Matching Items (17)
- All Subjects: Transportation
- Genre: Academic theses
- Creators: Kaloush, Kamil
- Member of: Theses and Dissertations
Rapid developments are occurring in the arena of activity-based microsimulation models. Advances in computational power, econometric methodologies and data collection have all contributed to the development of microsimulation tools for planning applications. There has also been interest in modeling child daily activity-travel patterns and their influence on those of adults in the household using activity-based microsimulation tools. It is conceivable that most of the children are largely dependent on adults for their activity engagement and travel needs and hence would have considerable influence on the activity-travel schedules of adult members in the household. In this context, a detailed comparison of various activity-travel characteristics of adults in households with and without children is made using the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data. The analysis is used to quantify and decipher the nature of the impact of activities of children on the daily activity-travel patterns of adults. It is found that adults in households with children make a significantly higher proportion of high occupancy vehicle (HOV) trips and lower proportion of single occupancy vehicle (SOV) trips when compared to those in households without children. They also engage in more serve passenger activities and fewer personal business, shopping and social activities. A framework for modeling activities and travel of dependent children is proposed. The framework consists of six sub-models to simulate the choice of going to school/pre-school on a travel day, the dependency status of the child, the activity type, the destination, the activity duration, and the joint activity engagement with an accompanying adult. Econometric formulations such as binary probit and multinomial logit are used to obtain behaviorally intuitive models that predict children's activity skeletons. The model framework is tested using a 5% sample of a synthetic population of children for Maricopa County, Arizona and the resulting patterns are validated against those found in NHTS data. Microsimulation of these dependencies of children can be used to constrain the adult daily activity schedules. The deployment of this framework prior to the simulation of adult non-mandatory activities is expected to significantly enhance the representation of the interactions between children and adults in activity-based microsimulation models.
The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to obtain properties that will help in future pavement designs. Currently, these fixtures (mounting studs) are made of expensive brass and cumbersome to clean with or without chemicals.
Three types of thermoplastics were utilized to assess the effect of temperature and applied stress on the performance of the 3D printed studs. Asphalt concrete samples fitted with thermoplastic studs were tested according to AASHTO & ASTM standards. The thermoplastics tested are: Polylactic acid (PLA), the most common 3D printing material; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), a typical 3D printing material which is less rigid than PLA and has a higher melting temperature; Polycarbonate (PC), a strong, high temperature 3D printing material.
A high traffic volume Marshal mix design from the City of Phoenix was obtained and adapted to a Superpave mix design methodology. The mix design is dense-graded with nominal maximum aggregate size of ¾” inch and a PG 70-10 binder. Samples were fabricated and the following tests were performed: Dynamic Modulus |E*| conducted at five temperatures and six frequencies; Flow Number conducted at a high temperature of 50°C, and axial cyclic fatigue test at a moderate temperature of 18°C.
The results from SPT for each 3D printed material were compared to results using brass mounting studs. Validation or rejection of the concept was determined from statistical analysis on the mean and variance of collected SPT test data.
The concept of using 3D printed thermoplastic for mounting stud fabrication is a promising option; however, the concept should be verified with more extensive research using a variety of asphalt mixes and operators to ensure no bias in the repeatability and reproducibility of test results. The Polycarbonate (PC) had a stronger layer bonding than ABS and PLA while printing. It was recommended for follow up studies.
This study examines the outcomes of roundabouts in the State of Arizona. Two types of roundabouts are introduced in this study, single-lane roundabouts and double-lane roundabouts. A total of 17 roundabouts across Arizona were chosen upon several selection criteria and according to the availability of data for roundabouts in Arizona. Government officials and local cities’ personnel were involved in this work in order to achieve the most accurate results possible. This thesis focused mainly on the impact of roundabouts on the accident rates, accident severities, and any specific trends that could have been found. Scottsdale, Sedona, Phoenix, Prescott, and Cottonwood are the cities that were involved in this study. As an overall result, both types of roundabouts showed improvements in decreasing the severity of accidents. Single-lane roundabouts had the advantage of largely reducing the overall rate of accidents by 18%, while double-lane roundabouts increased the accident rate by 62%. Although the number of fatalities was very small, both types of roundabouts were able to stop all fatalities during the analysis periods used in this study. Damage rates increased by 2% and 60% for single-lane and double-lane roundabouts, respectively. All levels of injury severities dropped by 44% and 16% for single-lane and double-lane roundabouts, respectively. Education and awareness levels of the public still need to be improved in order for people to be able to drive within the roundabouts safely.
Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents. In this study, analysis was performed on highways in the states of Arizona, North Carolina and Maryland for years between 2013 and 2015 in order to investigate the relationship between accident rate and pavement roughness and rutting. Two main types of data were collected: crash data from the accident records and roughness and rut depth data from the pavement management system database in each state. Crash rates were calculated using the U.S. Department of Transportation method, which is the number of accidents per vehicle per mile per year multiplied by 100,000,000. The variations of crash rate with both International Roughness Index (IRI) and rut depth were investigated. Linear regression analysis was performed to study the correlation between parameters. The analysis showed positive correlations between road roughness and rut depth in all cases irrespective of crash severity level. The crash rate data points were high for IRI values above 250-300 inches/mile in several cases. Crash road segments represent 37-48 percent of the total length of the network using 1-mile segments. Roughness and rut depth values for crash and non-crash segments were close to each other, suggesting that roughness and rutting are not the only factors affecting number of crashes but possibly in combination with other factors such as traffic volume, human factors, etc. In summary, it can be concluded that both roughness and rut depth affect crash rate and highway maintenance authorities should maintain good pavement condition in order to reduce crash occurrences.
A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing
With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.
Chloride solutions have historically been used to stabilize roads and to prevent dust; however, very little work has been done on investigating the soil stabilizing benefits from interactions between salt solutions and different soil types. The primary goal of this research was to analyze the feasibility of utilizing a salt waste product as an economically and environmentally responsible means of dust control and/or soil stabilization. Specifically, this study documents an investigation leading to the understanding of how the addition of saline based waste products, when using a soil stabilizer, modifies the strength behavior of soils.
The scope of work included the evaluation of current literature, examination of the main challenges meeting relevant governmental regulations, and exploring the possibility of using saline waste to improve roadways.
Three soils were selected, treated with varying amounts of salt (calcium chloride, CaCl2), and tests included soil composition and classification, correlation of soil characteristics and salt, and obtaining strength parameters that are typically used in pavement design and analysis. The work effort also included the determination of the optimum dosage of salt concentration for each soil. Because Lime treatment is also commonly used in soil stabilization, one of the soils in this study included a treatment with Lime for comparison purposes.
Results revealed that when salt concentration was increased, a decrease in the plasticity index was observed in all soils. A modest to considerable strength gain of the treated material was also observed for two of the soils; however, a strength loss was observed for the third soil, which was attributed to its low clay content.
When comparing the soil corrosive potential, the additional salt treatment showed promise for increasing strength, to an extent; however, it changes the chemical properties of the soil. The soils prior to treatment were corrosive, which could be managed with appropriate techniques, but the salt increases the values to levels that could be potentially cost prohibitive if salt was used by itself to treat the soil.
The pavement design and performance investigation revealed that the Vineyard soil treated at 16% CaCl2 had an improvement that is comparable to the Lime treatment. On the other hand, the Eager soil showed very little pavement performance improvement at 8% CaCl2; this goes back to the effect of acid on the clay mineralogy. It was also postulated that using salt by-products to stabilize highway shoulders could be beneficial and save a lot of maintenance money when it comes to cleaning unwanted vegetation. A salt saturated soil structure could help in dust control as well.
Future environmental challenges for salt leaching that could affect agriculture in developing countries will still need to be carefully considered. The chlorine levels in the soil would increase, and if not treated, can potentially have corrosive effects on buried structures. Future research is recommended in this area and to also evaluate soil stabilizing properties of varying proportions of Lime and salt using the approach provided in this study.
The major challenge for any pavement is the freight transport carried by the structure. This challenge is expected to increase in the coming years as freight movements are projected to grow and because these movements account for most of the load related distresses for the pavement. Substantial effort has been devoted to identifying the impacts of these future national freight trends with respect to the environment, economic growth, congestion, and reliability. These are all important aspects relating to the freight question, but an equally important and often overlooked aspect of this issue involves the impact of freight trends on the physical infrastructure. This study analyzes the impact of future freight traffic trends on 26 major interstates representing 68% of the total system mileage and carrying 80% of the total national roadway freight. The pavement segments were analyzed using the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide software after collecting the relevant traffic, climate, structural, and material properties. Comparisons were drawn between the expected pavement performance using current design standards for traffic growth and performance predictions that incorporated more detailed freight projections which themselves considered job growth and six key drivers of freight movement. The differences in the resultant performance were used to generate maps that provide a bird’s eye view of locations that are especially vulnerable to future trends in freight movement. The analysis shows that the areas of greatest vulnerability include segments that are directly linked to the busiest ports, and surprisingly those from Atlantic and Central states that provide long distance connectivity, but do not currently carry the highest traffic volumes.
Investigation and improvement in reliability of asphalt concrete fatigue modeling using fine aggregate matrix phase
The fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete (AC) plays an important role in the service life of a pavement. For predicting the fatigue life of AC, there are several existing empirical and mechanistic models. However, the assessment and quantification of the ‘reliability’ of the predictions from these models is a substantial knowledge gap. The importance of reliability in AC material performance predictions becomes all the more important in light of limited monetary and material resources. The goal of this dissertation research is to address these shortcomings by developing a framework for incorporating reliability into the prediction of mechanical models for AC and to improve the reliability of AC material performance prediction by using Fine Aggregate Matrix (FAM) phase data. The goal of the study is divided into four objectives; 1) development of a reliability framework for fatigue life prediction of AC materials using the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model, 2) development of test protocols for FAM in similar loading conditions as AC, 3) evaluation of the mechanical linkages between the AC and FAM mix through upscaling analysis, and 4) investigation of the hypothesis that the reliability of fatigue life prediction of AC can be improved with FAM data modeling.
In this research effort, a reliability framework is developed using Monte Carlo simulation for predicting the fatigue life of AC material using the S-VECD model. The reliability analysis reveals that the fatigue life prediction is very sensitive to the uncertainty in the input variables. FAM testing in similar loading conditions as AC, and upscaling of AC modulus and damage response using FAM properties from a relatively simple homogenized continuum approach shows promising results. The FAM phase fatigue life prediction and upscaling of FAM results to AC show more reliable fatigue life prediction than the fatigue life prediction of AC material using its experimental data. To assess the sensitivity of fatigue life prediction model to uncertainty in the input variables, a parametric sensitivity study is conducted on the S-VECD model. Overall, the findings from this research show promising results both in terms of upscaling FAM to AC properties and the reliability of fatigue prediction in AC using experimental data on FAM.
Crumb rubber use in asphalt mixtures by means of wet process technology has been in place for several years in the United States with good performance record; however, it has some shortcomings such as maintaining high mixing and compaction temperatures in the field production. Organosilane (OS), a nanotechnology chemical substantially improves the bonding between aggregate and asphalt by modifying the aggregate structure from hydrophilic to hydrophobic contributing to increased moisture resistance of conventional asphalt mixtures. Use of Organosilane also reduces the mixing and compaction temperatures and facilitates similar compaction effort at lower temperatures. The objective of this research study was first to perform a Superpave mix design for Crumb Rubber Modified Binder (CRMB) gap-graded mixture with and without Organosilane; and secondly, analyse the performance of CRMB mixtures with and without Organosilane by conducting various laboratory tests. Performance Grade (PG) 64-22 binder was used to create the gap-graded Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) mixtures for this study. Laboratory tests included rotational viscometer binder test and mixtures tests: dynamic modulus, flow number, tensile strength ratio, and C* fracture test. Results from the tests indicated that the addition of Organosilane facilitated easier compaction efforts despite reduced mixing and compaction temperatures. Organosilane also modestly increased the moisture susceptibility and resistance to crack propagation yet retaining equal rutting resistance of the CRMB mixtures.
Bio-modification of asphalt binder brings significant benefits in terms of increasing sustainable and environmental practices, stabilizing prices, and decreasing costs. However, bio-modified asphalt binders have shown varying performance regarding susceptibility to moisture damage; some bio-oil modifiers significantly increase asphalt binder's susceptibility to moisture damage. This variability in performance is largely due to the large number of bio-masses available for use as sources of bio-oil, as well as the type of processing procedure followed in converting the bio-mass into a bio-oil for modifying asphalt binder. Therefore, there is a need for a method of properly evaluating the potential impact of a bio-oil modifier for asphalt binder on the overall performance of asphalt pavement, in order to properly distinguish whether a particular bio-oil modifier increases or decreases the moisture susceptibility of asphalt binder. Therefore, the goal of this study is a multi-scale investigation of bio-oils with known chemical compositions to determine if there is a correlation between a fundamental property of a bio-oil and the resulting increase or decrease in moisture susceptibility of a binder when it is modified with the bio-oil. For instance, it was found that polarizability of asphalt constituents can be a promising indicator of moisture susceptibility of bitumen. This study will also evaluate the linkage of the fundamental property to newly developed binder-level test methods. It was found that moisture-induced shear thinning of bitumen containing glass beads can differentiate moisture susceptible bitumen samples. Based on the knowledge determined, alternative methods of reducing the moisture susceptibility of asphalt pavement will also be evaluated. It was shown that accumulation of acidic compounds at the interface of bitumen and aggregate could promote moisture damage. It was further found that detracting acidic compounds from the interface could be done by either of neutralizing active site of stone aggregate to reduce affinity for acids or by arresting acidic compounds using active mineral filler. The study results showed there is a strong relation between composition of bitumen and its susceptibility to moisture. This in turn emphasize the importance of integrating knowledge of surface chemistry and bitumen composition into the pavement design and evaluation.