Matching Items (24)

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Relations between Race/Ethnicity and Peer Relationships during Early Adolescence

Description

I investigated if race/ethnicity was associated with self- and peer-reported victimization and aggression in a sample of 5th through 8th graders (N = 383, 51% males) from two schools in

I investigated if race/ethnicity was associated with self- and peer-reported victimization and aggression in a sample of 5th through 8th graders (N = 383, 51% males) from two schools in which Hispanic/Latino students were the ethnic-racial majority. Self-reported victimization did not differ between races. In contrast, White students often had higher peer-reported victimization relative to Hispanic and Multi-racial students. Few significant associations were found for aggression. There was some, albeit inconsistent, support for the idea that power imbalance based on race/ethnicity is shifted by numbers. In the future, researchers should conduct studies aimed verifying this notion and that are tailored toward answering questions of mechanism.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Law Enforcement Use of Force: An Analysis of the Literature in Criminal Justice and Psychology

Description

Highly publicized cases involving citizen fatalities due to police use of force raise questions about perceptions of danger. Arrest-related deaths due to weapons, accidental injuries, and natural causes remain high

Highly publicized cases involving citizen fatalities due to police use of force raise questions about perceptions of danger. Arrest-related deaths due to weapons, accidental injuries, and natural causes remain high year after year. Communities are greatly affected, and mistrust with the police continues to increase when these situations happen. There seem to be inaccurate perceptions that may stem from implicit associations, stereotypes, and social learning. These psychological concepts may provide theoretical explanations of how decisions are made when police officers are faced with danger. Some elements of this decision-making process may include suspect characteristics, officer experience, and police sub-culture. In this review, race/ethnicity and socio-economic status are examined as factors that contribute to police use of force. Disparities in use of force data often involve young, Black males living in low-income neighborhoods. The stereotype that this group is more dangerous than others stems from underlying prejudices and previous situations where Black people are targeted more in certain areas. Training, education, and community outreach programs can assist in mending relations between police and affected communities. Acknowledging these inaccurate perceptions, making the adjustments to police training and community relations, and being open to exploration in future research of other minority groups will assist in eliminating prejudices and creating better connections between law enforcement and the community.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Differences in Traditional and Non-Traditional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors between Asian and Non-Hispanic White Young Adults

Description

The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors between Asian and non-Hispanic White young adults. The burden of CVD

The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors between Asian and non-Hispanic White young adults. The burden of CVD varies by racial/ethnic group. Traditional risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing CVD include smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Suboptimal sleep is known to be a non-traditional risk factor for poor overall health, CVD risk factors, and CVD. The present study was an investigation of a cross-sectional, screening survey used for a larger community-based study on sleep and cardiovascular health. The unadjusted results examining differences in traditional CVD risk factors indicated that Asian participants were less likely to report alcohol use compared to non-Hispanic White participants. For non-traditional CVD risk factors, Asians were less likely to report experiencing sleep-related fatigue or malaise, attention impairment, daytime sleepiness, reduced motivation or energy, or concerns about their sleep compared to non-Hispanic White participants. Multivariate-analyses were conducted adjusting for sex and age. The adjusted results indicated that the Asian participants were less likely to report alcohol consumption, regular engagement in exercise, engagement in hard intensity exercise, concerns with sleep quality, and sleep difficulty-related fatigue, attention impairment, daytime sleepiness, reduced motivation, and were more likely to be obese compared to non-Hispanic White participants. The results may help guide cardiovascular prevention education provided to these groups. The data indicate the need for further longitudinal research studies on non-traditional CVD risk factors like sleep by ethnicity/race.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Cultural (Mis)Attribution Bias Among Undergraduate College Students

Description

Culture is a living, dynamic concept that influences the lives of all human beings, making it one of the cornerstone building blocks of the human experience. However, there is a

Culture is a living, dynamic concept that influences the lives of all human beings, making it one of the cornerstone building blocks of the human experience. However, there is a widespread assumption that culture matters more for some people than others. Recent studies have found evidence of a cultural (mis)attribution bias among psychologists, the tendency to exaggerate the role of cultural factors in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities while simultaneously exaggerating the role of personal psychological factors in the behavior of the racial/ethnic majority (Causadias, Vitriol, & Atkins, 2018a; 2018b). This study aims to explore the cultural (mis)attribution bias, and how it manifests in the beliefs and attitudes of undergraduate students at ASU. Additionally, this paper will also explore the implications of those results and how to apply that knowledge to our daily interactions with the people around us.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Ethnic Diversity in Middle Childhood: The Relationship between Academic Performance and Ethnic Diversity of Schools

Description

School racial/ethnic diversity has been linked to positive developmental outcomes for youth in early adolescence (Graham, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine whether school diversity and co-ethnic

School racial/ethnic diversity has been linked to positive developmental outcomes for youth in early adolescence (Graham, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine whether school diversity and co-ethnic representation was associated with academic outcomes of children in middle childhood. Given mixed findings in previous research, this study explored whether the effects of school diversity and co-ethnic representation on academic achievement were moderated by the ethnicity of the individual in a sample of twins in middle childhood (N=485; Mage= 8 8.36 years, SD = .62). Parent-report, teacher-report, and objective ratings of academic outcomes were used. Results indicated that school diversity was positively and significantly associated with teacher reported achievement (b = .80, p < .05) across the full sample. Moderation analyses suggest that greater school diversity was associated with lower parent-reported and objective academic scores for European American youth, but higher teacher-reported and objective academic outcomes for ethnic minority youth. Results indicated that, across the full sample, co-ethnic representation was significantly and negatively associated with one measure of objective academic outcomes (b = -7.99, p < .05). Contrary to hypotheses, greater co-ethnic representation was associated with better teacher-reported and objective academic outcomes for European American youth, but lower objective academic outcomes for ethnic minority children. Findings demonstrate that the ethnic composition of schools are associated with academic outcomes of children in middle childhood, but findings vary by measurement of diversity (i.e., diversity index vs. co-ethnic representation and by the child’s own race/ethnicity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Proportional Representation Electoral Systems and Minority Representation in the American Legislature: A Comparative Analysis of Potential Reforms

Description

In this paper I conduct a comparative analysis of how proportional representation electoral systems could affect the political representation of racial and ethnic minorities if adopted in America. In order

In this paper I conduct a comparative analysis of how proportional representation electoral systems could affect the political representation of racial and ethnic minorities if adopted in America. In order to do this I first discuss the central ideas of proportional representation in conjunction with a historical and contemporary view of the American electoral system. Using this discussion as a basic framework I enter a more in depth discussion about the pros and cons of PR systems, especially in so far as party lists, district magnitude, and links between constituent and representative. To better contextualize the American electoral system I then use case studies featuring New Zealand, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, and Germany. These case studies discuss important aspects of each country's electoral system and how they have affected ethnic and racial minorities within those countries. Each case study concludes with an assessment of how a similar system might work if adopted in America which aims to inform a broader discussion about electoral reform. Finally I conclude with a discussion of my findings that recognizes how proportional representation systems open new pathways for minority representation, while still urging caution in viewing those systems as a straightforward solution to the chronic underrepresentation of America's ethnic and racial minorities in politics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Twin Study Approach to Toddler Mental Health: Maternal Depression, Discipline Practices, and Hispanic Ethnicity

Description

We examined the relations between maternal depression, discipline practices, and toddler mental health outcomes, specifically competence and total problem behavior. Ethnicity was considered as a moderator in all analyses. For

We examined the relations between maternal depression, discipline practices, and toddler mental health outcomes, specifically competence and total problem behavior. Ethnicity was considered as a moderator in all analyses. For the first time, ethnicity was considered as a moderator of the heritability of toddler competence and total problem behavior. The data came from the Arizona Twin Project. A subsample containing only Caucasian (66%) and Hispanic (34%; 87% of Mexican descent) participants was used. Primary caregivers (>95% mothers) reported on levels of maternal depression, discipline practices, and their twins' competency and problem behaviors. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would be associated with less competency and more problem behaviors in toddlers; inductive discipline practices would be associated with higher competency and fewer problem behaviors; and punitive discipline practices would be associated with lower competency and more problem behaviors. Ethnicity was predicted to moderate only the relation between discipline practices and toddler mental health. Consistent with predictions, maternal depression predicted less competency and more problem behaviors, and inductive discipline predicted higher competency and fewer problem behaviors, while punitive discipline predicted lower competency and more problem behaviors. Ethnicity moderated the relation between maternal depression at 12 months and total problem behaviors. The heritability of competence and total problem behavior varied across the Caucasian and Hispanic samples.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Latino/Hispanic Participation in Music Programs: Determinants and Recruitment

Description

Latino/Hispanic students in public high schools are demonstratively underrepresented in music programs throughout the United States. The following literature review synthesizes research that attempts to identify the most significant determinants

Latino/Hispanic students in public high schools are demonstratively underrepresented in music programs throughout the United States. The following literature review synthesizes research that attempts to identify the most significant determinants of participation and explores how such factors can affect students of Latino/Hispanic descent. The study applies an anti-racist perspective to the discussion of determinants by discussing the specific presence of Latino/Hispanic community in the United States and the various ways in which the music education system may fail to represent the ethnic group in the curriculum. The review also studies research that has found ways to better represent and recruit in music programs the largest minority ethnic group in the United States. Key words: Latino, Hispanic, music education, multiculturalism, anti-racism, race, ethnicity, participation gap.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Chronic Pain: Social Responses and Treatment

Description

Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and

Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and the cost, it is necessary to understand factors that influence the chronic pain experience and potential ways to treat it. This literature review examines three demographic factors - gender, ethnicity and age \u2014 and the effect each has on the chronic pain experience. Pain intensity, disability caused by pain, mood and coping were reviewed in relation to gender. No conclusions were able to be drawn based on the literature reviewed for any of the topics; findings were conflicting. Ethnic groups with chronic pain were evaluated for differences in the pain experience, psychological and emotional responses and coping. A lack of consistent findings among studies made it hard to come to conclusions. As children and adolescents get older, the frequency of their pain becomes higher. The literature review then continues by examining three treatment methods: cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis and exercise. Each treatment method discussed had beneficial outcomes in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavioral therapy seemed to be the most beneficial both short- and long-term. Hypnosis was most beneficial short-term for flair-ups and exercise had the best effects long term when the treatment is continued. In the future, I recommend designing a study that takes into consideration multiple variables that may have an effect on the pain experience including gender, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, education, income and duration of pain, and manipulating one at a time.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Nopal En La Frente"": Latino(s) Perceptions of Disorder and Neighborhood Ethnicity

Description

Wilson and Kelling's (1982) broken windows theory (BWT) says that disorder causes crime at the neighborhood level. More specifically, this theory posits that perceptions of disorder increase fear of crime,

Wilson and Kelling's (1982) broken windows theory (BWT) says that disorder causes crime at the neighborhood level. More specifically, this theory posits that perceptions of disorder increase fear of crime, which then reduces community involvement, making crime more likely. Recent studies show that race plays a pivotal role in people's perceptions of disorder. In short, people tend to associate race with low socioeconomic status, high arrest rates, and lack of policing. Therefore, race plays a central role in the BWT framework as it is linked to perceptions of disorder and crime. However, ethnicity is less well understood when analyzing the perceptions of disorder. To explore this further, the current study examines Latino responses regarding safety and ethnicity to a photograph depicting a religious mural of importance for the Mexican community (La Virgen de Guadalupe). This paper qualitatively analyzes a sample of 299 survey responses of undergraduate Latino students to better understand how Latinos recognize and identify their own culture/heritage and disorder. Implications for understanding ethnicity and broken windows theory are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05