Matching Items (111)

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Validity, Inter-Rater Reliability, and Measures of Adaptive Behavior: Concerns Regarding the Probative Versus Prejudicial Value

Description

The question as to whether the assessment of adaptive behavior (AB) for evaluations of intellectual disability (ID) in the community meet the level of rigor necessary for admissibility in legal

The question as to whether the assessment of adaptive behavior (AB) for evaluations of intellectual disability (ID) in the community meet the level of rigor necessary for admissibility in legal cases is addressed. Adaptive behavior measures have made their way into the forensic domain where scientific evidence is put under great scrutiny. Assessment of ID in capital murder proceedings has garnished a lot of attention, but assessments of ID in adult populations also occur with some frequency in the context of other criminal proceedings (e.g., competence to stand trial; competence to waive Miranda rights), as well as eligibility for social security disability, social security insurance, Medicaid/Medicare, government housing, and post-secondary transition services. As will be demonstrated, markedly disparate findings between raters can occur on measures of AB even when the assessment is conducted in accordance with standard procedures (i.e., the person was assessed in a community setting, in real time, with multiple appropriate raters, when the person was younger than 18 years of age) and similar disparities can be found in the context of the unorthodox and untested retrospective assessment used in capital proceedings. With full recognition that some level of disparity is to be expected, the level of disparity that can arise when these measures are administered retrospectively calls into question the validity of the results and consequently, their probative value.

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  • 2018-02-01

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Moral Disengagement in Legal Judgments

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We investigated the role of moral disengagement in a legally‐relevant judgment in this theoretically‐driven empirical analysis. Moral disengagement is a social‐cognitive phenomenon through which people reason their way toward harming

We investigated the role of moral disengagement in a legally‐relevant judgment in this theoretically‐driven empirical analysis. Moral disengagement is a social‐cognitive phenomenon through which people reason their way toward harming others, presenting a useful framework for investigating legal judgments that often result in harming individuals for the good of society. We tested the role of moral disengagement in forensic psychologists’ willingness to conduct the most ethically questionable clinical task in the criminal justice system: competence for execution evaluations. Our hypothesis that moral disengagement would function as mediator of participants’ existing attitudes and their judgments—a theoretical “bridge” between attitudes and judgments—was robustly supported. Moral disengagement was key to understanding how psychologists decide to engage in competence for execution evaluations. We describe in detail the moral disengagement measure we used, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across two separate samples. The four‐factor measure accounted for a total of 52.18 percent of the variance in the sample of forensic psychologists, and the model adequately fit the data in the entirely different sample of jurors in a confirmatory factor analysis. Despite the psychometric strengths of this moral disengagement measure, we describe the pros and cons of existing measures of moral disengagement. We outline future directions for moral disengagement research, especially in legal contexts.

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  • 2017-11-07

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The “Dark Side” of Institutional Trust

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The majority of trust research has focused on the benefits trust can have for individual actors, institutions, and organizations. This “optimistic bias” is particularly evident in work focused on institutional

The majority of trust research has focused on the benefits trust can have for individual actors, institutions, and organizations. This “optimistic bias” is particularly evident in work focused on institutional trust, where concepts such as procedural justice, shared values, and moral responsibility have gained prominence. But trust in institutions may not be exclusively good. We reveal implications for the “dark side” of institutional trust by reviewing relevant theories and empirical research that can contribute to a more holistic understanding. We frame our discussion by suggesting there may be a “Goldilocks principle” of institutional trust, where trust that is too low (typically the focus) or too high (not usually considered by trust researchers) may be problematic. The chapter focuses on the issue of too-high trust and processes through which such too-high trust might emerge. Specifically, excessive trust might result from external, internal, and intersecting external-internal processes. External processes refer to the actions institutions take that affect public trust, while internal processes refer to intrapersonal factors affecting a trustor’s level of trust. We describe how the beneficial psychological and behavioral outcomes of trust can be mitigated or circumvented through these processes and highlight the implications of a “darkest” side of trust when they intersect. We draw upon research on organizations and legal, governmental, and political systems to demonstrate the dark side of trust in different contexts. The conclusion outlines directions for future research and encourages researchers to consider the ethical nuances of studying how to increase institutional trust.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The Propriety of Preemptory Challenges for Perceived Personality Traits

Description

There is substantial controversy over the extent to which social science should be used in jury selection. Underlying the debate are two competing interests in the make-up of a jury:

There is substantial controversy over the extent to which social science should be used in jury selection. Underlying the debate are two competing interests in the make-up of a jury: a privilege to strike prospective jurors on subjective grounds, which supports scientific jury selection, and a collective interest of citizens to be free from exclusion from jury service, which does not. While the incommensurability of the interests precludes resolution of the controversy in the abstract, specific solutions are possible. Using the example of selection of jurors based upon their respective levels of extraversion, we describe how the competing interests frequently do not apply to concrete cases. In the subsequent analysis, we show that, rhetoric notwithstanding, a normative preference for adhering to tradition and institutional inertia are the primary instrumental considerations for determining whether peremptory challenges based upon personality traits like extraversion ought to be allowed. Consistent with this analysis, we conclude that the practice of striking jurors based upon estimates of such personality traits is appropriate.

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Date Created
  • 2013

Integrating Purchasing and Contract Law in Supply Chain Management Education

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Having studied at Arizona State University and the W.P. Carey School of Business through approximately 7 semesters of undergraduate business coursework, I, along with my classmates, have learned an incredible

Having studied at Arizona State University and the W.P. Carey School of Business through approximately 7 semesters of undergraduate business coursework, I, along with my classmates, have learned an incredible amount of knowledge critical for success in a career in business administration. We have been provided the resources and tools necessary to excel in full time business careers, implement new ideas, and innovate and improve preexisting business networks as driven, motivated business intellectuals. Additionally, having worked in four diverse business internships throughout my undergraduate career, I have come to understand the importance of understanding and studying law and contracts as they relate to business. In all of those internships, I worked extensively with a variety of contracts and agreements, all serving critical purposes within each individual line of business. Within supply chain management studies and jobs, I found contracts to be of utmost importance for students to understand prior to entering a full time job or internship. Students study a wide variety of topics during their education within the Supply Chain Management department at Arizona State University. In procurement and purchasing classes specifically, students cover topics from supplier negotiation strategies to sourcing and sustainability. These topics engage students of all backgrounds and offer exceptional knowledge and insight for those seeking a full time job within supply chain management. What is interestingly so often excluded from such lectures is discussion with regards to the contracts and laws pertinent to purchasing and supply management success. As most procurement and sourcing professionals know, contracts are the basis for all agreements that a company and supplier may engage in. A critical component within the careers of supply managers, contract law provides the foundation for any agreement. Thus, the necessity for a discussion on how to best integrate purchasing and contract law into undergraduate supply chain management education, including depicting the material that should be covered, is permitted. In my Honors Thesis, I have decided to create an informative lecture and outline that can be readily understood by undergraduate students in supply chain management courses, at the benefit of professors and lecturers who wish to utilize and incorporate the material in their classroom. The content consists of information recommended by industry professionals, relevant real-life procurement and contract law examples and scenarios, and universal and common law relevant to contracts and purchasing agreements within the workplace. All of these topics are meant to prepare students for careers and internships within supply chain management, and are topics I have found lack current discussion at the university level. Additionally, as a part of my Honors Thesis, I was given the opportunity to provide a cohesive lecture and present the topics herein in SCM 355 Purchasing classes. This was an opportunity to present to students topics that I feel are currently underrepresented in college courses, and that are beneficial for business students to learn and fully understand. Topics discussed in this interactive lecture and slideshow extracted information from the lecture template.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Organizational Structures and Leadership Challenges Within Private Law Firms

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This thesis will focus on the organizational structures and leadership challenges within private law firms. It begins by explaining the different roles within the organizational structure. It will then discuss

This thesis will focus on the organizational structures and leadership challenges within private law firms. It begins by explaining the different roles within the organizational structure. It will then discuss various other duties that are carried out by lawyers in addition to legal work. Through the use of qualitative methodology, including a review of scholarly literature and semi-formal interviews with private firm partners, this research mainly focuses on the challenges that exist in private law firms. The study concludes with possible solutions to address the discussed challenges in private law firms.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes

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Abstract Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes Ashley Allen While mandatory minimum sentences apply to all drugs, in this paper, I primarily discuss them for marijuana, cocaine,

Abstract Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes Ashley Allen While mandatory minimum sentences apply to all drugs, in this paper, I primarily discuss them for marijuana, cocaine, and opiates since these drugs are the most commonly used. My paper will include an exploration of the reasons behind the implementation of mandatory minimum sentences, an analysis of the problems involved with enforcing them, and a discussion about the harms such enforcement has on communities. While mandatory minimums were introduced to prevent discrimination in sentencing as people of color often faced much harsher sentences, the minimums have not been a lasting solution; rather these sentencing techniques have become a major component of the problems communities face associated with drug use. They enforce negative stereotypes and cycles of drug use, do not promote rehabilitation, and unnecessarily burden the judicial and prison systems. I will discuss both successful and failed attempts to reform these laws, and finally offer possible solutions for rethinking mandatory minimum laws, including harm reduction, sentencing restructuring, and the reform of federal laws.

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Date Created
  • 2012-05

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FOIA: The Lock and Key to Government Records

Description

The Freedom of Information Act (1966), an amendment altering Section Three of the Administrative Procedure Act (1964), outlines the rules and regulations for United States citizens to obtain federal government

The Freedom of Information Act (1966), an amendment altering Section Three of the Administrative Procedure Act (1964), outlines the rules and regulations for United States citizens to obtain federal government records. The act, written with the guidance of journalists, was created for all members of the public, but with the intent that the press would be the primary users of the legislation. The authors of the act believed the press would utilize FOIA to enhance its ability to accomplish its duty of keeping the public informed. Now, 51 years after the act was passed into law, critics say FOIA has not satisfactorily allowed the press or the public in general to inform and be informed. Issues with demand rates, unorganized systems and subjective interpretations of the act have combined to lock information from public access through an act that was intended to be the key to it. The data from annual federal agency FOIA reports to the attorney general from 2008 to 2015 have indicated that, in multiple metrics, FOIA has increasingly struggled to fulfill and often has failed to provide records to requesting parties. These trends have inspired a discussion among journalists and right-to-information advocates about how to best resolve the issues that have contributed to them. Proposed solutions range from adjustments to requesters' approaches to the act, amendments to the act and even abandoning the act entirely in favor of constructing a new law.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Job Satisfaction in the Field of Law

Description

This paper discusses the levels of job satisfaction amongst practicing lawyers, with a distinction between government-employed lawyers (public) and those in the private sector. The purpose of this report is

This paper discusses the levels of job satisfaction amongst practicing lawyers, with a distinction between government-employed lawyers (public) and those in the private sector. The purpose of this report is to provide insight into the joys and sorrows of practicing law and provide those who are curious about becoming a lawyer with the tools to be the happiest lawyer that they can be throughout their career. The paper includes analysis of a primary research survey, comparisons with existing research, and a brief overview of happiness based research. It concludes with personal applications of the knowledge gained. Findings of the project conclude that publicly employed lawyers are, on average, slightly happier than lawyers in the private sector. On a scale from 1-7 public lawyers held an average happiness rating of 6.8, while private lawyers came in at a 6.06. Both factions were found to be satisfied in their work, which can dispel the myth that lawyers in general are unhappy with their job or field. Research into happiness shows that only 40% of an individual's overall happiness can be directly affected by their mindset and actins. The other 60% is comprised of genetic and circumstantial factors. Steps and advice to increase happiness derived from a profession or life are offered. The key to finding satisfaction in the workplace lies in aligning one's strengths with one's values. This paper concludes by imploring those who seek a job in the legal field to spend time understanding what their values are, and pursuing satisfaction in the workplace instead of prestige or pay.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Freedom to Practice: A Review of Obergefell v. Hodges

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In this paper, I first explain the legal theory which leads up to Obergefell v. Hodges, and then analyze Obergefell v. Hodges itself. My analysis leads me to conclude that

In this paper, I first explain the legal theory which leads up to Obergefell v. Hodges, and then analyze Obergefell v. Hodges itself. My analysis leads me to conclude that the legal reasoning, or the argument used to come to the decision, is flawed for it relies too heavily upon public opinion and is a legislative action of the Supreme Court. Therefore, I offer three alternatives: each of which improve upon the legal reasoning in different ways. Furthermore, my analysis of these three arguments\u2014and particularly the Free Exercise Argument\u2014leads me to postulate that there is in fact a Freedom to Practice embedded in the penumbral, or unstated, rights of the United States Constitution. While the full extent of the implications of such a right must be explored in another paper, I establish the legal reasoning for the freedom by four routes, showing that although precedent has yet to materialize, there are several arguments for the freedom.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12