Matching Items (5)

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Optimization of a Blood-Based Tuberculosis Diagnostic Assay for the Developing World-with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa

Description

The optimization of a blood-based assay for diagnosing tuberculosis which has been developed and validated in Dr. Hu’s lab, at Arizona State University, is important for ensuring its successful translation

The optimization of a blood-based assay for diagnosing tuberculosis which has been developed and validated in Dr. Hu’s lab, at Arizona State University, is important for ensuring its successful translation to a resource-limited setting of the developing world. Tuberculosis is most prevalent in the developing world with Sub-Saharan Africa having the highest cases of HIV/TB coinfections. The implementation of a blood-based assay for diagnosing Tuberculosis in the sub-Saharan would significantly improve the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of tuberculosis thereby managing or eliminating the pandemic altogether. The World Health Organization has called for robust diagnostic technologies that would resolve the shortfalls of the current technologies which include GeneXpert, X-ray, and smear microscopy. The blood-based diagnostic methodology heavily relies on Mass-spectrometry, a technology which could be entirely novel and expensive to implement in most laboratories in the Sub-Saharan. Despite virtual challenges in implementing the technology, the assay has demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity to HIV/TB coinfected patients and children in comparison to the available TB diagnostic assays. This study endorses the Blood-based Mass Spectrometry assay as one of the promising technologies to effectively improve the diagnosis of TB. The performance of the assay on detecting TB antigens was tested using different methods and materials. In the end, the use of DBS and miniaturized mass spectrometers have been discussed as possible routes for translating the assay to the developing world

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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PEPFAR & South Africa: The Case for Unilateralism in Global Health

Description

HIV/AIDS exists in a rapidly globalizing world, but areas such as South Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa bear the greatest burden of the disease. The World Health Organization has created UNAIDS

HIV/AIDS exists in a rapidly globalizing world, but areas such as South Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa bear the greatest burden of the disease. The World Health Organization has created UNAIDS and a multitude of NGOs have also sprung up in response. However, the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the first state-sponsored organization entirely funded by the government and various charities. The creation and implementation of this act can be seen as a unilateral act by the US in the global health arena and a departure away from individual states only funding unilateral campaigns within their own borders, which gives rise to the questions of the motives of the US in providing this AID outside of established global agencies such as UNAIDS. By Examining the case of South Africa, the conclusion will be reached that PEPFAR is a success. There has been noticeable and positive change in the country since the US intervention in the form of PEPFAR. An analysis and review of PEPFAR in South Africa will serve as evidence for the success of PEPFAR and the case for the US's continued unilateralism in global healthcare.

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  • 2010-05

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MTC Transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Barriers and Solutions to Implementation of the WHO's Treatment Plans

Description

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is a global epidemic, costing over 9.51 million individuals their lives since 2000. There are different modes of transmission of HIV, one such mode being

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is a global epidemic, costing over 9.51 million individuals their lives since 2000. There are different modes of transmission of HIV, one such mode being from an HIV positive woman to her child before, during, or after delivery (SIC Curriculum, 2006). Though a global epidemic, not all countries have the same prevalence of mother to child, or MTC, transmission of HIV. In 2016, over 160,000 children under the age of five were newly infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. That is compared to the United States of America, where it is estimated that fewer than 150 new infant HIV infections occur yearly (Glaser Foundation, 2020). Those differences exist despite both countries having access to preventative medication as of 1998.
Additionally, the World Health Organization, or WHO, developed three treatment plans for prevention of MTC transmission of HIV, globally available as of 2010 (WHO, 2010). The goal of the WHO was to globally standardize care of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants in order to decrease the global prevalence of HIV. The first plan was called Option A, then came Option B, and lastly Option B+. While preventative medication has been available for over twenty years and at least one of these theoretically effective treatment plans has been implemented and is readily available in each country of sub-Saharan Africa, the overall prevalence of MTC transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has continued to be notably high compared to other countries. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to explore some of the significant obstacles to implementation of the WHO’s treatment plans in sub-Saharan Africa that contribute to that high prevalence. I also suggest possible solutions to those barriers in order to effectively decrease the prevalence of MTC transmission of HIV.

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  • 2020-05

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Lay Perspectives of Menarche, Contraceptives, and Reproductive Health among Urban Women & Informal Methods of Sexual Health Education in Dakar, Senegal

Description

In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex

In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex education curriculum and robust HIV prevention campaigns, there is nonetheless an unmet need for sexual health education in Senegal and limited access to family planning services in low-income communities. I examine data obtained from surveys conducted with participants selected using convenience sampling in five different neighborhoods in Dakar, as well as ethnographic observations during the four month period of study. Qualitative and quantitative analyses address women's comforts levels during menstruation, barriers to access of high quality menstrual care products, familiarity with different kinds of contraceptive methods, and information on where women receive information regarding puberty, sex, and menstruation. Results show that most participants seek out family members, female friends and other respected members in the community for reproductive development information. National programs and international organizations sponsor youth to become community educators, who offer an informal and more accessible method of education. Earlier research shows that informal methods of education can be extremely effective ; in the setting of Dakar, young health educators are also creating inclusive and safe spaces for meaningful discussions about sexuality to be held, combating the negative effects of the traditional patriarchal and conservative culture. Relationships with one's community are extremely important, and can be an invaluable resource in transmitting sexual and reproductive health information to women. Improved understanding of reproductive health among women in Senegal can encourage them to make informed decisions about family planning.

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  • 2016-05

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Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa

Description

For many years, the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, like many other unindustrialized nations, followed the internally-oriented import substitution policies developed by theoreticians like Raul Prebisch. These measures were meant to

For many years, the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, like many other unindustrialized nations, followed the internally-oriented import substitution policies developed by theoreticians like Raul Prebisch. These measures were meant to force nations to develop their industrial capabilities in isolation from the rest of the world. However, these policies did little to improve the economy of many emerging countries. It was not until Asian countries switched to externally-oriented strategies that progress was made in their developing economies. In the early 1980s, a "Washington Consensus" was practiced that included a trade provision for the opening of emerging markets. Since then, many Sub-Saharan African nations have implemented policies that have opened up their markets to the rest of the world. However, most of these countries have not realized the benefits typically ascribed to open trade, causing some economists to doubt the economic growth benefits of trade liberalization. This thesis examines the connection between trade liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa to review the consequences of recent trade reforms on the region's development and to identify some of the factors which contributed to individual countries successfully, or unsuccessfully, implementing trade liberalizing policies. It finds that the relationship between economic growth and trade liberalization is not as important as other growth factors and that there are multiple paths toward economic development.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12