Matching Items (34)

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Numerical Analysis of the Resistive Drag Force in Competitive Swimming

Description

Competitive Swimming is not only a sport, but also an invaluable life skill. As long as it has existed, people have wondered how to swim faster. There are a multitude

Competitive Swimming is not only a sport, but also an invaluable life skill. As long as it has existed, people have wondered how to swim faster. There are a multitude of variables that go into any race and shockingly not much research around to scientifically approach the question. This study aims to investigate the drag forces behind a Swimmer’s race to give better insight as to what will slow a Swimmer down through simulations in ANSYS Fluent. Simple 2D simulations were made with a Swimmer in different positions and a flow of water moved over them. What was found was that different positions, or techniques, yield vastly different results. When following typical good technique, a Swimmer can expect to be approximately 136% less drag forces compared to a typical bad technique. Additionally, small errors such as not being perfectly horizontal can lead to a difference of around 100 Newtons of drag force between perfectly horizontal and a 5-degree angle of attack. Another observation made was that errors are exacerbated by being near a wall, so Swimming in an end lane next to the pool wall leads to about 57% more drag forces that any other lane. Still, there are many more observations to be made as there is so much more to research in swimming.

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  • 2020-05

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Fluid flow in a temperature-stratified, parametrically forced regime

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This project is a synthesis of the author's learning over the semesters in working with the CFD Group at Arizona State University. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are overviewed, starting with

This project is a synthesis of the author's learning over the semesters in working with the CFD Group at Arizona State University. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are overviewed, starting with the derivation from the continuity equation, then non-dimensionalization, methods of solving and computing quantities of interest. The rest of this document is expository analysis of solutions in a confined fluid flow, building toward a parametrically forced regime that generates complex flow patterns including Faraday waves. The solutions come from recently published studies Dynamics in a stably stratified tilted square cavity (Grayer et al.) and Parametric instabilities of a stratified shear layer (Buchta et al).

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  • 2021-05

Quantifying Effects of Stent Treatment on Cerebral Aneurysm Fluid Dynamics using Finite Element Modeling

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to explore how changes in the geometry of a bifurcating cerebral aneurysm will affect the hemodynamics in idealized models after stent treatment. This thesis

The purpose of this thesis was to explore how changes in the geometry of a bifurcating cerebral aneurysm will affect the hemodynamics in idealized models after stent treatment. This thesis explores the use of a computationally modeled Enterprise Vascular Reconstruction Device (Cordis, East Bridgewater, NJ), a high porosity and closed cell design. The models represent idealized cases of saccular aneurysms with dome sizes of either 4mm or 6mm and a dome to neck ratio of either 3:2 or 2:1. Two aneurysm contact angles are studied, one at 45 degrees and the other at 90 degrees. The stent was characterized and deployed with the use of Finite Element Analysis into each model. Computational Fluid Dynamic principles were applied in series of simulations on treated and untreated models. Data was gathered in the neck plane for the average velocity magnitude, root mean squared velocity, average flow vector angle of deflection, and the cross neck flow rate. Within the aneurysm, the average velocity magnitude, root mean squared velocity, and average pressure were calculated. Additionally, the mass flow rate at each outlet was recorded. The results of this study indicate that the Enterprise Stent was most effective in the sharper, 90 degree geometry of Model 3. Additionally, the stent had an adverse effect on the Models 1 and 4, which had the smallest neck sizes. Conclusions are that the Enterprise Stent, as a stand-alone treatment method is only reliable in situations that take advantage of its design.

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  • 2013-05

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In Vitro and In Silico Study of Hemodynamics In Vascular Models: Validating Computational Fluid Dynamics for Medical Application

Description

This study investigates the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the medical field. An overview of recent advances in computational simulation and modeling in medical applications is provided, with

This study investigates the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the medical field. An overview of recent advances in computational simulation and modeling in medical applications is provided, with a particular emphasis on CFD. This study attempts to validate CFD and demonstrate the possibility for applying CFD to the clinical treatment and evaluation of atherosclerotic disease. Three different geometric configurations are investigated: one idealized bifurcation with a primary diameter of 8 mm, and two different patient-specific models of the bifurcation from the common femoral artery to the superficial and deep femoral arteries. CFD is compared against experimental measurements of steady state and pulsatile flow acquired with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Steady state and pulsatile flow rates that are consistent with those observed in the femoral artery are used. In addition, pulsatile CFD simulations are analyzed in order to demonstrate meaningful clinical applications for studying and evaluating the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. CFD was successfully validated for steady state flow, with an average percent error of 6.991%. Potential for validation was also demonstrated for pulsatile flow, but methodological errors warrant further investigation to reformulate methods and analyze results. Quantities frequently associated with atherosclerotic disease and arterial bifurcations, such as large variations in wall shear stress and the presence of recirculation zones are demonstrated from the pulsatile CFD simulations. Further study is required in order to evaluate whether or not such phenomena are represented by CFD accurately. Further study must also be performed in order to evaluate the practicality and utility of CFD for the evaluation of atherosclerotic disease treatment.

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  • 2016-05

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The Effect of Spoilers on Vehicle Aerodynamics and Performance

Description

An understanding of aerodynamics is crucial for automobile performance and efficiency. There are many types of “add-on” aerodynamic devices for cars including wings, splitters, and vortex generators. While these have

An understanding of aerodynamics is crucial for automobile performance and efficiency. There are many types of “add-on” aerodynamic devices for cars including wings, splitters, and vortex generators. While these have been studied extensively, rear spoilers have not, and their effects are not as widely known. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel study was performed to study the effects of spoilers on vehicle aerodynamics and performance. Vehicle aerodynamics is geometry dependent, meaning what applies to one car may or may not apply on another. So, the Scion FRS was chosen as the test vehicle because it is has the “classic” sports car configuration with a long hood, short rear, and 2+2 passenger cabin while also being widely sold with a plethora of aftermarket aerodynamic modifications available. Due to computing and licensing restrictions, only a 2D CFD simulation was performed in ANSYS Fluent 19.1. A surface model of the centerline of the car was created in SolidWorks and imported into ANSYS, where the domain was created. A mesh convergence study was run to determine the optimum mesh size, and Realizable k-epsilon was the chosen physics model. The wind tunnel lacked equipment to record quantifiable data, so the wind tunnel was utilized for flow visualization on a 1/24 scale car model to compare with the CFD.

0° spoilers reduced the wake area behind the car, decreasing pressure drag but also decreasing underbody flow, causing a reduction in drag and downforce. Angled spoilers increased the wake area behind the car, increasing pressure drag but also increasing underbody flow, causing an increase in drag and downforce. Longer spoilers increased these effects compared to shorter spoilers, and short spoilers at different angles did not create significantly different effects. 0° spoilers would be best suited for cases that prioritize fuel economy or straight-line acceleration and speed due to the drag reduction, while angled spoilers would be best suited for cars requiring downforce. The angle and length of spoiler would depend on the downforce needed, which is dependent on the track.

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  • 2019-12

Design and Analyze a Liquid-Liquid Swirl Coaxial Injector for a small-scale rocket engine using Computational Fluid Dynamics for minimum pressure drop and maximum spray angle.

Description

Atomization of fluids inside combustion chamber has been a very complex and long-lasting subject that is still researched into for maximum efficiency in mixing oxidizer and fuel. This thesis focuses

Atomization of fluids inside combustion chamber has been a very complex and long-lasting subject that is still researched into for maximum efficiency in mixing oxidizer and fuel. This thesis focuses on an injector called the Liquid-Liquid Swirl Coaxial Injector (LLSC) to be used in a small-scale rocket engine due to its high efficiency in spray angles and low pressure drops. Injectors are the elements that exist as a connection in between the plumbing and the combustion chamber of the rocket engine. The performance of injectors can greatly affect the stability and efficiency of the engine. Injectors proportionally help breakup the fluid into small droplets that help in the efficiency of vaporization of fluids while combusting. Helios Rocketry, Arizona State University’s student-led engineering organization, is working to design and successfully launch a small-scale bi-propellant liquid rocket engine to a 100 km (Karman Line) in space as part of the Base11 challenge. For this task a highly efficient injector element needed to be designed that can achieve high amounts of atomization with a large spray angle, to help with combustion in a relatively small sized chamber. The purpose of this thesis is to explore a specific type of injector element called a LLSC injector element. This is performed by simulating it through an LES model in computational fluid dynamics using a Voronoi based meshing scheme, by using codes from Cascade Technologies. In the end a 35-injector element design was used for an injector plate. This helped minimize the pressure drop and keep the wall stress below the safety limit.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Dynamics of Tilted Stably Stratified Square Cavities

Description

The dynamics of a stably and thermally stratified, two dimensional fluid-filled cavity are the subject of numerical study. When gravity is orthogonal to the endwalls, a closed form for a

The dynamics of a stably and thermally stratified, two dimensional fluid-filled cavity are the subject of numerical study. When gravity is orthogonal to the endwalls, a closed form for a steady state solution with trivial flow may be obtained. However, as soon as the cavity is tilted the flow becomes nontrivial. Previous studies have investigated when this tilt angle is 180 degrees (Rayleigh-Bénard convection), 90 degrees, and 0 degrees, or have done a sweep while solving the steady-state equations. When buoyancy is sufficiently weak the flow is stable and steady up to 90 degrees of tilt. Above a certain level of buoyancy, as measured by the temperature difference between the top and bottom walls, the flow becomes unsteady above a tilt angle less than 90 degrees. Specifically, In this study we examine the relationship between the critical tilt angle and the buoyancy level at the onset of unsteadiness, as well as the dynamical mechanisms by which it occurs.

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  • 2019-05

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Wind load analysis on a high-rise square-plan building

Description

Buildings and other structures, all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to resist the wind loads are required in all wind codes. Simple quasi-static treatment of wind

Buildings and other structures, all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to resist the wind loads are required in all wind codes. Simple quasi-static treatment of wind loads, which is universally applied to design of low to medium-rise structures, can be either overly conservative or erroneous under-estimated for design of high-rise structures. Dynamic response, vortex, wind directionality, and shedding from other structures are all complicated key factors suppose to be considered in design. Meanwhile, wind tunnel testing is expansive, difficult and sometimes inaccurate even if it is a widely used method in simulation of aerodynamic response. Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD), historically, were two-dimensional (2D) method using conformal transformations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an airfoil were developed in the 1930s. A number of three-dimensional (3D) codes were developed, leading to numerous commercial packages, which is more accessible and economical for wind load analysis.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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The effect of leading-edge geometry on the induced drag of a finite wing

Description

This study identifies the influence that leading-edge shape has on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing using surface far-field and near-field analysis. It examines if a wake survey is the

This study identifies the influence that leading-edge shape has on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing using surface far-field and near-field analysis. It examines if a wake survey is the appropriate means for measuring profile drag and induced drag. The paper unveils the differences between sharp leading-edge and blunt leading-edge wings with the tools of pressure loop, chordwise pressure distribution, span load plots and with wake integral computations. The analysis was performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), vortex lattice potential flow code (VORLAX), and a few wind-tunnels runs to acquire data for comparison. This study found that sharp leading-edge wings have less leading-edge suction and higher drag than blunt leading-edge wings.

The blunt leading-edge wings have less drag because the normal vector of the surface in the front section of the airfoil develops forces at opposed skin friction. The shape of the leading edge, in conjunction with the effect of viscosity, slightly alter the span load; both the magnitude of the lift and the transverse distribution. Another goal in this study is to verify the veracity of wake survey theory; the two different leading-edge shapes reveals the shortcoming of Mclean’s equation which is only applicable to blunt leading-edge wings.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Optimized vortex tube bundle for large flow rate applications

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ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a

ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a cold stream. Many studies have been carried out to find the mechanisms of the energy separation in the vortex tube. Recent rapid development in computational fluid dynamics is providing a powerful tool to investigate the complex flow in the vortex tube. However various issues in these numerical simulations remain, such as choosing the most suitable turbulent model, as well as the lack of systematic comparative analysis. LES model for the vortex tube simulation is hardly used in the present literatures, and the influence of parameters on the performance of the vortex tube has scarcely been studied. This study is aimed to find the influence of various parameters on the performance of the vortex tube, the best geometric value of vortex tube and the realizable method to reach the required cold out flow rate 40 kg/s . First of all, setting up an original 3-D simulation vortex tube model. By comparing experiment results reported in the literature and our simulation results, a most suitable model for the simulation of the vortex tube is obtained. Secondly, we perform simulations to optimize parameters that can deliver a set of desired output, such as cold stream pressure, temperature and flow-rate. We also discuss the use of the cold air flow for petroleum engineering applications.

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Date Created
  • 2013