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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy and Exercise Perception in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were in the ACT group in which a motor assisted their cycling to be performed at least 30% faster than voluntary cycling (VC), 11 participants were in the voluntary cycling group and two participants were in the no cycling (NC) group. The results showed that both exercise groups (i.e., ACT and VC) improved in their self-efficacy after the 8 week intervention. In addition, exercise perception improved following ACT and not VC or NC. Our results are discussed with respect to their future implications for exercise in the DS population. It might be that the yielded results were due to differences in effort required by each intervention group as well as the neurotrophic factors that occur when muscle contractions create synaptic connections resulting in improvement in cognition and feelings of satisfaction. In the future, research should focus on the psychological factors such as social accountability and peer interaction as they relate to ACT and physical activity in person's with DS.

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2018-05

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The Acute Effects of Resistance Training and Assisted Cycling Therapy (Act) on Cognitive Function and Enjoyment of Adults With Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study

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Background: Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. Executive function is an area that people with Down syndrome have a diminished capacity compared to those in the general population. In recent years it has been determined that

Background: Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. Executive function is an area that people with Down syndrome have a diminished capacity compared to those in the general population. In recent years it has been determined that acute and chronic exercise has a small but positive effect on measures of executive function in typically developed individuals. The effect has been recorded separately in both aerobic, high-rate passive and resistance exercises in adolescents with DS but has not been compared between exercise types in adults with DS. Methods: A randomized crossover study was utilized to determine the effect of resistance exercise, assisted cycling therapy, and no exercise on executive function and enjoyment in adults with Down syndrome. Resistance Training (RT)- participants completed a total of 16- repetitions of approximately 75% of a 1-RM in the leg press, chest press, seated row, and latissimus pulldown. ACT- participants completed 30-minutes of cycling at 35% above voluntary (e.g., self-selected pace) rate. No-Training (NT)- participants spent 35-minutes playing board games. Cognitive assessments were recorded pre- and post- intervention. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Survey was collected post-intervention. Statistics: The cognitive measures and Physical Activity Self-efficacy scale were analyzed using the delta scores (pre-post) in a Linear mixed models analyais. The main effect of sequence (A, B, C) and intervention (RT, ACT, NT), and visit were assessed. Significance level was set with α=0.05. If any differences were detected, the Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to determine differences. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale post scores were compared using a General Linear Model. Alpha was set at 0.05 with a Bonferroni post-hoc test to determine differences. A secondary analysis was conducted investigating the effect of participants that completed testing individually compared to those that completed the testing in a group setting. Results: There were no significant difference in the delta score of any of the measures. The secondary analysis also found no significant difference but showed a trend that those tested individually had opposite results than those tested in a group.

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2021