and I would like to see more students creating similar guides, and adding onto the "Student to Student' title with their own works... After all, who better to teach students than the students who know what it takes?

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2017-05

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Ultrasound Imaging of Swallowing Subsequent to Feeding and Myofunctional Intervention

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine swallowing patterns using ultrasound technology subsequent to the implementation of two therapeutic interventions. Baseline swallow patterns were compared to swallows after implementation of therapeutic interventions common in both feeding therapy (FT) and

The purpose of this study was to examine swallowing patterns using ultrasound technology subsequent to the implementation of two therapeutic interventions. Baseline swallow patterns were compared to swallows after implementation of therapeutic interventions common in both feeding therapy (FT) and orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT). The interventions consist of stimulation of the tongue by z-vibe and tongue pops. Changes in swallowing patterns are described, and similarities of interventions across the two professions are discussed. Ultrasound research in the realm of swallowing is sparse despite having potential clinical application in both professions. In using ultrasound, this study outlines a protocol for utilization of a hand-held probe and reinforces a particular protocol described in the literature. Real-time ultrasound recordings of swallows for 19 adult female subjects were made. Participants with orofacial myofunctional disorder are compared to a group with typical swallowing and differences in swallowing patterns are described. Three stages of the oral phase of the swallow were assigned based on ultrasonic observation of the tongue shape. Analysis involves total duration of the swallow, duration of the three stages in relation to the total duration of the swallow, and the number of swallows required for the bolus to be cleared from the oral cavity. No significant effects of either intervention were found. Swallowing patterns showed a general trend to become faster in total duration subsequent to each intervention. An unexpected finding showed significant changes in the relationship between the bolus preparation stage and the bolus transportation stage when comparing the group classified as having a single swallow and the group classified as having multiple swallows.

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2016-05

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Vowel Normalization in Dysarthria

Description

In this study, the Bark transform and Lobanov method were used to normalize vowel formants in speech produced by persons with dysarthria. The computer classification accuracy of these normalized data were then compared to the results of human perceptual classification

In this study, the Bark transform and Lobanov method were used to normalize vowel formants in speech produced by persons with dysarthria. The computer classification accuracy of these normalized data were then compared to the results of human perceptual classification accuracy of the actual vowels. These results were then analyzed to determine if these techniques correlated with the human data.

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2013-05