Matching Items (17)

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Electrospinning Stimuli-Responsive Fibers at the Nanoscale as Functional Drug Delivery Mats

Description

The objective of this research is to create biodegradable mats with tunable characteristics such as fiber diameter and surface area. The drug delivery mats enable spatially controlled delivery of

The objective of this research is to create biodegradable mats with tunable characteristics such as fiber diameter and surface area. The drug delivery mats enable spatially controlled delivery of disease-specific therapeutics. Using a large electric potential to draw fibers from a solution flowing at a specific rate, the polymer fibers reach a grounded target several inches away. The biodegradable polymer used in this study was poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). PLGA solutions ranging from 0.5 to 27 wt.% were prepared by dissolving the block copolymer in a solvent mixture containing tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dimethylformamide (DMF) at a 3:1 weight ratio. They were then electrospun at needle-to-target distances of 7, 14, and 18 cm and rates ranging from 0.8 to 4 mL/h. The range of voltage used was between 8 – 15 kV, which was based on the observation of the formation of a Taylor cone, largely affected by on the environment and weather (e.g., temperature and humidity in the lab). A 27 wt.% PLGA solution, electrospun at 1 mL/h at a voltage of 11.25 kV and needle-to-target distance of 14 cm produced uniform fibers with an average fiber diameter of 0.985 m. All other parameters outside the range given created beaded fibers. In addition, solution rheology was performed on some of the PLGA solution to measure viscosity, which is directly correlated to the fiber diameter of the electrospun mats. Observing the impact of solvent on fiber spinning and fiber diameter brings about many positive results in developing fully characterized and well-understood fibrous mats for drug delivery. The nanoscale fibers will be used as drug delivery mats and, therefore, the biodegradation kinetics of the polymers will be studied. Next, parameters of the polymers as well as the polymeric mats will be correlated to the degradation-mediated release of small molecule therapeutics (e.g., peptides, drugs, etc.) such that time-resolved dosing profiles can be created.

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  • 2016-12

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Targeted Delivery of Antibiotics to Skin Infections via Hydrogel Band-Aids to Reduce Adverse Side Effects: A Study

Description

The aim of the present study was to review the symptoms and current treatment options of the most common skin infections seen in outpatient settings and develop a preliminary alternative

The aim of the present study was to review the symptoms and current treatment options of the most common skin infections seen in outpatient settings and develop a preliminary alternative treatment solution. The specific skin infections evaluated were those caused by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacterial species, and are frequently treated with a wide variety of systemic antibiotics or topical ointments. Systemic antibiotics have shown increased occurrence of adverse side effects as well as the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Additionally, these medications are usually overprescribed, which may further exacerbate negative side effects. Another issue that is addressed is the development of infections following treatment of a new laceration or other trauma to the skin. A patient may be treated for their wound with stitches or another alternative, but there is still the possibility of developing an infection later.
This study synthesizes information found from extensive research and provides a review of the most optimal techniques for developing an alternative to systemic antibiotics. The final deliverable is a report detailing the significant findings and discussing the ways that this solution may be developed further and implemented in a clinical setting. The solution is a hydrogel bandage designed to deliver antibiotics directly to the wound site, while also offering protection and enhanced wound healing. The target population is patients suffering from skin conditions in an outpatient setting. The antibiotics of interest for this solution are clindamycin, doxycycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole), as they offer excellent treatment against gram-positive bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, other broad-spectrum antibiotics could potentially be incorporated to protect against gram-negative bacteria. The design features a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel that has shown many properties that are beneficial to biomedical applications, including biocompatibility, flexibility, high drug-loading capacity, high absorption of wound exudate, increased promotion of wound healing, and more. Preliminary mathematical models of the hydrogel’s drug delivery behaviors are also included. Due to the scope and timeframe of this project, the majority of findings herein are based on research of prior literature instead of development of the novel device. Future directions would include further research and development of the mechanisms behind the device, creation of a physical prototype, experimental testing, and statistical analyses to verify device specifications and capabilities.

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  • 2020-05

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NIPAAm co-DEAEMA Hydrogels Prolong Ketorolac Release

Description

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved

NIPAAm co-DEAEMA hydrogels are a potential solution for sustained, local delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Current methods of postoperative pain management, such as local anesthetics, NSAIDs, and opioids, can be improved by minimizing side effects while still effectively treating severe and extreme pain. Though high doses of ketorolac can be toxic, sustained, local delivery via hydrogels offers a promising solution. Four ketorolac release studies were conducted using PNDJ hydrogels formulated by Sonoran Biosciences. The first two studies tested a range of JAAm concentration between 1.4 and 2.2 mole percent. Both had high initial release rates lasting less than 7 days and appeared to be unaffected by JAAm content. Tobramycin slowed down the release of ketorolac but was unable to sustain release for more than 6 days. Incorporating DEAEMA prolonged the release of ketorolac for up to 14 days with significant reductions in initial burst release rate. Low LCST of NIPAAM co-DEAEMA polymer is problematic for even drug distribution and future in vivo applications.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Imaging Local Drug Delivery

Description

Imaging analysis of local drug delivery is important because in both studies involving chemotherapy targeted toward glioblastoma and antimicrobial addressing infection, the drug concentration and distribution are unknown. There are

Imaging analysis of local drug delivery is important because in both studies involving chemotherapy targeted toward glioblastoma and antimicrobial addressing infection, the drug concentration and distribution are unknown. There are a variety of studies focused on the local delivery of drug to a targeted location, but we are presenting a way of quantifying the concentration of the drug and the distribution of the drug during a period of time. This study aims to do that by utilizing Materialise Mimics to analyze the MRI images of local drug delivery in glioblastoma in canines and antimicrobial gel in rabbit femurs. The focus of the technique is to register the anatomy in T1-weighted spin echo images to the drug delivery in T2 flow attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in order to see where the drug went and did not go relative to the anatomical part. Both studies focus on addressing effective volumes of drug to a designated anatomical area, in which the delivery can be difficult as it involves bypassing the blood brain barrier in the first study and achieving effective volumes while preventing toxicity to the kidneys in the second study. The goal of this project lies in determining the drug volumes and location for the specified duration and anatomical part.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Norepinephrine and Adenosine Infused Microparticles for Brown Adipose Tissue Stimulation

Description

With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microparticle systems [6,10,12]. While PLGA systems are already applied in a wide variety the clinical setting [11], microparticles still have some way to go before they are viable systems for drug delivery. One of the main reasons for this is a lack of fabrication processes and systems which produce monodisperse particles while also being feasible for industrialization [10]. This honors thesis investigates various microparticle fabrication techniques \u2014 two using mechanical agitation and one using fluid dynamics \u2014 with the long term goal of incorporating norepinephrine and adenosine into the particles for metabolic stimulatory purposes. It was found that mechanical agitation processes lead to large values for dispersity and the polydispersity index while fluid dynamics methods have the potential to create more uniform and predictable outcomes. The research concludes by needing further investigation into methods and prototype systems involving fluid dynamics methods; however, these systems yield promising results for fabricating monodisperse particles which have the potential to encapsulate a wide variety of therapeutic drugs.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

Long Term Susceptibility of Biofilms Treated with Antimicrobials

Description

The concentration necessary to kill bacterial biofilms with antimicrobials is the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). This is usually determined using an in vitro approach and will vary within different

The concentration necessary to kill bacterial biofilms with antimicrobials is the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). This is usually determined using an in vitro approach and will vary within different strains of bacteria. Biomedical implants produce biofilm-related infections presenting a unique challenge due to the combination of subpopulations of the bacterial community and the polysaccharide matrix presented by biofilms. The purpose of this investigation is to determine how exposure times in the order of weeks to months affect the MBEC. Using an in vitro approach, Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms were produced with a 24 hour growth time and exposed to two antimicrobials, tobramycin and vancomycin, and one combination treatment that consisted of 1:1 tobramycin: vancomycin by weight. Crystal violet screening was used in order to ensure the integrity of the biofilm matrix throughout the full time of exposure. It was determined that UAMS-1 MBECs were lowered after 56 days of exposure than after 5 days for all three treatment groups. MRSA MBECs after 5 days of exposure decreased only with in vancomycin treatment group.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Synthesis of Dual Layered Microparticles for Tunable Delayed Release Profile

Description

The primary objective of this research project is to develop dual layered polymeric microparticles with a tunable delayed release profile. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) phase separate in

The primary objective of this research project is to develop dual layered polymeric microparticles with a tunable delayed release profile. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) phase separate in a double emulsion process due to differences in hydrophobicity, which allows for the synthesis of double-walled microparticles with a PLA shell surrounding the PLGA core. The microparticles were loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and different volumes of ethanol were added to the PLA shell phase to alter the porosity and release characteristics of the BSA. Different amounts of ethanol varied the total loading percentage of the BSA, the release profile, surface morphology, size distribution, and the localization of the protein within the particles. Scanning electron microscopy images detailed the surface morphology of the different particles. Loading the particles with fluorescently tagged insulin and imaging the particles through confocal microscopy supported the localization of the protein inside the particle. The study suggest that ethanol alters the release characteristics of the loaded BSA encapsulated in the microparticles supporting the use of a polar, protic solvent as a tool for tuning the delayed release profile of biological proteins.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Pharmacologic Modulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier

Description

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS), including many drugs that could be used to treat diseases in the CNS. Previous studies have shown that activation of the adenosine receptor signaling pathway through the use of agonists has been demonstrated to increase BBB permeability. For example, regadenoson is an adenosine A2A receptor agonist that has been shown to disrupt the BBB and allow for increased drug uptake in the CNS. The goal of this study was to verify this property of regadenoson. We hypothesized that co-administration of regadenoson with a non-brain penetrant macromolecule would facilitate its entry into the central nervous system. To test this hypothesis, healthy mice were administered regadenoson or saline concomitantly with a fluorescent dextran solution. The brain tissue was either homogenized to measure quantity of fluorescent molecule, or cryosectioned for imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy. These experiments did not identify any significant difference in the amount of fluorescence detected in the brain after regadenoson treatment. These results contradict those of previous studies and highlight potential differences in injection methodology, time windows, and properties of brain impermeant molecules.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Elution Profile of Caspofungin from Anti-fungal Loaded Bone Cement

Description

Advancements in healthcare and the emergence of an aging population has led to an increase in the number of prosthetic joint procedures in the United States. According to Healthcare Cost

Advancements in healthcare and the emergence of an aging population has led to an increase in the number of prosthetic joint procedures in the United States. According to Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 660,876 and 348,970 total hip and knee arthroplasties were performed in 2014[1].The percentage of total hip or knee procedures that are revised due to an infection is 1.23% and 1.21% respectively[3], [4]. Although the percent of infections may be small, an infection can have a tremendous burden on the patient and healthcare system. It is expected that prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) will cost the healthcare system an estimated $1.62 billion by 2020[5]. PJIs are often difficult to treat due to the formation of biofilm at the site of the infection. A large majority of PJIs are the result of a bacterial biofilm, but around 1% of PJIs are due to fungal infections[3]. The current method of treatment is to surgically remove all infected tissue at the site of infection through a process called debridement and then insert a medicated bone cement spacer[7], [10]–[12]. One such medication that is loaded into the bone cement is caspofungin, a member of the echinocandin class of compounds that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan which is a crucial element of the cell wall of the target fungi[13]–[15]. For the studies reported herein, the caspofungin-loaded bone cement samples were made at 5 dosage strengths according to standard operating room practices. The elution of the drug was analyzed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The elution profiles were analyzed for 19 days consecutively, during which the 70 mg, 1 g, and 5 g dosage groups showed a prolonged, sustained release of the caspofungin. The 70 mg and 1 g dosage cumulative mass release profiles were not statistically significant, but it is unlikely that the difference would not have a clinical significance especially in the treatment of a fungal biofilm infection. The determination of the elution profile for caspofungin from loaded-bone cement can provide clinicians with a basis for how the drug will release into the infected joint.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Engineering Novel Microbead Encapsulated Three-Dimensional Tumor and Stem Cell Models

Description

Cellular assays are the backbone of biological studies - be it for tissue modeling, drug discovery, therapeutics, or diagnostics. Two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has been deployed for several decades to

Cellular assays are the backbone of biological studies - be it for tissue modeling, drug discovery, therapeutics, or diagnostics. Two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has been deployed for several decades to garner physiologically relevant information and predict data before the cost-intensive animal testing. Although 2D techniques have been valuable for cellular assays, they have a colossal limitation - they do not adequately consider the natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment of the cells. As a result, they sometimes provide misleading statistics. Therefore, it is important to develop a 3D model that predicts cellular behaviors and their interaction with neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) in a more realistic manner. In recent biomedical research, various platforms have been modeled to generate 3D prototypes of tissues, spheroids, in vitro that could allow the study of cellular responses resembling in vivo environments, such as matrices, scaffolds, and devices. But most of these platforms have drawbacks such as lack of spheroid size control, low yield, or high cost associated with them. On the other hand, Amikagel is a low cost, high-fidelity platform that can facilitate the convenient generation of tumor and stem cell spheroids. Furthermore, Amikabeads are aminoglycoside-derived hydrogel microbeads derived from the same monomers as Amikagel. They are a versatile platform with several chemical groups that can be exploited for encapsulating the spheroids and investigating the delivery of bioactive compounds to the cells. This thesis is focused on engineering novel 3D tumor and stem cell models generated on Amikagel and encapsulated in Amikabeads for proximal delivery of bioactive compounds and applications in regenerative medicine.

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Date Created
  • 2020