Matching Items (13)

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NIPAAm co-DEAEMA Hydrogels Prolong Ketorolac Release

Description

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved by minimizing side effects while still effectively treating severe and extreme pain. Though high doses of ketorolac can be toxic, sustained, local delivery via hydrogels offers a promising solution. Four ketorolac release studies were conducted using PNDJ hydrogels formulated by Sonoran Biosciences. The first two studies tested a range of JAAm concentration between 1.4 and 2.2 mole percent. Both had high initial release rates lasting less than 7 days and appeared to be unaffected by JAAm content. Tobramycin slowed down the release of ketorolac but was unable to sustain release for more than 6 days. Incorporating DEAEMA prolonged the release of ketorolac for up to 14 days with significant reductions in initial burst release rate. Low LCST of NIPAAM co-DEAEMA polymer is problematic for even drug distribution and future in vivo applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Optimizing of Responsiveness and Strength of ""Smart"" Polymers for Use in Dynamic Tactile Displays for the Visually Impaired

Description

This thesis investigates an interpenetrating network of polyacrylamide and poly acrylic acid for use in a dynamic tactile display, which presents traditionally two-dimensional electronic screens as three-dimensional topographical models that

This thesis investigates an interpenetrating network of polyacrylamide and poly acrylic acid for use in a dynamic tactile display, which presents traditionally two-dimensional electronic screens as three-dimensional topographical models that can be experienced through touch. This kind of display would allow for greater access to traditionally visual information for the visually impaired. This hydrogel demonstrates Upper Critical Solution Temperature (UCST) near room temperature which facilitates a swelling transition, characterized by a sharp increase in swelling as this temperature is surpassed. Through the utilization of light responsive additives, light can trigger this shift, as the additives harness visible light, convert it into heat to raise the gel’s temperature, and increase the volume of the gel. Light-responsive additives explored include chlorophyllin, gold nanoparticles, and carbon black. Each of these additives required unique synthesis planning and strategies in order to optimize the performance of the gels. Synthesized gels were characterized using thermal swelling tests, light response tests and compression tests to determine the material strength. The best performing additive was chlorophyllin and allowed for a 20.8%±4.5% percent weight increase upon exposure to light for 10 minutes. In addition to investigating light-responsive additives, modifications were pursued to alter the overall UCST behavior, such as the addition of sodium chloride. By adding sodium chloride into the hydrogel, the gel was found to have a wider transition. Overall, light-responsive behavior was developed, and further work can be done in improving the response time and degree of swelling in order to make this material more viable for use in a dynamic tactile display.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Creating Biochemical Gradients via Photoconjugation and an In-House Designed Sliding Photomask

Description

Tissue engineering is an emerging field focused on the repair, replacement, and regeneration of damaged tissue. Engineered tissue consists of three factors: cells, biomolecular signals, and a scaffold. Cell-free scaffolds

Tissue engineering is an emerging field focused on the repair, replacement, and regeneration of damaged tissue. Engineered tissue consists of three factors: cells, biomolecular signals, and a scaffold. Cell-free scaffolds present a unique opportunity to develop highly specific microenvironments with tunable properties. Norbornene-functionalized hyaluronic acid (NorHA) hydrogels provide spatial control over biomolecule binding through a photopolymerization process. With this, biomimetic gradients can be produced to model a variety of tissue interfaces. To produce these patterns, a gradient mechanism was developed to function in tandem with a syringe pump. A conversion equation was derived to calculate a panel speed from the volumetric flow rate setting on the pump. Seven speeds were used to produce fluorophore gradients on the surface of NorHA hydrogels to assess changes in the length and slope of the gradient. The results indicated a strong positive linear correlation between the speed of the panel and the length of the gradient as well as a strong negative correlation between the speed of the panel and the slope of the gradient. Additionally, the mechanism was able to successfully produce several other types of gradients including multiregional, dual, and triregional.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Synthesis and Characterization of Novel HEMA Hydrogels Cross-linked with Methacrylated Jeffamines

Description

Hydrocephalus is a chronic neurological condition affecting an estimated 1 in every 500 infants born. The most common treatment method involves surgical implantation of a shunt system; however these systems

Hydrocephalus is a chronic neurological condition affecting an estimated 1 in every 500 infants born. The most common treatment method involves surgical implantation of a shunt system; however these systems have a high failure rate resulting in repeat invasive surgeries. A promising approach being researched to treat hydrocephalus is a miniaturized valve composed of silicon and a hydrogel material. The current chemical cross-linker used in the hydrogel, EGDMA, however is susceptible to hydrolytic cleavage due to the ester groups.

This thesis proposed a novel hydrogel composed of a HEMA backbone and methacrylated Jeffamines as the chemical cross-linker as a possible replacement for the HEMA and EGDMA hydrogel used currently in the hydrocephalus valve. Jeffamine EDR-148 was methacrylated through reaction with methacryloyl chloride and characterized using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Subsequently, hydrogels were synthesized, using both EGDMA and EDR-MA, and the properties were compared through swelling and rotational rheology. Finally, degradation tests were performed to compare the hydrolytic stability of the two cross-linkers.

Results of this work demonstrated that Jeffamine EDR-148 was able to be successfully methacrylated and used to synthesize a hydrogel. The new hydrogel was shown to have comparable mechanical behavior and robustness to the EGDMA hydrogel, with slightly increased swelling capabilities. Degradation tests did not confirm the theory that the EDR-MA gels would exhibit greater hydrolytic stability however. Future work includes perfecting the purification of the EDR-MA, conducting a longer-term degradation study at physiologically relevant conditions, and demonstrating the tunability of the Jeffamine hydrogels.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Multifunctional Soft Materials: Design, Development and Applications

Description

Soft materials are matters that can easily deform from their original shapes and structures under thermal or mechanical stresses, and they range across various groups of materials including liquids, foams,

Soft materials are matters that can easily deform from their original shapes and structures under thermal or mechanical stresses, and they range across various groups of materials including liquids, foams, gels, colloids, polymers, and biological substances. Although soft materials already have numerous applications with each of their unique characteristics, integrating materials to achieve complementary functionalities is still a growing need for designing advanced applications of complex requirements. This dissertation explores a unique approach of utilizing intermolecular interactions to accomplish not only the multifunctionality from combined materials but also their tailored properties designed for specific tasks. In this work, multifunctional soft materials are explored in two particular directions, ionic liquids (ILs)-based mixtures and interpenetrating polymer network (IPN).

First, ILs-based mixtures were studied to develop liquid electrolytes for molecular electronic transducers (MET) in planetary exploration. For space missions, it is challenging to operate any liquid electrolytes in an extremely low-temperature environment. By tuning intermolecular interactions, the results demonstrated a facile method that has successfully overcome the thermal and transport barriers of ILs-based mixtures at extremely low temperatures. Incorporation of both aqueous and organic solvents in ILs-based electrolyte systems with varying types of intermolecular interactions are investigated, respectively, to yield optimized material properties supporting not only MET sensors but also other electrochemical devices with iodide/triiodide redox couple targeting low temperatures.

Second, an environmentally responsive hydrogel was synthesized via interpenetrating two crosslinked polymer networks. The intermolecular interactions facilitated by such an IPN structure enables not only an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) transition but also a mechanical enhancement of the hydrogel. The incorporation of functional units validates a positive swelling response to visible light and also further improves the mechanical properties. This studied IPN system can serve as a promising route in developing “smart” hydrogels utilizing visible light as a simple, inexpensive, and remotely controllable stimulus.

Over two directions across from ILs to polymeric networks, this work demonstrates an effective strategy of utilizing intermolecular interactions to not only develop multifunctional soft materials for advanced applications but also discover new properties beyond their original boundaries.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Miniaturized Passive Hydrogel Check Valves for the Treatment of Hydrocephalic Fluid Retention

Description

BioMEMS has the potential to provide many future tools for life sciences, combined with microfabrication technologies and biomaterials. Especially due to the recent corona 19 epidemic, interest in BioMEMS technology

BioMEMS has the potential to provide many future tools for life sciences, combined with microfabrication technologies and biomaterials. Especially due to the recent corona 19 epidemic, interest in BioMEMS technology has increased significantly, and the related research has also grown significantly. The field with the highest demand for BioMEMS devices is in the medical field. In particular, the implantable device field is the largest sector where cutting-edge BioMEMS technology is applied along with nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, genetic engineering, etc. However, implantable devices used for brain diseases are still very limited because unlike other parts of human organs, the brain is still unknow area which cannot be completely replaceable.To date, the most commercially used, almost only, implantable device for the brain is a shunt system for the treatment of hydrocephalus. The current cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt treatment yields high failure rates: ~40% within first 2 years and 98% within 10 years. These failures lead to high hospital admission rates and repeated invasive surgical procedures, along with reduced quality of life. New treatments are needed to improve the disease burden associated with hydrocephalus. In this research, the proposed catheter-free, completely-passive miniaturized valve is designed to alleviate hydrocephalus at the originating site of the disorder and diminish failure mechanisms associated with current treatment methods. The valve is composed of hydrogel diaphragm structure and polymer or glass outer frame which are 100% bio-compatible material. The valve aims to be implanted between the sub-arachnoid space and the superior sagittal sinus to regulate the CSF flow substituting for the obstructed arachnoid granulations.
A cardiac pacemaker is one of the longest and most widely used implantable devices and the wireless technology is the most widely used with it for easy acquisition of vital signs and rapid disease diagnosis without clinical surgery. But the conventional pacemakers with some wireless technology face some essential complications associated with finite battery life, ultra-vein pacing leads, and risk of infection from device pockets and leads. To solve these problems, wireless cardiac pacemaker operating in fully-passive modality is proposed and demonstrates the promising potential by realizing a prototype and functional evaluating.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Hydrogel Nanosensors for Colorimetric Detection and Dosimetry in Proton Beam Radiotherapy

Description

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment approach that uses focused proton beams for tumor ablation. A key advantage of this approach over conventional photon radiotherapy (XRT) is

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment approach that uses focused proton beams for tumor ablation. A key advantage of this approach over conventional photon radiotherapy (XRT) is the unique dose deposition characteristics of protons, resulting in superior healthy tissue sparing. This results in fewer unwanted side effects and improved outcomes for patients. Current available dosimeters are intrinsic, complex and expensive; hence cannot be used to determine the dose delivered to the tumor routinely. Here, we report a hydrogel based plasmonic nanosensor for measurements of clinical doses in ranges between 2-4 GyRBE. In this nanosensor, gold ions, encapsulated in a hydrogel, are reduced to gold nanoparticles following irradiation with proton beams. Formation of gold nanoparticles renders a color change to the originally colorless hydrogel. The intensity of the color can be used to calibrate the hydrogel nanosensor in order to quantify different radiation doses employed during treatment. The potential of this nanosensor for clinical translation was demonstrated using an anthropomorphic phantom mimicking a clinical radiotherapy session. The simplicity of fabrication, detection range in the fractionated radiotherapy regime and ease of detection with translational potential makes this a first-in-kind plasmonic colorimetric nanosensor for applications in clinical proton beam therapy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Using Molecular, Cellular and Bioengineering Approaches Towards Understanding Muscle Stem Cell Biology

Description

Satellite cells are adult muscle stem cells that activate, proliferate, and differentiate into myofibers upon muscle damage. Satellite cells can be cultured and manipulated in vitro, and thus represent an

Satellite cells are adult muscle stem cells that activate, proliferate, and differentiate into myofibers upon muscle damage. Satellite cells can be cultured and manipulated in vitro, and thus represent an accessible model for studying skeletal muscle biology, and a potential source of autologous stem cells for regenerative medicine. This work summarizes efforts to further understanding of satellite cell biology, using novel model organisms, bioengineering, and molecular and cellular approaches. Lizards are evolutionarily the closest vertebrates to humans that regenerate entire appendages. An analysis of lizard myoprogenitor cell transcriptome determined they were most transcriptionally similar to mammalian satellite cells. Further examination showed that among genes with the highest level of expression in lizard satellite cells were an increased number of regulators of chondrogenesis. In micromass culture, lizard satellite cells formed nodules that expressed chondrogenic regulatory genes, thus demonstrating increased musculoskeletal plasticity. However, to exploit satellite cells for therapeutics, development of an ex vivo culture is necessary. This work investigates whether substrates composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as either coatings or hydrogels, can support expansion of this population whilst maintaining their myogenic potency. Stiffer substrates are necessary for in vitro proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, while the ECM composition was not significantly important. Additionally, satellite cells on hydrogels entered a quiescent state that could be reversed when the cells were subsequently cultured on Matrigel. Proliferation and gene expression data further indicated that C2C12 cells are not a good proxy for satellite cells. To further understand how different signaling pathways control satellite cell behavior, an investigation of the Notch inhibitor protein Numb was carried out. Numb deficient satellite cells fail to activate, proliferate and participate in muscle repair. Examination of Numb isoform expression in satellite cells and embryonic tissues revealed that while developing limb bud, neural tube, and heart express the long and short isoforms of NUMB, satellite cells predominantly express the short isoforms. A preliminary immunoprecipitation- proteomics experiment suggested that the roles of NUMB in satellite cells are related to cell cycle modulation, cytoskeleton dynamics, and regulation of transcription factors necessary for satellite cell function.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Modulating chemokine receptor expression in neural stem cell transplants to promote migration after traumatic brain injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death. Almost half (43%) of all TBI patients report experiencing long-term cognitive and/or motor dysfunction. These long-term deficits are largely due to the expansive biochemical injury that underlies the mechanical injury traditionally associated with TBI. Despite this, there are currently no clinically available therapies that directly address these underlying pathologies. Preclinical studies have looked at stem cell transplantation as a means to mitigate the effects of the biochemical injury with moderate success; however, transplants suffer very low retention and engraftment rates (2-4%). Therefore, transplants need better tools to dynamically respond to the injury microenvironment.

One approach to develop new tools for stem cell transplants may be to look towards the endogenous repair response for inspiration. Specifically, activated cell types surrounding the injury secrete the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), which has been shown to play a critical role in recruiting endogenous neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) to the site of injury. Therefore, it was hypothesized that improving NPSC response to SDF-1α may be a viable mechanism for improving NPSC transplant retention and migration into the surrounding host tissue. To this end, work presented here has 1. identified critical extracellular signals that mediate the NPSC response to SDF-1α, 2. incorporated these findings into the development of a transplantation platform that increases NPSC responsiveness to SDF-1α and 3. observed increased NPSC responsiveness to local exogenous SDF-1α signaling following transplantation within our novel system. Future work will include studies investigating NSPC response to endogenous, injury-induced SDF-1α and the application of this work to understanding differences between stem cell sources and their implications in cell therapies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Analyzing the opportunities for NIPAAm dehumidification in air conditioning systems

Description

When air is supplied to a conditioned space, the temperature and humidity of the air often contribute to the comfort and health of the occupants within the space. However, the

When air is supplied to a conditioned space, the temperature and humidity of the air often contribute to the comfort and health of the occupants within the space. However, the vapor compression system, which is the standard air conditioning configuration, requires air to reach the dew point for dehumidification to occur, which can decrease system efficiency and longevity in low temperature applications.

To improve performance, some systems dehumidify the air before cooling. One common dehumidifier is the desiccant wheel, in which solid desiccant absorbs moisture out of the air while rotating through circular housing. This system improves performance, especially when the desiccant is regenerated with waste or solar heat; however, the heat of regeneration is very large, as the water absorbed during dehumidification must be evaporated. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), a sorbent that oozes water when raised above a certain temperature, could potentially replace traditional desiccants in dehumidifiers. The heat of regeneration for NIPAAm consists of some sensible heat to bring the sorbent to the regeneration temperature, plus some latent heat to offset any liquid water that is evaporated as it is exuded from the NIPAAm. This means the NIPAAm regeneration heat has the potential to be much lower than that of a traditional desiccant.

Models were created for a standard vapor compression air conditioning system, two desiccant systems, and two theoretical NIPAAm systems. All components were modeled for simplified steady state operation. For a moderate percent of water evaporated during regeneration, it was found that the NIPAAm systems perform better than standard vapor compression. When compared to the desiccant systems, the NIPAAm systems performed better at almost all percent evaporation values. The regeneration heat was modeled as if supplied by an electric heater. If a cheaper heat source were utilized, the case for NIPAAm would be even stronger.

Future work on NIPAAm dehumidification should focus on lowering the percent evaporation from the 67% value found in literature. Additionally, the NIPAAm cannot exceed the lower critical solution temperature during dehumidification, indicating that a NIPAAm dehumidification system should be carefully designed such that the sorbent temperature is kept sufficiently low during dehumidification.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019