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An agent-based optimization framework for engineered complex adaptive systems with application to demand response in electricity markets

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The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects

The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

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2013

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Locating counting sensors in traffic network to estimate origin-destination volumes

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Improving the quality of Origin-Destination (OD) demand estimates increases the effectiveness of design, evaluation and implementation of traffic planning and management systems. The associated bilevel Sensor Location Flow-Estimation problem considers two important research questions: (1) how to compute the best

Improving the quality of Origin-Destination (OD) demand estimates increases the effectiveness of design, evaluation and implementation of traffic planning and management systems. The associated bilevel Sensor Location Flow-Estimation problem considers two important research questions: (1) how to compute the best estimates of the flows of interest by using anticipated data from given candidate sensors location; and (2) how to decide on the optimum subset of links where sensors should be located. In this dissertation, a decision framework is developed to optimally locate and obtain high quality OD volume estimates in vehicular traffic networks. The framework includes a traffic assignment model to load the OD traffic volumes on routes in a known choice set, a sensor location model to decide on which subset of links to locate counting sensors to observe traffic volumes, and an estimation model to obtain best estimates of OD or route flow volumes. The dissertation first addresses the deterministic route flow estimation problem given apriori knowledge of route flows and their uncertainties. Two procedures are developed to locate "perfect" and "noisy" sensors respectively. Next, it addresses a stochastic route flow estimation problem. A hierarchical linear Bayesian model is developed, where the real route flows are assumed to be generated from a Multivariate Normal distribution with two parameters: "mean" and "variance-covariance matrix". The prior knowledge for the "mean" parameter is described by a probability distribution. When assuming the "variance-covariance matrix" parameter is known, a Bayesian A-optimal design is developed. When the "variance-covariance matrix" parameter is unknown, Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach is used to estimate the aposteriori quantities. In all the sensor location model the objective is the maximization of the reduction in the variances of the distribution of the estimates of the OD volume. Developed models are compared with other available models in the literature. The comparison showed that the models developed performed better than available models.

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2013

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Surgical instrument reprocessing in a hospital setting analyzed with statistical process control and data mining techniques

Description

In a healthcare setting, the Sterile Processing Department (SPD) provides ancillary services to the Operating Room (OR), Emergency Room, Labor & Delivery, and off-site clinics. SPD's function is to reprocess reusable surgical instruments and return them to their home departments.

In a healthcare setting, the Sterile Processing Department (SPD) provides ancillary services to the Operating Room (OR), Emergency Room, Labor & Delivery, and off-site clinics. SPD's function is to reprocess reusable surgical instruments and return them to their home departments. The management of surgical instruments and medical devices can impact patient safety and hospital revenue. Any time instrumentation or devices are not available or are not fit for use, patient safety and revenue can be negatively impacted. One step of the instrument reprocessing cycle is sterilization. Steam sterilization is the sterilization method used for the majority of surgical instruments and is preferred to immediate use steam sterilization (IUSS) because terminally sterilized items can be stored until needed. IUSS Items must be used promptly and cannot be stored for later use. IUSS is intended for emergency situations and not as regular course of action. Unfortunately, IUSS is used to compensate for inadequate inventory levels, scheduling conflicts, and miscommunications. If IUSS is viewed as an adverse event, then monitoring IUSS incidences can help healthcare organizations meet patient safety goals and financial goals along with aiding in process improvement efforts. This work recommends statistical process control methods to IUSS incidents and illustrates the use of control charts for IUSS occurrences through a case study and analysis of the control charts for data from a health care provider. Furthermore, this work considers the application of data mining methods to IUSS occurrences and presents a representative example of data mining to the IUSS occurrences. This extends the application of statistical process control and data mining in healthcare applications.

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2014

An optimization model for timetabling and vehicle assignment for urban bus systems

Description

To guide the timetabling and vehicle assignment of urban bus systems, a group of optimization models were developed for scenarios from simple to complex. The model took the interaction of prospective passengers and bus companies into consideration to achieve

To guide the timetabling and vehicle assignment of urban bus systems, a group of optimization models were developed for scenarios from simple to complex. The model took the interaction of prospective passengers and bus companies into consideration to achieve the maximum financial benefit as well as social satisfaction. The model was verified by a series of case studies and simulation from which some interesting conclusions were drawn.

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2014

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A multi-sensor data fusion approach for real-time lane-based traffic estimation

Description

Modern intelligent transportation systems (ITS) make driving more efficient, easier, and safer. Knowledge of real-time traffic conditions is a critical input for operating ITS. Real-time freeway traffic state estimation approaches have been used to quantify traffic conditions given limited amount

Modern intelligent transportation systems (ITS) make driving more efficient, easier, and safer. Knowledge of real-time traffic conditions is a critical input for operating ITS. Real-time freeway traffic state estimation approaches have been used to quantify traffic conditions given limited amount of data collected by traffic sensors. Currently, almost all real-time estimation methods have been developed for estimating laterally aggregated traffic conditions in a roadway segment using link-based models which assume homogeneous conditions across multiple lanes. However, with new advances and applications of ITS, knowledge of lane-based traffic conditions is becoming important, where the traffic condition differences among lanes are recognized. In addition, most of the current real-time freeway traffic estimators consider only data from loop detectors. This dissertation develops a bi-level data fusion approach using heterogeneous multi-sensor measurements to estimate real-time lane-based freeway traffic conditions, which integrates a link-level model-based estimator and a lane-level data-driven estimator.

Macroscopic traffic flow models describe the evolution of aggregated traffic characteristics over time and space, which are required by model-based traffic estimation approaches. Since current first-order Lagrangian macroscopic traffic flow model has some unrealistic implicit assumptions (e.g., infinite acceleration), a second-order Lagrangian macroscopic traffic flow model has been developed by incorporating drivers’ anticipation and reaction delay. A multi-sensor extended Kalman filter (MEKF) algorithm has been developed to combine heterogeneous measurements from multiple sources. A MEKF-based traffic estimator, explicitly using the developed second-order traffic flow model and measurements from loop detectors as well as GPS trajectories for given fractions of vehicles, has been proposed which gives real-time link-level traffic estimates in the bi-level estimation system.

The lane-level estimation in the bi-level data fusion system uses the link-level estimates as priors and adopts a data-driven approach to obtain lane-based estimates, where now heterogeneous multi-sensor measurements are combined using parallel spatial-temporal filters.

Experimental analysis shows that the second-order model can more realistically reproduce real world traffic flow patterns (e.g., stop-and-go waves). The MEKF-based link-level estimator exhibits more accurate results than the estimator that uses only a single data source. Evaluation of the lane-level estimator demonstrates that the proposed new bi-level multi-sensor data fusion system can provide very good estimates of real-time lane-based traffic conditions.

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2015

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Integrated supply chain network design: location, transportation, routing and inventory decisions

Description

In this dissertation, an innovative framework for designing a multi-product integrated supply chain network is proposed. Multiple products are shipped from production facilities to retailers through a network of Distribution Centers (DCs). Each retailer has an independent, random demand for

In this dissertation, an innovative framework for designing a multi-product integrated supply chain network is proposed. Multiple products are shipped from production facilities to retailers through a network of Distribution Centers (DCs). Each retailer has an independent, random demand for multiple products. The particular problem considered in this study also involves mixed-product transshipments between DCs with multiple truck size selection and routing delivery to retailers. Optimally solving such an integrated problem is in general not easy due to its combinatorial nature, especially when transshipments and routing are involved. In order to find out a good solution effectively, a two-phase solution methodology is derived: Phase I solves an integer programming model which includes all the constraints in the original model except that the routings are simplified to direct shipments by using estimated routing cost parameters. Then Phase II model solves the lower level inventory routing problem for each opened DC and its assigned retailers. The accuracy of the estimated routing cost and the effectiveness of the two-phase solution methodology are evaluated, the computational performance is found to be promising. The problem is able to be heuristically solved within a reasonable time frame for a broad range of problem sizes (one hour for the instance of 200 retailers). In addition, a model is generated for a similar network design problem considering direct shipment and consolidation within the same product set opportunities. A genetic algorithm and a specific problem heuristic are designed, tested and compared on several realistic scenarios.

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2013

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Spatio-temporal data mining to detect changes and clusters in trajectories

Description

With the rapid development of mobile sensing technologies like GPS, RFID, sensors in smartphones, etc., capturing position data in the form of trajectories has become easy. Moving object trajectory analysis is a growing area of interest these days owing to

With the rapid development of mobile sensing technologies like GPS, RFID, sensors in smartphones, etc., capturing position data in the form of trajectories has become easy. Moving object trajectory analysis is a growing area of interest these days owing to its applications in various domains such as marketing, security, traffic monitoring and management, etc. To better understand movement behaviors from the raw mobility data, this doctoral work provides analytic models for analyzing trajectory data. As a first contribution, a model is developed to detect changes in trajectories with time. If the taxis moving in a city are viewed as sensors that provide real time information of the traffic in the city, a change in these trajectories with time can reveal that the road network has changed. To detect changes, trajectories are modeled with a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). A modified training algorithm, for parameter estimation in HMM, called m-BaumWelch, is used to develop likelihood estimates under assumed changes and used to detect changes in trajectory data with time. Data from vehicles are used to test the method for change detection. Secondly, sequential pattern mining is used to develop a model to detect changes in frequent patterns occurring in trajectory data. The aim is to answer two questions: Are the frequent patterns still frequent in the new data? If they are frequent, has the time interval distribution in the pattern changed? Two different approaches are considered for change detection, frequency-based approach and distribution-based approach. The methods are illustrated with vehicle trajectory data. Finally, a model is developed for clustering and outlier detection in semantic trajectories. A challenge with clustering semantic trajectories is that both numeric and categorical attributes are present. Another problem to be addressed while clustering is that trajectories can be of different lengths and also have missing values. A tree-based ensemble is used to address these problems. The approach is extended to outlier detection in semantic trajectories.

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2012

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Deterministic scheduling for transmission-constrained power systems amid uncertainty

Description

This research develops heuristics for scheduling electric power production amid uncertainty. Reliability is becoming more difficult to manage due to growing uncertainty from renewable resources. This challenge is compounded by the risk of resource outages, which can occur any time

This research develops heuristics for scheduling electric power production amid uncertainty. Reliability is becoming more difficult to manage due to growing uncertainty from renewable resources. This challenge is compounded by the risk of resource outages, which can occur any time and without warning. Stochastic optimization is a promising tool but remains computationally intractable for large systems. The models used in industry instead schedule for the forecast and withhold generation reserve for scenario response, but they are blind to how this reserve may be constrained by network congestion. This dissertation investigates more effective heuristics to improve economics and reliability in power systems where congestion is a concern.

Two general approaches are developed. Both approximate the effects of recourse decisions without actually solving a stochastic model. The first approach procures more reserve whenever approximate recourse policies stress the transmission network. The second approach procures reserve at prime locations by generalizing the existing practice of reserve disqualification. The latter approach is applied for feasibility and is later extended to limit scenario costs. Testing demonstrates expected cost improvements around 0.5%-1.0% for the IEEE 73-bus test case, which can translate to millions of dollars per year even for modest systems. The heuristics developed in this dissertation perform somewhere between established deterministic and stochastic models: providing an economic benefit over current practices without substantially increasing computational times.

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2015

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Distinct feature learning and nonlinear variation pattern discovery using regularized autoencoders

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Feature learning and the discovery of nonlinear variation patterns in high-dimensional data is an important task in many problem domains, such as imaging, streaming data from sensors, and manufacturing. This dissertation presents several methods for learning and visualizing nonlinear variation

Feature learning and the discovery of nonlinear variation patterns in high-dimensional data is an important task in many problem domains, such as imaging, streaming data from sensors, and manufacturing. This dissertation presents several methods for learning and visualizing nonlinear variation in high-dimensional data. First, an automated method for discovering nonlinear variation patterns using deep learning autoencoders is proposed. The approach provides a functional mapping from a low-dimensional representation to the original spatially-dense data that is both interpretable and efficient with respect to preserving information. Experimental results indicate that deep learning autoencoders outperform manifold learning and principal component analysis in reproducing the original data from the learned variation sources.

A key issue in using autoencoders for nonlinear variation pattern discovery is to encourage the learning of solutions where each feature represents a unique variation source, which we define as distinct features. This problem of learning distinct features is also referred to as disentangling factors of variation in the representation learning literature. The remainder of this dissertation highlights and provides solutions for this important problem.

An alternating autoencoder training method is presented and a new measure motivated by orthogonal loadings in linear models is proposed to quantify feature distinctness in the nonlinear models. Simulated point cloud data and handwritten digit images illustrate that standard training methods for autoencoders consistently mix the true variation sources in the learned low-dimensional representation, whereas the alternating method produces solutions with more distinct patterns.

Finally, a new regularization method for learning distinct nonlinear features using autoencoders is proposed. Motivated in-part by the properties of linear solutions, a series of learning constraints are implemented via regularization penalties during stochastic gradient descent training. These include the orthogonality of tangent vectors to the manifold, the correlation between learned features, and the distributions of the learned features. This regularized learning approach yields low-dimensional representations which can be better interpreted and used to identify the true sources of variation impacting a high-dimensional feature space. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for nonlinear variation pattern discovery on both simulated and real data sets.

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2016

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Disaster Analytics for Critical Infrastructures : Methods and Algorithms for Modeling Disasters and Proactive Recovery Preparedness

Description

Natural disasters are occurring increasingly around the world, causing significant economiclosses. To alleviate their adverse effect, it is crucial to plan what should be done in response
to them in a proactive manner. This research aims at developing proactive and

Natural disasters are occurring increasingly around the world, causing significant economiclosses. To alleviate their adverse effect, it is crucial to plan what should be done in response
to them in a proactive manner. This research aims at developing proactive and real-time
recovery algorithms for large-scale power networks exposed to weather events considering
uncertainty. These algorithms support the recovery decisions to mitigate the disaster impact, resulting in faster recovery of the network. The challenges associated with developing
these algorithms are summarized below:
1. Even ignoring uncertainty, when operating cost of the network is considered the problem will be a bi-level optimization which is NP-hard.
2. To meet the requirement for real-time decision making under uncertainty, the problem could be formulated a Stochastic Dynamic Program with the aim to minimize
the total cost. However, considering the operating cost of the network violates the
underlying assumptions of this approach.
3. Stochastic Dynamic Programming approach is also not applicable to realistic problem sizes, due to the curse of dimensionality.
4. Uncertainty-based approaches for failure modeling, rely on point-generation of failures and ignore the network structure.
To deal with the first challenge, in chapter 2, a heuristic solution framework is proposed, and its performance is evaluated by conducting numerical experiments. To address the second challenge, in chapter 3, after formulating the problem as a Stochastic Dynamic Program, an approximated dynamic programming heuristic is proposed to solve the problem. Numerical experiments on synthetic and realistic test-beds, show the satisfactory performance of the proposed approach. To address the third challenge, in chapter 4, an efficient base heuristic policy and an aggregation scheme in the action space is proposed. Numerical experiments on a realistic test-bed verify the ability of the proposed method to
recover the network more efficiently. Finally, to address the fourth challenge, in chapter 5, a simulation-based model is proposed that using historical data and accounting for the interaction between network components, allows for analyzing the impact of adverse events on regional service level. A realistic case study is then conducted to showcase the applicability of the approach.

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2021