Matching Items (65)

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Probing the Radio Sky with the Low Frequency Array

Description

The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new and innovative radio telescope designed and constructed by the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON). LOFAR unique capable of operating in very

The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new and innovative radio telescope designed and constructed by the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON). LOFAR unique capable of operating in very low frequencies (10-240 MHz) and consists of an extensive interferometry array of dipole antenna stations distributed throughout the Netherlands and Europe which allows it to achieve superb angular resolution. I investigate a part of the northern sky to search for rare radio objects such as radio haloes and radio relics that may have not been able to have been resolved by other radio telescopes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Modeling Surface Brightness of the HH 901 Jets in the Carina Nebula

Description

The purpose of this thesis is to accurately simulate the surface brightness in various spectral emission lines of the HH 901 jets in the Mystic Mountain Formation of the Carina

The purpose of this thesis is to accurately simulate the surface brightness in various spectral emission lines of the HH 901 jets in the Mystic Mountain Formation of the Carina Nebula. To accomplish this goal, we gathered relevant spectral emission line data for [Fe II] 12660 Å, Hα 6563 Å, and [S II] 6720 Å to compare with Hubble Space Telescope observations of the HH 901 jets presented in Reiter et al. (2016). We derived the emissivities for these lines from the spectral synthesis code Cloudy by Ferland et al. (2017). In addition, we used WENO simulations of density, temperature, and radiative cooling to model the jet. We found that the computed surface brightness values agreed with most of the observational surface brightness values. Thus, the 3D cylindrically symmetric simulations of surface brightness using the WENO code and Cloudy spectral emission models are accurate for jets like HH 901. After detailing these agreements, we discuss the next steps for the project, like adding an external ambient wind and performing the simulations in full 3D.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides in Asymmetric Supernovae

Description

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs).

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve as heat sources for forming planetary bodies, and their traces can be used to date stellar events. Computational models of asymmetric supernovae provide opportunities to study the effect of explosion geometry on the SLR yields. We are most interested in the production of \iso{Al}{26}, \iso{Fe}{60}, and \iso{Ca}{41}, whose decayed products are found in our own solar system. To study the effect of explosion asymmetries in supernovae, we use TYCHO stellar evolution code, SNSHP smooth particle hydrodynamics code for 3D explosion simulations, Burn code for nucleosythesis post-processing, and Python code written to analyze the output of the post-processing code.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Environmental Systematics and the Impact on 21-cm Epoch of Reionization Measurements

Description

The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is the period in the evolution of the universe during which neutral hydrogen was ionized by the first luminous sources, and is closely linked to

The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is the period in the evolution of the universe during which neutral hydrogen was ionized by the first luminous sources, and is closely linked to the formation of structure in the early universe. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio interferometer currently under construction in South Africa designed to study this era. Specifically, HERA is dedicated to studying the large-scale structure during the EoR and the preceding Cosmic Dawn by measuring the redshifted 21-cm line from neutral hydrogen. However, the 21-cm signal from the EoR is extremely faint relative to galactic and extragalactic radio foregrounds, and instrumental and environmental systematics make measuring the signal all the more difficult. Radio frequency interference (RFI) from terrestrial sources is one such systematic. In this thesis, we explore various methods of removing RFI from early science-grade HERA data and characterize the effects of different removal patterns on the final 21-cm power spectrum. In particular, we focus on the impact of masking narrowband signals, such as those characteristic of FM radio and aircraft or satellite communications, in the context of the algorithms currently used by the HERA collaboration for analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Effect of Varying Mass Loss Rate on the Initial-Final Mass Relation of Massive Stars

Description

Stellar mass loss has a high impact on the overall evolution of a star. The amount<br/>of mass lost during a star’s lifetime dictates which remnant will be left behind and

Stellar mass loss has a high impact on the overall evolution of a star. The amount<br/>of mass lost during a star’s lifetime dictates which remnant will be left behind and how<br/>the circumstellar environment will be affected. Several rates of mass loss have been<br/>proposed for use in stellar evolution codes, yielding discrepant results from codes using<br/>different rates. In this paper, I compare the effect of varying the mass loss rate in the<br/>stellar evolution code TYCHO on the initial-final mass relation. I computed four sets of<br/>models with varying mass loss rates and metallicities. Due to a large number of models<br/>reaching the luminous blue variable stage, only the two lower metallicity groups were<br/>considered. Their mass loss was analyzed using Python. Luminosity, temperature, and<br/>radius were also compared. The initial-final mass relation plots showed that in the 1/10<br/>solar metallicity case, reducing the mass loss rate tended to increase the dependence of final mass on initial mass. The limited nature of these results implies a need for further study into the effects of using different mass loss rates in the code TYCHO.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Spectral Analysis of Four Times Ionized Iron and Nickel in the Vacuum Ultraviolet with Applications in Astrophysics

Description

Observations of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) in the G191-B2B white dwarf spectrum have been used to test for variations in the fine structure

Observations of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) in the G191-B2B white dwarf spectrum have been used to test for variations in the fine structure constant, α, in the presence of strong gravitational fields. The laboratory wavelengths for these ions were thought to be the cause of inconsistent conclusions regarding the
variation of α as observed through the white dwarf spectrum. This thesis presents 129 revised Fe V wavelengths (1200 Å to 1600 Å) and 161 revised Ni V wavelengths (1200 Å to 1400 Å) with uncertainties of approximately 3 mÅ. A systematic calibration error
is identified in the previous Ni V wavelengths and is corrected in this work. The evaluation of the fine structure variation is significantly improved with the results
found in this thesis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Studying Spectral Index of Radio Galaxies with LOFAR

Description

Radio astronomy is a subfield in astronomy that deals with objects emitting frequencies around 10 MHz to 100 GHz. The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is a array of radio antennas

Radio astronomy is a subfield in astronomy that deals with objects emitting frequencies around 10 MHz to 100 GHz. The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is a array of radio antennas in Europe that can reach very low frequencies, roughly between 10-240 MHz. Our project was to image and clean a field from LOFAR. The data was a 10 degree square in the sky centered at a right ascension of 10:19:34.608 and a declination +49.36.52.482. It was observed for 600 seconds at 141 MHz. To clean the field, we had to flag and remove any stations that were not responding. Using a program called FACTOR, we cleaned the image and reduced the residuals. Next we checked the validity of our sources. We checked positional offsets for our sources using the TGSS survey at 150 MHz, and corrected the declination of our LOFAR sources by a factor of 0.0002 degrees. We also fixed the LOFAR fluxes by a factor of 1.15. After this systematic check, we calculated the spectral index of our sources using the FIRST survey at 1435 MHz. We plotted this spectral index against LOFAR flux as well as redshift of the sources, and compared these to literature.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Numerical Simulation of the Surface Brightness of Astrophysical Jets

Description

The goal of this thesis is to extend the astrophysical jet model created by Dr.
Gardner and Dr. Jones to model the surface brightness of astrophysical jets. We attempt to

The goal of this thesis is to extend the astrophysical jet model created by Dr.
Gardner and Dr. Jones to model the surface brightness of astrophysical jets. We attempt to accomplish this goal by modeling the astrophysical jet HH30 in the spectral emission lines [SII] 6716Å, [OI] 6300Å, and [NII] 6583Å. In order to do so, we used the jet model to simulate the temperature and density of the jet to match observational data by Hartigan and Morse (2007). From these results, we derived the emissivities in these emission lines using Cloudy by Ferland et al. (2013). Then we used the emissivities to determine the surface brightness of the jet in these lines. We found that the simulated surface brightness agreed with the observational surface brightness and we conclude that the model could successfully be extended to model the surface brightness of a jet.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Correlating Galactic Magnetic Fields with Regions of Dense Star Formation using LOFAR and CALIFA

Description

I test the hypothesis that galactic magnetic fields originate from regions of dense
star formation (Dahlem et al. 2006) by comparing maps of 120-240 MHz synchrotron emission and hydrogen alpha

I test the hypothesis that galactic magnetic fields originate from regions of dense
star formation (Dahlem et al. 2006) by comparing maps of 120-240 MHz synchrotron emission and hydrogen alpha (Hα) emission of the tidally-interacting, edge-on, barred spiral galaxy UGC 9665. Synchrotron emission traces magnetic field strength to a rough first order, while Hα emission traces recent massive star formation. UGC 9665 was selected because it was included in the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) TwoMetre Sky Survey (LoTSS; Shimwell et al. (2017)) as well as the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA; Sanchez et al. (2012)). I generated vertical intensity profiles at several distances along the disk from the galactic center for synchrotron emission and Hα in order to measure how the intensity of each falls off with distance from the midplane. In addition to correlating the vertical profiles to see if there is a relationship between star formation and magnetic field strength, I fit the LOFAR vertical profiles to characteristic Gaussian and exponential functions given by Dumke et al. (1995). Fitting these equations have been shown to be good indicators of the main mode of cosmic ray transport, whether it is advection (exponential fit) or diffusion (Gaussian fit) (Heesen et al. 2016). Cosmic rays originate from supernova,
and core collapse supernovae occur in star forming regions, which also produce
advective winds, so I test the correlation between star-forming regions and advective regions as predicted by the Heesen et al. (2016) method. Similar studies should be conducted on different galaxies in the future in order to further test these hypotheses and how well LOFAR and CALIFA complement each other, which will be made possible by the full release of the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) (Shimwell et al. 2017).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Modeling the interior of Haumea

Description

The Kuiper Belt Object Haumea is one of the most fascinating objects in the solar system. Spectral reflectance observations reveal a surface of almost pure water ice, yet it

The Kuiper Belt Object Haumea is one of the most fascinating objects in the solar system. Spectral reflectance observations reveal a surface of almost pure water ice, yet it has a mass of 4.006 × 1021 kg, measured from orbits of its moons, along with an inferred mean radius of 715 km, and these imply a mean density of around 2600 kg m−3. Thus the surface ice must be a veneer over a rocky core. This model is supported by observations of Haumea's light curve, which shows large photometric variations over an anomalously rapid 3.9154-hour rotational period. Haumea's surface composition is uniform, therefore the light curve must be due to a varying area presented to the observer, implying that Haumea has an oblong, ellipsoidal shape. If Haumea's rotation axis is normal to our line of sight, and Haumea reflects with a lunar-like scattering function, then its axis ratios are p = b/a = 0.80 (in the equatorial cross section) and q = c/a = 0.52 (in the polar cross section). In this work, I assume that Haumea is in hydrostatic equilibrium, and I model it as a two-phase ellipsoid with an ice mantle and a rocky core. I model the core assuming it has a given density in the range between 2700–3300 kg m−3 with axis ratios that are free to vary. The metric which my code uses calculates the angle between the gravity vector and the surface normal, then averages this over both the outer surface and the core-mantle boundary. When this fit angle is minimized, it allows an interpretation of the size and shape of the core, as well as the thickness of the ice mantle. Results of my calculations show that Haumea's most likely core density is 2700–2800 kg m−3, with ice thicknesses anywhere from 12–32 km over the poles and as thin as 4–18 km over the equator.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015