Matching Items (25)

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The Bias Blind Spot Among Professional Forensic Psychologists

Description

Individuals are often susceptible to bias in their given fields; however, they may not acknowledge nor be aware of this phenomenon. Moreover, people typically can recognize bias in others yet fail to realize that they themselves are susceptible to their

Individuals are often susceptible to bias in their given fields; however, they may not acknowledge nor be aware of this phenomenon. Moreover, people typically can recognize bias in others yet fail to realize that they themselves are susceptible to their own bias. This is referred to as the bias blind spot, an unconscious meta-cognitive bias. Unconscious bias can lead to impaired decisions and can cause problems in the field, especially if professionals are defensive about bias mitigation procedures if they see them as unnecessary and threatening. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze and examine the perceptions that professional forensic psychologists have about bias in themselves and bias in their colleagues. Eighty-four professional forensic psychologists were surveyed and asked about their perception of bias in themselves, their colleagues, an average adult, and experts in another domain: forensic science. For this study, these forensic psychologists were asked to predict the bias that they themselves might have in their judgment, that forensic scientists might have in their judgment, and that the average adult would have. As hypothesized, and consistent with the bias blind spot, professional forensic psychologists rated their peers in the same field as having a higher amount of bias in their decisions than they themselves. Moreover, they also rated other professionals in similar fields (forensic science) as having a higher bias rate than themselves. In addition, participants rated bias mitigating procedures as being a higher threat to their field than a different domain (i.e., forensic science) – consistent with hypotheses. These results suggest that professional forensic psychologists are susceptible to the bias blind spot and its consequences.
Keywords: implicit bias, bias blind spot, perceptions, judgment, mitigating procedures

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2020-05

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Laypeople's Perceptions of Expert Bias in 26 Domains

Description

People often rely on experts' opinions and knowledge to inform their own decisions. This can be problematic, as expertise does not necessarily protect one from bias, and increased experience does not always increase an experts' accuracy (Cassidy & Buede, 2009;

People often rely on experts' opinions and knowledge to inform their own decisions. This can be problematic, as expertise does not necessarily protect one from bias, and increased experience does not always increase an experts' accuracy (Cassidy & Buede, 2009; Goldberg, 1968; Molins et al., 2008). The nature of task characteristics of expert domains is associated with experts' performance (Shanteau 1992). The purpose of this thesis is to examine how people perceive experts in different disciplines, and to explore the factors that affect perceptions of expert objectivity. Perceptions of objectivity in 26 expert domains were examined. As hypothesized, higher ratings of clear and immediate feedback available to experts were associated with higher ratings of objectivity. However, other indicators of higher domain validity were not recognized by laypeople, such as higher levels of training and education. Contrary to our hypotheses, higher levels of familiarity with experts in a given domain and more experiences of disagreement with experts in a given domain were not associated with perceptions of objectivity. These results suggest that laypeople can correctly identify some indicators of the validity of different expert domains, but they cannot identify others. These perceptions affect how objectivity is perceived.

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2017-12

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Implicit Racial/Ethnic Bias and Latino Health: A Systematic Review

Description

In the United States, the Latino population is projected to reach approximately 28.6% of the total U.S. population by 2060. Despite their growing presence, Latinos encounter health disparities and worse health outcomes in comparison to their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts.

In the United States, the Latino population is projected to reach approximately 28.6% of the total U.S. population by 2060. Despite their growing presence, Latinos encounter health disparities and worse health outcomes in comparison to their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Latinos/ Hispanics have a higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and late stage cancer diagnosis. Various social determinants of health (SDoH) such as socioeconomic status, education, insurance enrollment, language proficiency, immigration status among other variables intersect to influence Latino health status. However, even when all those factors were held equal, disparities remained. The aforementioned list did not include race/ethnicity, though race/ethnicity is a critical SDoH that influences one's access to care and the quality of care they receive. As such, examining the role of race may be the key to reducing persistent health disparities in access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

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2017-12

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Web-Based Tool for Gathering Opposing Viewpoints in the News

Description

The Internet has made it possible to exchange information at a rapid rate. With this extraordinary ability, media companies and various other organizations have been able to communicate thoughts and information to an extremely large audience. As a result, news

The Internet has made it possible to exchange information at a rapid rate. With this extraordinary ability, media companies and various other organizations have been able to communicate thoughts and information to an extremely large audience. As a result, news subscribers are overwhelmed with biased information, which makes it very easy to be misinformed. Unfortunately, there is currently no way to stay truly informed without spending countless hours searching the Internet for different viewpoints and ultimately using that information to formulate a sound understanding. This project (nicknamed "Newsie") solves this problem by providing news subscribers with many news sources to every topic, thereby saving them time and ultimately paving a way to a more informed society. Since one of the main goals of this project is to provide information to the largest number of people, Newsie is designed with availability in mind. Unsurprisingly, the most accessible method of communication is the Internet \u2014 more specifically, a website. Users will be able to access Newsie via a webpage, and easily view to most recent headlines with their corresponding articles from several sources. Another goal of the project is to classify different articles and sources based on their bias. After reading articles, users will be able to vote on their biases. This provides a crowdsourced method of determining bias.

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2018-12

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Human Auditory Biases Match Natural Regularities Found With Animal Calls

Description

Human perceptual dimensions of sound are not necessarily simple representations of the actual physical dimensions that make up sensory input. In particular, research on the perception of interactions between acoustic frequency and intensity has shown that people exhibit a bias

Human perceptual dimensions of sound are not necessarily simple representations of the actual physical dimensions that make up sensory input. In particular, research on the perception of interactions between acoustic frequency and intensity has shown that people exhibit a bias to expect the perception of pitch and loudness to change together. Researchers have proposed that this perceptual bias occurs because sound sources tend to follow a natural regularity of a correlation between changes in intensity and frequency of sound. They postulate that the auditory system has adapted to expect this naturally occurring relationship to facilitate auditory scene analysis, the tracking and parsing sources of sound as listeners analyze their auditory environments. However, this correlation has only been tested with human speech and musical sounds. The current study explores if animal sounds also exhibit the same natural correlation between intensity and frequency and tests if people exhibit a perceptual bias to assume this correlation when listening to animal calls. Our principal hypotheses are that animal sounds will tend to exhibit a positive correlation between intensity and frequency and that, when hearing such sounds change in intensity, listeners will perceive them to also change in frequency and vice versa. Our tests with 21 animal calls and 8 control stimuli along with our experiment with participants responding to these stimuli supported these hypotheses. This research provides a further example of coupling of perceptual biases with natural regularities in the auditory domain, and provides a framework for understanding perceptual biases as functional adaptations that help perceivers more accurately anticipate and utilize reliable natural patterns to enhance scene analyses in real world environments.

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2014-05

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Overcoming bias: Neural Correlates of Judgment Bias and Framing Effects in Cognition of Music

Description

Prior expectations can bias evaluative judgments of sensory information. We show that information about a performer's status can bias the evaluation of musical stimuli, reflected by differential activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Moreover, we demonstrate that decreased susceptibility

Prior expectations can bias evaluative judgments of sensory information. We show that information about a performer's status can bias the evaluation of musical stimuli, reflected by differential activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Moreover, we demonstrate that decreased susceptibility to this confirmation bias is (a) accompanied by the recruitment of and (b) correlated with the white-matter structure of the executive control network, particularly related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). By using long-duration musical stimuli, we were able to track the initial biasing, subsequent perception, and ultimate evaluation of the stimuli, examining the full evolution of these biases over time. Our findings confirm the persistence of confirmation bias effects even when ample opportunity exists to gather information about true stimulus quality, and underline the importance of executive control in reducing bias.

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2018-05

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Examining Bias in the Media's Coverage of the 2012 Third Presidential Debate: Does a Bias Exist? And if so, Does That Bias Spread Across the Network as a Whole or is it Isolated to a Certain Show?

Description

Examining whether or not a bias exists on individual shows on CNN, FOX News, and MSNBC by using content analysis. Each individual show following the third presidential debate was coded using content analysis, then that information was used to determine

Examining whether or not a bias exists on individual shows on CNN, FOX News, and MSNBC by using content analysis. Each individual show following the third presidential debate was coded using content analysis, then that information was used to determine whether a bias existed on any of the shows and then whether or not a bias existed across the network as a whole.

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2013-05

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The Cultural (Mis)Attribution Bias Among Undergraduate College Students

Description

Culture is a living, dynamic concept that influences the lives of all human beings, making it one of the cornerstone building blocks of the human experience. However, there is a widespread assumption that culture matters more for some people than

Culture is a living, dynamic concept that influences the lives of all human beings, making it one of the cornerstone building blocks of the human experience. However, there is a widespread assumption that culture matters more for some people than others. Recent studies have found evidence of a cultural (mis)attribution bias among psychologists, the tendency to exaggerate the role of cultural factors in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities while simultaneously exaggerating the role of personal psychological factors in the behavior of the racial/ethnic majority (Causadias, Vitriol, & Atkins, 2018a; 2018b). This study aims to explore the cultural (mis)attribution bias, and how it manifests in the beliefs and attitudes of undergraduate students at ASU. Additionally, this paper will also explore the implications of those results and how to apply that knowledge to our daily interactions with the people around us.

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2020-05

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The influence of psychological assessment language on counselor trainees' evaluations of client characteristics

Description

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in an unfavorable light. Logically, the opinions of subsequent therapists may then be influenced by reading these assessments, resulting in negative attitudes toward clients, inaccurate diagnoses, adverse experiences for clients, and poor therapeutic outcomes. However, little current research exists that addresses this issue. This study analyzed the degree to which strength-based, deficit-based, and neutral language used in psychological assessments influenced the opinions of counselor trainees (N= 116). It was hypothesized that participants assigned to each type of assessment would describe the client using adjectives that closely conformed to the language used in the assessment they received. The hypothesis was confirmed (p = .000), indicating significant mean differences between all three groups. Limitations and implications of the study were identified and suggestions for further research were discussed.

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2015

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Discerning Bias in Forensic Psychological Reports in Insanity Cases

Description

This project began as an attempt to develop systematic, measurable indicators of bias in written forensic mental health evaluations focused on the issue of insanity. Although forensic clinicians observed in this study did vary systematically in their report-writing behaviors on

This project began as an attempt to develop systematic, measurable indicators of bias in written forensic mental health evaluations focused on the issue of insanity. Although forensic clinicians observed in this study did vary systematically in their report-writing behaviors on several of the indicators of interest, the data are most useful in demonstrating how and why bias is hard to ferret out. Naturalistic data was used in this project (i.e., 122 real forensic insanity reports), which in some ways is a strength. However, given the nature of bias and the problem of inferring whether a particular judgment is biased, naturalistic data also made arriving at conclusions about bias difficult. This paper describes the nature of bias – including why it is a special problem in insanity evaluations – and why it is hard to study and document. It details the efforts made in an attempt to find systematic indicators of potential bias, and how this effort was successful in part but also how and why it failed. The lessons these efforts yield for future research are described. We close with a discussion of the limitations of this study and future directions for work in this area.

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2018-04-19