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Norepinephrine and Adenosine Infused Microparticles for Brown Adipose Tissue Stimulation

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With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microparticle systems [6,10,12]. While PLGA systems are already applied

With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microparticle systems [6,10,12]. While PLGA systems are already applied in a wide variety the clinical setting [11], microparticles still have some way to go before they are viable systems for drug delivery. One of the main reasons for this is a lack of fabrication processes and systems which produce monodisperse particles while also being feasible for industrialization [10]. This honors thesis investigates various microparticle fabrication techniques \u2014 two using mechanical agitation and one using fluid dynamics \u2014 with the long term goal of incorporating norepinephrine and adenosine into the particles for metabolic stimulatory purposes. It was found that mechanical agitation processes lead to large values for dispersity and the polydispersity index while fluid dynamics methods have the potential to create more uniform and predictable outcomes. The research concludes by needing further investigation into methods and prototype systems involving fluid dynamics methods; however, these systems yield promising results for fabricating monodisperse particles which have the potential to encapsulate a wide variety of therapeutic drugs.

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2018-12

Imaging Local Drug Delivery

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Imaging analysis of local drug delivery is important because in both studies involving chemotherapy targeted toward glioblastoma and antimicrobial addressing infection, the drug concentration and distribution are unknown. There are a variety of studies focused on the local delivery of

Imaging analysis of local drug delivery is important because in both studies involving chemotherapy targeted toward glioblastoma and antimicrobial addressing infection, the drug concentration and distribution are unknown. There are a variety of studies focused on the local delivery of drug to a targeted location, but we are presenting a way of quantifying the concentration of the drug and the distribution of the drug during a period of time. This study aims to do that by utilizing Materialise Mimics to analyze the MRI images of local drug delivery in glioblastoma in canines and antimicrobial gel in rabbit femurs. The focus of the technique is to register the anatomy in T1-weighted spin echo images to the drug delivery in T2 flow attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in order to see where the drug went and did not go relative to the anatomical part. Both studies focus on addressing effective volumes of drug to a designated anatomical area, in which the delivery can be difficult as it involves bypassing the blood brain barrier in the first study and achieving effective volumes while preventing toxicity to the kidneys in the second study. The goal of this project lies in determining the drug volumes and location for the specified duration and anatomical part.

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2018-05

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Pharmacologic Modulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier

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One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS), including many drugs

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS), including many drugs that could be used to treat diseases in the CNS. Previous studies have shown that activation of the adenosine receptor signaling pathway through the use of agonists has been demonstrated to increase BBB permeability. For example, regadenoson is an adenosine A2A receptor agonist that has been shown to disrupt the BBB and allow for increased drug uptake in the CNS. The goal of this study was to verify this property of regadenoson. We hypothesized that co-administration of regadenoson with a non-brain penetrant macromolecule would facilitate its entry into the central nervous system. To test this hypothesis, healthy mice were administered regadenoson or saline concomitantly with a fluorescent dextran solution. The brain tissue was either homogenized to measure quantity of fluorescent molecule, or cryosectioned for imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy. These experiments did not identify any significant difference in the amount of fluorescence detected in the brain after regadenoson treatment. These results contradict those of previous studies and highlight potential differences in injection methodology, time windows, and properties of brain impermeant molecules.

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2015-05

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In Vitro Release Study of L-Tyrosine-Loaded PLGA Microparticles

Description

Polymer drug delivery system offers a key to a glaring issue in modern administration routes of drugs and biologics. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) can be used to encapsulate drugs and biologics and deliver them into the patient, which allows high local

Polymer drug delivery system offers a key to a glaring issue in modern administration routes of drugs and biologics. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) can be used to encapsulate drugs and biologics and deliver them into the patient, which allows high local concentration (compared to current treatment methods), protection of the cargo from the bodily environment, and reduction in systemic side effects. This experiment used a single emulsion technique to encapsulate L-tyrosine in PLGA microparticles and UV spectrophotometry to analyze the drug release over a period of one week. The release assay found that for the tested samples, the released amount is distinct initially, but is about the same after 4 days, and they generally follow the same normalized percent released pattern. The experiment could continue with testing more samples, test the same samples for a longer duration, and look into higher w/w concentrations such as 20% or 50%.

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2021-05