Matching Items (14)

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Engineering the Future: Enhancing the Profile of Biomedical Engineers as a Socially Relevant Discipline

Description

Engineers have a strong influence on everyday lives, ranging from electronics and trains to chemicals and organs [1]. However, in the United States, there is a large knowledge gap in

Engineers have a strong influence on everyday lives, ranging from electronics and trains to chemicals and organs [1]. However, in the United States, there is a large knowledge gap in the roles of engineers, especially in K-12 students [2] [3]. The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recognizes the current problems in engineering, such as the dominance of white males in the field and the amount of education needed to become a successful engineer [4]. Therefore, the NAE encourages that the current engineering community begin to expose the younger generations to the real foundation of engineering: problem-solving [4]. The objective of this thesis is to minimize the knowledge gap by assessing the current perception of engineering amongst middle school and high school students and improving it through engaging and interactive presentations and activities that build upon the students’ problem-solving abilities.

The project was aimed towards middle school and high school students, as this is the estimated level where they learn biology and chemistry—key subject material in biomedical engineering. The high school students were given presentations and activities related to biomedical engineering. Additionally, within classrooms, posters were presented to middle school students. The content of the posters were students of the biomedical engineering program at ASU, coming from different ethnic backgrounds to try and evoke within the middle school students a sense of their own identity as a biomedical engineer. To evaluate the impact these materials had on the students, a survey was distributed before the students’ exposure to the materials and after that assesses the students’ understanding of engineering at two different time points. A statistical analysis was conducted with Microsoft Excel to assess the influence of the activity and/or presentation on the students’ understanding of engineering.

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  • 2017-05

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NIPAAm co-DEAEMA Hydrogels Prolong Ketorolac Release

Description

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved by minimizing side effects while still effectively treating severe and extreme pain. Though high doses of ketorolac can be toxic, sustained, local delivery via hydrogels offers a promising solution. Four ketorolac release studies were conducted using PNDJ hydrogels formulated by Sonoran Biosciences. The first two studies tested a range of JAAm concentration between 1.4 and 2.2 mole percent. Both had high initial release rates lasting less than 7 days and appeared to be unaffected by JAAm content. Tobramycin slowed down the release of ketorolac but was unable to sustain release for more than 6 days. Incorporating DEAEMA prolonged the release of ketorolac for up to 14 days with significant reductions in initial burst release rate. Low LCST of NIPAAM co-DEAEMA polymer is problematic for even drug distribution and future in vivo applications.

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  • 2020-05

Development and Assessment of Two Novel Pitting Designs for Increased Needle Visibility under Ultrasound

Description

Nerve endings are particularly difficult to target during peripheral nerve block (PNB) procedures, so ultrasound-guided needles are of immense importance to guarantee safe and efficient delivery of the anesthetic to

Nerve endings are particularly difficult to target during peripheral nerve block (PNB) procedures, so ultrasound-guided needles are of immense importance to guarantee safe and efficient delivery of the anesthetic to the target nerve. Despite significant progress in needle visualization with ultrasound imaging, there are still several factors that lead to poor needle visibility, the main factor being insertion angle. Introducing cavities and holes in the needle at specific intervals through pitting corrosion may alter the ultrasonic feedback from the sensor, thereby resulting in improved clarity of the reconstructed image. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effectiveness of two novel pitting designs on the needle’s visibility under ultrasound. Two different designs and two depths of cut are tested in a 22 factorial that is blocked by insertion angle: a uniform and a non-uniform design. Needles were cut using a Plain Jane and Igor laser cutter and imaged using a GE Logig e BT12 ultrasound imaging machine. Images were compared visually and objectively by using a tool in Photoshop to calculate the luminosity of the needle. Two videos were also taken capturing the difficulty of imaging surgical needles. Results showed that pitting had a major impact on needle visibility at 30° and a marginal impact at 0°. The videos supported these results as it was considerably more difficult to locate the control needle than the experimental needle. This suggests the probe must be in a specific plane with the control needle for it to be visible while the experimental needle is much more lenient. Results from the two depths of cuts showed similar results in that the designs which were cut twice were more visible than their counterparts at 30°. The study showed that pitting has positive effects on needle visibility; it improves visibility by increasing the luminescence of the needle and by decreasing its sensitivity to probe position.

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  • 2016-05

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Portable Heart Rate Monitor and iOS Application for Anxiety Therapy

Description

As the rates of anxiety in adults rapidly swell, new and creative treatment methods become increasingly relevant. Individuals with an anxiety disorder may experience challenging symptoms that interfere with daily

As the rates of anxiety in adults rapidly swell, new and creative treatment methods become increasingly relevant. Individuals with an anxiety disorder may experience challenging symptoms that interfere with daily activities and impede academic and social success. The purpose of this project is to design and engineer a portable heart rate monitor that communicates with an iOS mobile application for use by individuals suffering from anxiety or panic disorders. The proposed device captures the innovation of combining biosensor feedback with new, creative therapy methods on a convenient iOS application. The device is implemented as an Arduino Uno which translates radial pulse information onto an LCD screen from a wristband. Additionally, the iOS portion uses a slow expanding and collapsing animation to guide the user through a calming breathing exercise while displaying their pulse in beats per minute. The user's awareness or his or her ability to control one's own physiological state supports and facilitates an additional form of innovative therapy. The current design of the iOS app uses a random-number generator between 40 to 125 to imitate a realistic heart rate. If the value is less than 60 or greater than 105, the number is printed in red; otherwise the heart rate is displayed in green. Future versions of this device incorporate bluetooth capabilities and potentially additional synchronous methods of therapy. The information presented in this research provides an excellent example of the integrations of new mobile technology and healthcare.

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  • 2016-05

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Viability of Cryotherapy Device for Spastic Relief Compared to Current Electrotherapy Device

Description

Spasticity is a neurological disorder in which a target group of muscles remain in a contracted state. In addition to interfering with the function of these muscles, spasticity causes chronic

Spasticity is a neurological disorder in which a target group of muscles remain in a contracted state. In addition to interfering with the function of these muscles, spasticity causes chronic pain and discomfort. Often found in patients with cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or stroke history, spasticity affects an estimated twelve million people worldwide. Not only does spasticity cause discomfort and loss of function, but the condition can lead to contractures, or permanent shortenings of the muscle and connective tissue, if left untreated. Current treatments for spasticity are primarily different forms of muscle relaxant pharmaceuticals. Almost all of these drugs, however, carry unwanted side effects, including total muscle weakness, liver toxicity, and possible dependence. Additionally, kinesiotherapy, conducted by physical therapists at rehabilitation clinics, is often prescribed to people suffering from spasticity. Since kinesiotherapy requires frequent practice to be effective, proper treatment requires constant professional care and clinic appointments, discouraging patient compliance. Consequently, a medical device that could automate relief for spasticity outside of a clinic is desired in the market. While a number of different dynamic splints for hand spasticity are currently on the market, research has shown that these devices, which simply brace the hand in an extended position, do not work through any mechanism to decrease spastic tension over time. Two methods of temporarily reducing spasticity that have been observed in clinical studies are cryotherapy, or the decrease of temperature on a target area, and electrotherapy, which is the delivery of regulated electrical pulses to a target area. It is possible that either of these mechanisms could be incorporated into a medical device aimed toward spastic relief. In fact, electrotherapy is used in a current market device called the SaeboStim, which is advertised to help stroke recovery and spastic reduction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the viability of a potential spastic relief device that utilizes cryotherapy to a current and closest competitor, the SaeboStim. The effectiveness of each device in relieving spasticity is reviewed. The two devices are also compared on their ability to address primary customer needs, such as convenience, ease of use, durability, and price. Overall, it is concluded that the cryotherapy device more effectively relieves hand spasticity in users, although the SaeboStim's smaller size and better convenience gives it market appeal, and reveals some of the shortcomings in the preliminary design of the cryotherapy device.

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  • 2018-05

Grad School: Human Growth Horror - Creative Project Entry of an Action/Adventure Computer Game Designed to Experimentally Demonstrate Viable Engineering Concepts for Educational Purposes

Description

The action/adventure game Grad School: HGH is the final, extended version of a BME Prototyping class project in which the goal was to produce a zombie-themed game that teaches biomedical

The action/adventure game Grad School: HGH is the final, extended version of a BME Prototyping class project in which the goal was to produce a zombie-themed game that teaches biomedical engineering concepts. The gameplay provides fast paced, exciting, and mildly addicting rooms that the player must battle and survive through, followed by an engineering puzzle that must be solved in order to advance to the next room. The objective of this project was to introduce the core concepts of BME to prospective students, rather than attempt to teach an entire BME curriculum. Based on user testing at various phases in the project, we concluded that the gameplay was engaging enough to keep most users' interest through the educational puzzles, and the potential for expanding this project to reach an even greater audience is vast.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Big Data Network Analysis of Genetic Variation and Gene Expression in Individuals with Breast Cancer

Description

The advent of big data analytics tools and frameworks has allowed for a plethora of new approaches to research and analysis, making data sets that were previously too large or

The advent of big data analytics tools and frameworks has allowed for a plethora of new approaches to research and analysis, making data sets that were previously too large or complex more accessible and providing methods to collect, store, and investigate non-traditional data. These tools are starting to be applied in more creative ways, and are being used to improve upon traditional computation methods through distributed computing. Statistical analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data has classically been performed using the open source tool PLINK - which runs on high performance computing (HPC) systems. However, progress has been made in running the statistical analysis in the ecosystem of the big data framework Hadoop, resulting in decreased run time, reduced storage footprint, reduced job micromanagement and increased data accessibility. Now that the data can be more readily manipulated, analyzed and accessed, there are opportunities to use the modularity and power of Hadoop to further process the data. This project focuses on adding a component to the data pipeline that will perform graph analysis on the data. This will provide more insight into the relation between various genetic differences in individuals with breast cancer, and the resulting variation - if any - in gene expression. Further, the investigation will look to see if there is anything to be garnered from a perspective shift; applying tools used in classical networking contexts (such as the Internet) to genetically derived networks.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

BIOELECTRIC IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS AS A METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE HYDRATION MEASUREMENT

Description

Volume depletion can lead to migraines, dizziness, and significant decreases in a subject's ability to physically perform. A major cause of volume depletion is dehydration, or loss in fluids due

Volume depletion can lead to migraines, dizziness, and significant decreases in a subject's ability to physically perform. A major cause of volume depletion is dehydration, or loss in fluids due to an imbalance in fluid intake to fluid excretion. Because proper levels of hydration are necessary in order to maintain both short and long term health, the ability to monitor hydration levels is growing in clinical demand. Although devices capable of monitoring hydration level exist, these devices are expensive, invasive, or inaccurate and do not offer a continuous mode of measurement. The ideal hydration monitor for consumer use needs to be characterized by its portability, affordability, and accuracy. Also, this device would need to be noninvasive and offer continuous hydration monitoring in order to accurately assess fluctuations in hydration data throughout a specified time period. One particular method for hydration monitoring that fits the majority of these criteria is known as bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). Although current devices using BIA do not provide acceptable levels of accuracy, portability, or continuity in data collection, BIA could potentially be modified to fit many, if not all, desired customer specifications. The analysis presented here assesses the viability of using BIA as a new standard in hydration level measurement. The analysis uses data collected from 22 subjects using an existing device that employs BIA. A regression derived for estimating TBW based on the parameters of age, weight, height, sex, and impedance is presented. Using impedance data collected for each subject, a regression was also derived for estimating impedance based on the factors of age, weight, height, and sex. The derived regression was then used to calculate a new impedance value for each subject, and these new impedance values were used to estimate TBW. Through a paired-t test between the TBW values derived by using the direct measurements versus the calculated measurements of impedance, the two samples were found to be comparable. Considerations for BIA as a noninvasive measurement of hydration are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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In Vivo Clinical Animal Trials for an Anti-Fog Coating on Surgical Lenses

Description

One major issue that surgeons face during closed body cavity surgery is fogging of the lens surfaces. The cloudy and opaque lens surface caused by water vapor present in closed

One major issue that surgeons face during closed body cavity surgery is fogging of the lens surfaces. The cloudy and opaque lens surface caused by water vapor present in closed body cavities forces the surgeon to repeatedly remove the endoscope, wipe it, and reinsert it back into the patient. This presents several risks such as increased surgery time, greater scarring, and an increased chance of infection. In order to address this issue, the development of the Thin Fluid Film Device (TFFD™) VitreOx™ aims to render the lens surface hydrophilic, whereas it is typically hydrophobic. By creating a hydrophilic polymeric nanomesh, the 3-D water droplets can be trapped to lie flatter, thus resulting in a flatter 2-D sheeting effect. The light can no longer be refracted at different angles off of the 3-dimensional water beads, thus eliminating the opacity of the lens surface.
Two animal trials were performed involving a rat and two pigs in order to prove the efficacy of VitreOx™ in addition to being compared with competitor, Covidien Clearify. A laparoscopy was performed on each animal, and the length of time that the endoscope took to fog was measured post product application. The results of the optimized animal clinical trials involving two Yucatan pigs showed that the scope treated with Covidien’s Clearify began fogging within 8 minutes and continued to do so for the remained of the surgery, as opposed to the scope with VitreOx™ which remained fog free for the full 90-minute procedure. The results proved the efficacy of our product.
The second part of the thesis aimed to optimize HemoClear™, the blood evacuating TFFD™. This was done by testing a higher concentration of 6 mg/mL fibrinogen as compared to previous work. After conducting an experiment designed to mimic closed-body cavity surgery it was determined that the HemoClear™ eliminated fog 67% of the time and evacuated blood with a success of 83%. Future work aims to continue testing at this concentration with variances in mixing and application technique.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

Provider Satisfaction with Chronic Opioid Therapy (COT) Delivery after EHR Transition at a Community Internal Medicine Clinic

Description

With the recent rise in opioid overdose and death1<br/><br/>, chronic opioid therapy (COT) programs using<br/>Center of Disease Control (CDC) guidelines have been implemented across the United States8<br/>.<br/>Primary care clinicians at

With the recent rise in opioid overdose and death1<br/><br/>, chronic opioid therapy (COT) programs using<br/>Center of Disease Control (CDC) guidelines have been implemented across the United States8<br/>.<br/>Primary care clinicians at Mayo Clinic initiated a COT program in September of 2017, during the<br/>use of Cerner Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. Study metrics included provider<br/>satisfaction and perceptions regarding opioid prescription. Mayo Clinic transitioned its EHR<br/>system from Cerner to Epic in October 2018. This study aims to understand if provider perceptions<br/>about COT changed after the EHR transition and the reasons underlying those perceptions.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05