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Elution Profile of Caspofungin from Anti-fungal Loaded Bone Cement

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Advancements in healthcare and the emergence of an aging population has led to an increase in the number of prosthetic joint procedures in the United States. According to Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 660,876 and 348,970 total hip and knee

Advancements in healthcare and the emergence of an aging population has led to an increase in the number of prosthetic joint procedures in the United States. According to Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 660,876 and 348,970 total hip and knee arthroplasties were performed in 2014[1].The percentage of total hip or knee procedures that are revised due to an infection is 1.23% and 1.21% respectively[3], [4]. Although the percent of infections may be small, an infection can have a tremendous burden on the patient and healthcare system. It is expected that prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) will cost the healthcare system an estimated $1.62 billion by 2020[5]. PJIs are often difficult to treat due to the formation of biofilm at the site of the infection. A large majority of PJIs are the result of a bacterial biofilm, but around 1% of PJIs are due to fungal infections[3]. The current method of treatment is to surgically remove all infected tissue at the site of infection through a process called debridement and then insert a medicated bone cement spacer[7], [10]–[12]. One such medication that is loaded into the bone cement is caspofungin, a member of the echinocandin class of compounds that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan which is a crucial element of the cell wall of the target fungi[13]–[15]. For the studies reported herein, the caspofungin-loaded bone cement samples were made at 5 dosage strengths according to standard operating room practices. The elution of the drug was analyzed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The elution profiles were analyzed for 19 days consecutively, during which the 70 mg, 1 g, and 5 g dosage groups showed a prolonged, sustained release of the caspofungin. The 70 mg and 1 g dosage cumulative mass release profiles were not statistically significant, but it is unlikely that the difference would not have a clinical significance especially in the treatment of a fungal biofilm infection. The determination of the elution profile for caspofungin from loaded-bone cement can provide clinicians with a basis for how the drug will release into the infected joint.

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2019-05

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Norepinephrine and Adenosine Infused Microparticles for Brown Adipose Tissue Stimulation

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With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microparticle systems [6,10,12]. While PLGA systems are already applied

With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microparticle systems [6,10,12]. While PLGA systems are already applied in a wide variety the clinical setting [11], microparticles still have some way to go before they are viable systems for drug delivery. One of the main reasons for this is a lack of fabrication processes and systems which produce monodisperse particles while also being feasible for industrialization [10]. This honors thesis investigates various microparticle fabrication techniques \u2014 two using mechanical agitation and one using fluid dynamics \u2014 with the long term goal of incorporating norepinephrine and adenosine into the particles for metabolic stimulatory purposes. It was found that mechanical agitation processes lead to large values for dispersity and the polydispersity index while fluid dynamics methods have the potential to create more uniform and predictable outcomes. The research concludes by needing further investigation into methods and prototype systems involving fluid dynamics methods; however, these systems yield promising results for fabricating monodisperse particles which have the potential to encapsulate a wide variety of therapeutic drugs.

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2018-12

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The Characterization and Development of Methylcellulose in Hydrogels

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This report provides information concerning qualities of methylcellulose and how those properties affect further experimentation within the biomedical world. Utilizing the compound’s biocompatibility many issues, ranging from surgical to cosmetic, can be solved. As of recent, studies indicate,

This report provides information concerning qualities of methylcellulose and how those properties affect further experimentation within the biomedical world. Utilizing the compound’s biocompatibility many issues, ranging from surgical to cosmetic, can be solved. As of recent, studies indicate, methylcellulose has been used as a physically cross-linked gel, which cannot sustain a solid form within the body. Therefore, this report will ultimately explore the means of creating a non-degradable, injectable, chemically cross-linking methylcellulose- based hydrogel. Methylcellulose will be evaluated and altered in experiments conducted within this report and a chemical cross-linker, developed from Jeffamine ED 2003 (O,O′-Bis(2-aminopropyl) polypropylene glycol-block-polyethylene glycol-block-polypropylene glycol), will be created. Experimentation with these elements is outlined here, and will ultimately prompt future revisions and analysis.

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2013-05

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NIPAAm co-DEAEMA Hydrogels Prolong Ketorolac Release

Description

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved by minimizing side effects while still effectively treating severe and

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved by minimizing side effects while still effectively treating severe and extreme pain. Though high doses of ketorolac can be toxic, sustained, local delivery via hydrogels offers a promising solution. Four ketorolac release studies were conducted using PNDJ hydrogels formulated by Sonoran Biosciences. The first two studies tested a range of JAAm concentration between 1.4 and 2.2 mole percent. Both had high initial release rates lasting less than 7 days and appeared to be unaffected by JAAm content. Tobramycin slowed down the release of ketorolac but was unable to sustain release for more than 6 days. Incorporating DEAEMA prolonged the release of ketorolac for up to 14 days with significant reductions in initial burst release rate. Low LCST of NIPAAM co-DEAEMA polymer is problematic for even drug distribution and future in vivo applications.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Alginate Microsphere Drug Delivery Modeling

Description

Alginate microspheres have recently become increasingly popular in the realm of drug delivery for their biocompatibility, nontoxicity, inexpensiveness, among other factors. Recent strict regulations on microsphere size have drastically increased manufacturing cost and waste, even though the effect of

Alginate microspheres have recently become increasingly popular in the realm of drug delivery for their biocompatibility, nontoxicity, inexpensiveness, among other factors. Recent strict regulations on microsphere size have drastically increased manufacturing cost and waste, even though the effect of size variance on drug delivery and subsequent performance is unclear. If sphere size variance does not significantly affect drug release profiles, it is possible that future ordinances may loosen tolerances in manufacturing to limit waste produced and expenditures. We use a mathematical model developed by Nickel et al. [12], to theoretically predict drug delivery profiles based on sphere size, and correlate the expected release with experimental data. This model considers diffusion as the key component for drug delivery, which is defined by Fick’s Laws of Diffusion. Alginate, chosen for its simple fabrication method and biocompatibility, was formed into microspheres with a modified extrusion technique and characterized by size. Size variance was introduced in batches and delivery patterns were compared to control groups of identical size. Release patterns for brilliant blue dye, the mock drug chosen, were examined for both groups via UV spectrometry. The absorbance values were then converted to concentration value using a calibration curve done prior to experimentation. The concentration values were then converted to mass values. These values then produced curves representing the mass of the drug released over time. Although the control and experimental values were statistically significantly different, the curves were rather similar to each other. However, when compared to the predicted release pattern, the curves were not the same. Unexpected degradation caused this dissimilarity between the curves. The predictive model was then adjusted to account for degradation by changing the diffusion coefficient in the code to a reciprocal first order exponent. The similarity between the control and experimental curves can insinuate the notion that size tolerances for microsphere production can be somewhat lenient, as a batch containing fifteen beads of the same size and one with three different sizes yields similar release patterns.

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Date Created
2022-05

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Alginate Microsphere Drug Delivery Modeling

Description

Alginate microspheres have recently become increasingly popular in the realm of drug delivery for their biocompatibility, nontoxicity, inexpensiveness, among other factors. Recent strict regulations on microsphere size have drastically increased manufacturing cost and waste, even though the effect of size

Alginate microspheres have recently become increasingly popular in the realm of drug delivery for their biocompatibility, nontoxicity, inexpensiveness, among other factors. Recent strict regulations on microsphere size have drastically increased manufacturing cost and waste, even though the effect of size variance on drug delivery and subsequent performance is unclear. If sphere size variance does not significantly affect drug release profiles, it is possible that future ordinances may loosen tolerances in manufacturing to limit waste produced and expenditures. We use a mathematical model developed by Nickel et al. [12], to theoretically predict drug delivery profiles based on sphere size, and correlate the expected release with experimental data. This model considers diffusion as the key component for drug delivery, which is defined by Fick’s Laws of Diffusion. Alginate, chosen for its simple fabrication method and biocompatibility, was formed into microspheres with a modified extrusion technique and characterized by size. Size variance was introduced in batches and delivery patterns were compared to control groups of identical size. Release patterns for brilliant blue dye, the mock drug chosen, were examined for both groups via UV spectrometry. The absorbance values were then converted to concentration value using a calibration curve done prior to experimentation. The concentration values were then converted to mass values. These values then produced curves representing the mass of the drug released over time. Although the control and experimental values were statistically significantly different, the curves were rather similar to each other. However, when compared to the predicted release pattern, the curves were not the same. Unexpected degradation caused this dissimilarity between the curves. The predictive model was then adjusted to account for degradation by changing the diffusion coefficient in the code to a reciprocal first order exponent. The similarity between the control and experimental curves can insinuate the notion that size tolerances for microsphere production can be somewhat lenient, as a batch containing fifteen beads of the same size and one with three different sizes yields similar release patterns.

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Created

Date Created
2022-05