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Nano- and micro-scale temperature measurements using laser-induced fluorescence thermometry

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A method of determining nanoparticle temperature through fluorescence intensity levels is described. Intracellular processes are often tracked through the use of fluorescence tagging, and ideal temperatures for many of these processes are unknown. Through the use of fluorescence-based thermometry, cellular

A method of determining nanoparticle temperature through fluorescence intensity levels is described. Intracellular processes are often tracked through the use of fluorescence tagging, and ideal temperatures for many of these processes are unknown. Through the use of fluorescence-based thermometry, cellular processes such as intracellular enzyme movement can be studied and their respective temperatures established simultaneously. Polystyrene and silica nanoparticles are synthesized with a variety of temperature-sensitive dyes such as BODIPY, rose Bengal, Rhodamine dyes 6G, 700, and 800, and Nile Blue A and Nile Red. Photographs are taken with a QImaging QM1 Questar EXi Retiga camera while particles are heated from 25 to 70 C and excited at 532 nm with a Coherent DPSS-532 laser. Photographs are converted to intensity images in MATLAB and analyzed for fluorescence intensity, and plots are generated in MATLAB to describe each dye's intensity vs temperature. Regression curves are created to describe change in fluorescence intensity over temperature. Dyes are compared as nanoparticle core material is varied. Large particles are also created to match the camera's optical resolution capabilities, and it is established that intensity values increase proportionally with nanoparticle size. Nile Red yielded the closest-fit model, with R2 values greater than 0.99 for a second-order polynomial fit. By contrast, Rhodamine 6G only yielded an R2 value of 0.88 for a third-order polynomial fit, making it the least reliable dye for temperature measurements using the polynomial model. Of particular interest in this work is Nile Blue A, whose fluorescence-temperature curve yielded a much different shape from the other dyes. It is recommended that future work describe a broader range of dyes and nanoparticle sizes, and use multiple excitation wavelengths to better quantify each dye's quantum efficiency. Further research into the effects of nanoparticle size on fluorescence intensity levels should be considered as the particles used here greatly exceed 2 ìm. In addition, Nile Blue A should be further investigated as to why its fluorescence-temperature curve did not take on a characteristic shape for a temperature-sensitive dye in these experiments.

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2011

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Investigation of Heat Exchanger Improvement via Ultrasonic Energy

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In these times of increasing industrialization, there arises a need for effective and energy efficient heat transfer/heat exchange devices. The focus nowadays is on identifying various methods and techniques which can aid the process of developing energy efficient devices. One

In these times of increasing industrialization, there arises a need for effective and energy efficient heat transfer/heat exchange devices. The focus nowadays is on identifying various methods and techniques which can aid the process of developing energy efficient devices. One of the most common heat transfer devices is a heat exchanger. Heat exchangers are an essential commodity to any industry and their efficiency can play an important role in making industries energy efficient and reduce the energy losses in the devices, in turn decreasing energy inputs to run the industry.

One of the ways in which we can improve the efficiency of heat exchangers is by applying ultrasonic energy to a heat exchanger. This research explores the possibility of introducing the external input of ultrasonic energy to increase the efficiency of the heat exchanger. This increase in efficiency can be estimated by calculating the parameters important for the characterization of a heat exchanger, which are effectiveness (ε) and overall heat transfer coefficient (U). These parameters are calculated for both the non-ultrasound and ultrasound conditions in the heat exchanger.

This a preliminary study of ultrasound and its effect on a conventional shell-and-coil heat exchanger. From the data obtained it can be inferred that the increase in effectiveness and overall heat transfer coefficient upon the application of ultrasound is 1% and 6.22% respectively.

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2019

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Experimental Study of Water-Ice Phase Change Process Improvement Using Ultrasonic Energy

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The phase change process of freezing water is an important application in several fields such as ice making, food freezing technologies, pharmaceuticals etc. Due to the widespread usage of ice-related products, process improvements in this technology can potentially lead to

The phase change process of freezing water is an important application in several fields such as ice making, food freezing technologies, pharmaceuticals etc. Due to the widespread usage of ice-related products, process improvements in this technology can potentially lead to substantial energy savings. After studying the freezing process of water, the supercooling phenomenon was found to occur which showed a negative effect. Therefore, ultrasound was proposed as a technique to reduce the supercooling effect and improve the heat transfer rate. An experimental study was conducted to analyze the energy expenditures in the freezing process with and without the application of ultrasound. After a set of preliminary experiments, an intermittent application of ultrasound at 10W & 3.5W power levels were found to be more effective than constant-power application, and were explored in further detail. The supercooling phenomenon was thoroughly studied through iterative experiments. It was also found that the application of ultrasound during the freezing process led to the formation of shard-like ice crystals. From the intermittent ultrasound experiments performed at 10W and 3.5W power levels, percentage energy enhancements relative to no ultrasound of 8.9% ± 12.4% and 11.9% ± 24.6% were observed, respectively.

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2021

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Application of Ultrasound in Regeneration of Adsorbents

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Desorption processes are an important part of all processes which involve utilization of solid adsorbents such as adsorption cooling, sorption thermal energy storage, and drying and dehumidification processes and are inherently energy-intensive. Here, how those energy requirements can be

Desorption processes are an important part of all processes which involve utilization of solid adsorbents such as adsorption cooling, sorption thermal energy storage, and drying and dehumidification processes and are inherently energy-intensive. Here, how those energy requirements can be reduced through the application of ultrasound for three widely used adsorbents namely zeolite 13X, activated alumina and silica gel is investigated. To determine and justify the effectiveness of incorporating ultrasound from an energy-savings point of view, an approach of constant overall input power of 20 and 25 W was adopted. To measure the extent of the effectiveness of using ultrasound, the ultrasonic-power-to-total power ratios of 0.2, 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 were investigated and the results compared with those of no-ultrasound (heat only) at the same total power. Duplicate experiments were performed at three nominal frequencies of 28, 40 and 80 kHz to observe the influence of frequency on regeneration dynamics. Regarding moisture removal, application of ultrasound results in higher desorption rate compared to a non-ultrasound process. A nonlinear inverse proportionality was observed between the effectiveness of ultrasound and the frequency at which it is applied. Based on the variation of desorption dynamics with ultrasonic power and frequency, three mechanisms of reduced adsorbate adsorption potential, increased adsorbate surface energy and enhanced mass diffusion are proposed. Two analytical models that describe the desorption process were developed based on the experimental data from which novel efficiency metrics were proposed, which can be employed to justify incorporating ultrasound in regeneration and drying processes.

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Date Created
2021