Matching Items (9)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

134914-Thumbnail Image.png

Collaborative Computation in Self-Organizing Particle Systems

Description

Many forms of programmable matter have been proposed for various tasks. We use an abstract model of self-organizing particle systems for programmable matter which could be used for a variety of applications, including smart paint and coating materials for engineering

Many forms of programmable matter have been proposed for various tasks. We use an abstract model of self-organizing particle systems for programmable matter which could be used for a variety of applications, including smart paint and coating materials for engineering or programmable cells for medical uses. Previous research using this model has focused on shape formation and other spatial configuration problems, including line formation, compression, and coating. In this work we study foundational computational tasks that exceed the capabilities of the individual constant memory particles described by the model. These tasks represent new ways to use these self-organizing systems, which, in conjunction with previous shape and configuration work, make the systems useful for a wider variety of tasks. We present an implementation of a counter using a line of particles, which makes it possible for the line of particles to count to and store values much larger than their individual capacities. We then present an algorithm that takes a matrix and a vector as input and then sets up and uses a rectangular block of particles to compute the matrix-vector multiplication. This setup also utilizes the counter implementation to store the resulting vector from the matrix-vector multiplication. Operations such as counting and matrix multiplication can leverage the distributed and dynamic nature of the self-organizing system to be more efficient and adaptable than on traditional linear computing hardware. Such computational tools also give the systems more power to make complex decisions when adapting to new situations or to analyze the data they collect, reducing reliance on a central controller for setup and output processing. Finally, we demonstrate an application of similar types of computations with self-organizing systems to image processing, with an implementation of an image edge detection algorithm.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2016-12

135739-Thumbnail Image.png

Compression in Self-Organizing Particle Systems

Description

Many programmable matter systems have been proposed and realized recently, each often tailored toward a particular task or physical setting. In our work on self-organizing particle systems, we abstract away from specific settings and instead describe programmable matter as a

Many programmable matter systems have been proposed and realized recently, each often tailored toward a particular task or physical setting. In our work on self-organizing particle systems, we abstract away from specific settings and instead describe programmable matter as a collection of simple computational elements (to be referred to as particles) with limited computational power that each perform fully distributed, local, asynchronous algorithms to solve system-wide problems of movement, configuration, and coordination. In this thesis, we focus on the compression problem, in which the particle system gathers as tightly together as possible, as in a sphere or its equivalent in the presence of some underlying geometry. While there are many ways to formalize what it means for a particle system to be compressed, we address three different notions of compression: (1) local compression, in which each individual particle utilizes local rules to create an overall convex structure containing no holes, (2) hole elimination, in which the particle system seeks to detect and eliminate any holes it contains, and (3) alpha-compression, in which the particle system seeks to shrink its perimeter to be within a constant factor of the minimum possible value. We analyze the behavior of each of these algorithms, examining correctness and convergence where appropriate. In the case of the Markov Chain Algorithm for Compression, we provide improvements to the original bounds for the bias parameter lambda which influences the system to either compress or expand. Lastly, we briefly discuss contributions to the problem of leader election--in which a particle system elects a single leader--since it acts as an important prerequisite for compression algorithms that use a predetermined seed particle.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2016-05

137020-Thumbnail Image.png

Phase Recovery and Unimodular Waveform Design

Description

In many systems, it is difficult or impossible to measure the phase of a signal. Direct recovery from magnitude is an ill-posed problem. Nevertheless, with a sufficiently large set of magnitude measurements, it is often possible to reconstruct the original

In many systems, it is difficult or impossible to measure the phase of a signal. Direct recovery from magnitude is an ill-posed problem. Nevertheless, with a sufficiently large set of magnitude measurements, it is often possible to reconstruct the original signal using algorithms that implicitly impose regularization conditions on this ill-posed problem. Two such algorithms were examined: alternating projections, utilizing iterative Fourier transforms with manipulations performed in each domain on every iteration, and phase lifting, converting the problem to that of trace minimization, allowing for the use of convex optimization algorithms to perform the signal recovery. These recovery algorithms were compared on a basis of robustness as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. A second problem examined was that of unimodular polyphase radar waveform design. Under a finite signal energy constraint, the maximal energy return of a scene operator is obtained by transmitting the eigenvector of the scene Gramian associated with the largest eigenvalue. It is shown that if instead the problem is considered under a power constraint, a unimodular signal can be constructed starting from such an eigenvector that will have a greater return.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-05

136691-Thumbnail Image.png

Post-Optimization of Permutation Coverings

Description

Covering subsequences with sets of permutations arises in many applications, including event-sequence testing. Given a set of subsequences to cover, one is often interested in knowing the fewest number of permutations required to cover each subsequence, and in finding an

Covering subsequences with sets of permutations arises in many applications, including event-sequence testing. Given a set of subsequences to cover, one is often interested in knowing the fewest number of permutations required to cover each subsequence, and in finding an explicit construction of such a set of permutations that has size close to or equal to the minimum possible. The construction of such permutation coverings has proven to be computationally difficult. While many examples for permutations of small length have been found, and strong asymptotic behavior is known, there are few explicit constructions for permutations of intermediate lengths. Most of these are generated from scratch using greedy algorithms. We explore a different approach here. Starting with a set of permutations with the desired coverage properties, we compute local changes to individual permutations that retain the total coverage of the set. By choosing these local changes so as to make one permutation less "essential" in maintaining the coverage of the set, our method attempts to make a permutation completely non-essential, so it can be removed without sacrificing total coverage. We develop a post-optimization method to do this and present results on sequence covering arrays and other types of permutation covering problems demonstrating that it is surprisingly effective.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-12

Exploring the Range of Algorithmic Choreography

Description

The goal of this thesis is to explore and present a range of approaches to “algorithmic choreography.” In the context of this thesis, algorithmic choreography is defined as choreography with computational influence or elements. Traditionally, algorithmic choreography, despite containing works

The goal of this thesis is to explore and present a range of approaches to “algorithmic choreography.” In the context of this thesis, algorithmic choreography is defined as choreography with computational influence or elements. Traditionally, algorithmic choreography, despite containing works that use computation in a variety of ways, has been used as an umbrella term for all works that involve computation.
This thesis intends to show that the diversity of algorithmic choreography can be reduced into more specific categories. As algorithmic choreography is fundamentally intertwined with the concept of computation, it is natural to propose that algorithmic choreography works be separated based on a spectrum that is defined by the extent of the involvement of computation within each piece.
This thesis seeks to specifically outline three primary categories that algorithmic works can fall into: pieces that involve minimal computational influence, entirely computationally generated pieces, and pieces that lie in between. Three original works were created to reflect each of these categories. These works provide examples of the various methods by which computation can influence and enhance choreography.
The first piece, entitled Rαinwater, displays a minimal amount of computational influence. The use of space in the piece was limited to random, computationally generated paths. The dancers extracted a narrative element from the random paths. This iteration resulted in a piece that explores the dancers’ emotional interaction within the context of a rainy environment. The second piece, entitled Mymec, utilizes an intermediary amount of computation. The piece sees a dancer interact with a projected display of an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. The dancer is to take direct inspiration from the movement of the virtual ants and embody the visualization of the algorithm. The final piece, entitled nSkeleton, exhibited maximal computational influence. Kinect position data was manipulated using iterative methods from computational mathematics to create computer-generated movement to be performed by a dancer on-stage.
Each original piece was originally intended to be presented to the public as part of an evening-length show. However, due to the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, all public campus events have been canceled and the government has recommended that gatherings with more than 10 people be entirely avoided. Thus, the pieces will instead be presented in the form of a video published online. This video will encompass information about the creation of each piece as well as clips of choreography.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-05

131662-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling Surface Brightness of the HH 901 Jets in the Carina Nebula

Description

The purpose of this thesis is to accurately simulate the surface brightness in various spectral emission lines of the HH 901 jets in the Mystic Mountain Formation of the Carina Nebula. To accomplish this goal, we gathered relevant spectral emission

The purpose of this thesis is to accurately simulate the surface brightness in various spectral emission lines of the HH 901 jets in the Mystic Mountain Formation of the Carina Nebula. To accomplish this goal, we gathered relevant spectral emission line data for [Fe II] 12660 Å, Hα 6563 Å, and [S II] 6720 Å to compare with Hubble Space Telescope observations of the HH 901 jets presented in Reiter et al. (2016). We derived the emissivities for these lines from the spectral synthesis code Cloudy by Ferland et al. (2017). In addition, we used WENO simulations of density, temperature, and radiative cooling to model the jet. We found that the computed surface brightness values agreed with most of the observational surface brightness values. Thus, the 3D cylindrically symmetric simulations of surface brightness using the WENO code and Cloudy spectral emission models are accurate for jets like HH 901. After detailing these agreements, we discuss the next steps for the project, like adding an external ambient wind and performing the simulations in full 3D.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2020-05

132360-Thumbnail Image.png

Enumeration Methods and Series Analysis of Self-Avoiding Polygons on the Hexagonal Lattice, with Applications to Self-organizing Particle Systems

Description

We consider programmable matter as a collection of simple computational elements (or particles) that self-organize to solve system-wide problems of movement, configuration, and coordination. Here, we focus on the compression problem, in which the particle system gathers as tightly together

We consider programmable matter as a collection of simple computational elements (or particles) that self-organize to solve system-wide problems of movement, configuration, and coordination. Here, we focus on the compression problem, in which the particle system gathers as tightly together as possible, as in a sphere or its equivalent in the presence of some underlying geometry. Within this model a configuration of particles can be represented as a unique closed self-avoiding walk on the triangular lattice. In this paper we will examine the bias parameter of a Markov chain based algorithm that solves the compression problem under the geometric amoebot model, for particle systems that begin in a connected configuration with no holes. This bias parameter, $\lambda$, determines the behavior of the algorithm. It has been shown that for $\lambda > 2+\sqrt{2}$, with all but exponentially small probability, the algorithm achieves compression. Additionally the same algorithm can be used for expansion for small values of $\lambda$; in particular, for all $0 < \lambda < \sqrt{\tau}$, where $\lim_{n\to\infty} {(p_n)^{1
}}=\tau$. This research will focus on improving approximations on the lower bound of $\tau$. Toward this end we will examine algorithmic enumeration, and series analysis for self-avoiding polygons.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

148207-Thumbnail Image.png

ANALYSIS UTILIZING EXPECTATIONS OF A FORAGER’S DECISION-MAKING HEURISTIC TO ENSURE AN OPTIMAL CALORIC STATE WITH MULTIPLE PREY

Description

Optimal foraging theory provides a suite of tools that model the best way that an animal will <br/>structure its searching and processing decisions in uncertain environments. It has been <br/>successful characterizing real patterns of animal decision making, thereby providing insights<br/>into

Optimal foraging theory provides a suite of tools that model the best way that an animal will <br/>structure its searching and processing decisions in uncertain environments. It has been <br/>successful characterizing real patterns of animal decision making, thereby providing insights<br/>into why animals behave the way they do. However, it does not speak to how animals make<br/>decisions that tend to be adaptive. Using simulation studies, prior work has shown empirically<br/>that a simple decision-making heuristic tends to produce prey-choice behaviors that, on <br/>average, match the predicted behaviors of optimal foraging theory. That heuristic chooses<br/>to spend time processing an encountered prey item if that prey item's marginal rate of<br/>caloric gain (in calories per unit of processing time) is greater than the forager's<br/>current long-term rate of accumulated caloric gain (in calories per unit of total searching<br/>and processing time). Although this heuristic may seem intuitive, a rigorous mathematical<br/>argument for why it tends to produce the theorized optimal foraging theory behavior has<br/>not been developed. In this thesis, an analytical argument is given for why this<br/>simple decision-making heuristic is expected to realize the optimal performance<br/>predicted by optimal foraging theory. This theoretical guarantee not only provides support<br/>for why such a heuristic might be favored by natural selection, but it also provides<br/>support for why such a heuristic might a reliable tool for decision-making in autonomous<br/>engineered agents moving through theatres of uncertain rewards. Ultimately, this simple<br/>decision-making heuristic may provide a recipe for reinforcement learning in small robots<br/>with little computational capabilities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05

147863-Thumbnail Image.png

Target Detection Using Algorithmic Matter

Description

Over the years, advances in research have continued to decrease the size of computers from the size of<br/>a room to a small device that could fit in one’s palm. However, if an application does not require extensive<br/>computation power nor accessories

Over the years, advances in research have continued to decrease the size of computers from the size of<br/>a room to a small device that could fit in one’s palm. However, if an application does not require extensive<br/>computation power nor accessories such as a screen, the corresponding machine could be microscopic,<br/>only a few nanometers big. Researchers at MIT have successfully created Syncells, which are micro-<br/>scale robots with limited computation power and memory that can communicate locally to achieve<br/>complex collective tasks. In order to control these Syncells for a desired outcome, they must each run a<br/>simple distributed algorithm. As they are only capable of local communication, Syncells cannot receive<br/>commands from a control center, so their algorithms cannot be centralized. In this work, we created a<br/>distributed algorithm that each Syncell can execute so that the system of Syncells is able to find and<br/>converge to a specific target within the environment. The most direct applications of this problem are in<br/>medicine. Such a system could be used as a safer alternative to invasive surgery or could be used to treat<br/>internal bleeding or tumors. We tested and analyzed our algorithm through simulation and visualization<br/>in Python. Overall, our algorithm successfully caused the system of particles to converge on a specific<br/>target present within the environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05